Ore, which contains an economical use of iron, is called an iron ore. There are many types of iron ore, magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3) and (FeCO3), etc, which are mainly used for iron making. Iron ore is an important raw material for iron and steel production enterprises. After crushing, grinding, magnetic separation, gravity concentration etc, gradually we can get iron from natural minerals (iron ore). It is the mineral aggregates that contain iron or iron compounds which can be used economically.
Generally, the processing of iron ore needs several processing stages, including crushing, grinding, ore beneficiation, concentrating, drying, etc. The equipments for iron ore beneficiation is consisted of Jaw Crusher, Ball MillClassifier, Magnetic Separator, Flotation Machine, Concentrator Machine and Dryer. And Equipped with Feeder, Elevator and Conveyor, a full set of Beneficiation Production Line can be made. It has advantages such as High efficiency, Low Consumption, High Output and economical and reasonable, etc.
We can not only provide single equipment,such as jaw crusher, cone crusher, ball mill, but also can provide full production line,such as iron ore production line, ore beneficiation production line, etc.
According to different extent form, classification of iron ore have hematite, limonite, magnetite, siderite, etc. According to different iron ore types, iron ore beneficiation processes mainly refer to magnetic separation, flotation separation, gravity separation and magnetization-magnetic separation.
Magnetic separation is using magnetic field to separate materials with different magnetic intensity. Magnetic separation is the most popular method used to beneficiate black metal ore. There are two kind of magnetic separation, normal and high density. Normal magnetic separation is adopted to separate magnetite. High density magnetic separation is used to separate hematite and other ore which is weak magnetic.
Flotation process is also commonly seen in nowadays iron ore beneficiation. It has become a very important way to recover weak magnetic ore. It is also used to treat iron ore fine to reduce the content of silica and impurities.
Flotation beneficiation separate ore at three physical statuses: gas-liquid-solid. The ore slurry enters the mixing bucket first. After the slurry is mixed thoroughly with chemicals, it is sent into the flotation machine. With water and gas fed into the flotation machine, along with the slurry, there will be bubbles generated. The bubbles take the parts which is valuable to us out of the slurry. And the rest is tailing.
The gravity separation separates ore parts with different density. Gravity separation is also one of the most popular ore beneficiation methods. It is widely used in weight metal ore beneficiation, especially weak magnetic iron ore.
Hematite, limonite, siderite and iron pyrites is very weak magnetic. We cannot use normal magnetic separation to beneficiate. We have to magnetize them first. And then, we can use normal magnetic separation.
Quartz SandSilica Sand purification is removal of a small amount of impurities and the high difficulty separation technique to obtain refined Quartz SandSilica Sand or high purity Quartz SandSilica Sand. The purification technologies of Quartz SandSilica Sand at home and abroad are washing, classifying & desliming, scrubbing, magnetic separation, flotation, acid leaching, microbial leaching, etc.
Scrubbing is the way to remove film iron and impurity minerals on the surface of quartz by mechanical force and crush these mineral aggregate. The Quartz SandSilica Sand gets further purification by classification. There are two kinds of methods rob scrubbing and mechanical scrubbing.
The separation of mica and quartz is difficult, the effective methods: anionic collector in acid condition and anionic - cationic collector in alkaline condition. The purification of Quartz SandSilica Sand can reach 99% after scrubbing, desliming, magnetic separation and flotation.
Dilute acid had a significant effect on removing iron and aluminum, and concentrated acid for the removal of titanium and chromium, and mixed acid for mineral impurity. Control various factors of acid leaching should be based on quartz final grade requirements, and as far as possible reduce the acid concentration, temperature and dosage to achieve quartz purification.
A Quartz SandSilica Sand dressing plant in Yunnan with the main component was Quartz SandSilica Sand accounting for 95-97%; siliceous cement accounting for 8-23%, the impurity minerals were hematite, limonite, etc. accounting for about 1-3%. The plant adopted screen classification - dry magnetic separation - dosing strong scrubbing-flotation process, the final indexes: SiO2 97.62%, Fe2O3 0.24, Al2O3 1.11%.The poor indexes seriously affect the production and economic benefit. Therefore, the plant commissioned the Xinhai to reform technology. By dressing tests, Xinhai decided to adopt the screen classification - dry magnetic separation - dosing strong scrubbing - acid leaching process, specific index comparison as follow:
After the technical reformation, the purified Quartz SandSilica Sand met the quality requirements of silicon powder, and it can be used in ceramic, paint, metal casting industry after the superfine grinding.
Uses Calcite is the mineral component of limestone which is used primarily as construction aggregates, and in production of lime and cement. Limestone also is used in a variety of commercial applications including: road construction, riprap and jetty stone, filter stone, railroad ballast, poultry grit, mineral food, sugar processing, flux stone in steel production, glass manufacture, sulfur dioxide removal in power plants, coal mine dusting to prevent explosions, acid water treatment, asphalt fillers and refractory stone.
Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.
Flowrox offers numerous flow control and filters for mining. We have strong experience from the field. Flowrox has provided heavy duty flow control solutions for high-wear and aggressive processes already in more than 150 000 installations in mining, metallurgy and minerals processing applications around the world. Flowrox Filter Press and Ceramic Disc Filter are suitable for a wide range of dewatering processes.
When handling abrasive slurries, reliability of the equipment is essential for economics and safety of the operations. Mining, minerals processing and metallurgy all have demanding process conditions. As it comes down to flow control and filters for mining and other similar processes, it is crucial to carefully choose reliable equipment which guarantees continuity of the production process.
The initial price of a valve, pump or filter is only the starting point. Most costs are generated during operation in terms of required maintenance, equipment spare parts, possible downtime and interference of process. Minor equipment breaks can quickly escalate to major issues, especially in remote locations.
Flow control and filters for mining, mineral processing and metallurgy must be extremely reliable. Flowrox valves and pumps are designed to deliver throughout their lifetime. Their total cost of ownership is low as they have a long lifetime due to heavy duty structure and long service intervals. All Flowrox valves and pumps are easy to service and have low spare part need. An investment in heavy duty equipment soon pays off and generates long-term savings.
Flowrox FP Filter Press is well appreciated especially among leading global metal production companies. As it was engineered together with plant operators, it has great process design which results in fully automatic, trouble-free operation. Flowrox CD Ceramic Disc Filter represents highly efficient filtration and lowest energy consumption. It operates continuously with high capacity and is a cost-efficient solution for many concentrator and tailings processes.
Flowrox holds and follows the ISO 9000:2015 certificate. Every piece of equipment is tested before delivery to ensure high quality and safe operations. Flowrox has more than 40 years of experience with demanding process applications in mining, minerals processing and metallurgy after thousands of installations often in remote locations.
Flowrox Ceramic Disc (CD) Filter represents highly efficient filtration and lowest energy consumption. It requires low investment and delivers clear filtrate with...
Mineral processing, mineral beneficiation, or upgradation involves handling three primary types of ROM material, which have been blasted, fragmented, and brought out from an insitu position. These materials can be used directly or by simple or complex processing and even by applying extractive metallurgy like hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical methods. The categories are:
The journey from ROM ore to concentrate and finallymetal travels through many operations of liberation, separation, concentration, and extraction before it reaches the end users. These activities have been diagrammatically summarized in Figs.13.53 and 13.54. Apanoramic view of State of the Art zinc and lead smelting is depicted in Fig. 13.55.
Figure13.54. A complete flow diagram, including crushing, grinding, density media separation, froth flotation, and pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical process route to achieve the highest purity of metals. PGE, platinum-group elements.
Figure13.55. Panoramic view of hydro-metallurgical smelter of Hindustan Zinc Limited at Rajpura-Dariba, Rajasthan, India. The smelter has an annual production capacity of 210,000 t zinc and 100,000 t lead metal, and 160 MW captive power plant.
Mineral processing or mineral beneficiation or upgradation involves handling of three primary types of ROM ore material which has been blasted, fragmented and brought out from in situ position. These materials can be used directly or by simple or complex processing and even applying extractive metallurgy like hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical methods. The categories are as follows:
The journey from ROM ore to concentrate and ultimately to metal has been conceptualized. The various unit operations used for liberation, separation, concentration and extraction have been discussed in the previous pages of this chapter. The activities and the typical sequence of operations in the process plant have been diagrammatically summarized in Fig. 12.54.
Mining and mineral processing industries have been the key focus of research in many countries due to its increasing sustainability concerns that affect global warming and climate change. This chapter analysed and summarised the significant research outputs published on the environmental impact assessment of mining and mineral processing industries through life cycle assessment (LCA). This chapter presents valuable insights in identifying the gaps, where should the focus be in the mining and mineral processing industries for a sustainable future.
The review results reveal the assessment indicators in human health and ecosystems are key factors that are mostly missing in the previous studies which are crucial for people or community living nearby mining area. This chapter identifies the research gaps to the existing literature that can form the base for future research direction in the field of LCA and sustainable energy integration in mining and mineral processing industries.
Mineral processing operations involve a number of process variables that change randomly with uncertain frequencies. The control strategies developed with the use of PID controllers have been found to be inadequate especially in non-linear systems and systems with large lag times. The present development to solve these problems fall under two categories:
The self tuning control algorithm has been developed and applied on crusher circuits and flotation circuits [22-24] where PID controllers seem to be less effective due to immeasurable change in parameters like the hardness of the ore and wear in crusher linings. STC is applicable to non-linear time varying systems. It however permits the inclusion of feed forward compensation when a disturbance can be measured at different times. The STC control system is therefore attractive. The basis of the system is:
The disadvantage of the set up is that it is not very stable and therefore in the control model a balance has to be selected between stability and performance. A control law is adopted. It includes a cost function CF, and penalty on control action. The control law has been defined as:
A block diagram showing the self tuning set-up is illustrated in Fig. 18.27. The disadvantage of STC controllers is that they are less stable and therefore in its application a balance has to be derived between stability and performance.
The empirical model predicts the process output for a certain predicted time. The error is not fixed as in a PID system, but extends over a time period and minimized. The concept is therefore time based and known as an extended horizontal control system. The algorithm is known as Multivariable, Optimal Control Action or MOCCA . The MOCCA system can be considered as an improvement on the level concept described earlier. It is based on the fact that the prediction of output equals the sum of the future actions plus past control action. It is developed around a step response under steady state conditions by combining:
To derive the model, Sripada and Fisher  considered a steady state condition. Also for a single input-single output system (SISO), the predicted output for horizon 1 to P is obtained in N number of step responses. The future and past control actions were written as:
The predicted horizon P, is the number of predicted outputs that the control objective has been optimized The control horizon H is the number of future control actions which minimize the cost function against the predicted horizon.
Optimization of the control system is achieved from performance criteria including any constraints. It is necessary to know the set point and predicted output trajectories for future control effort. The errors and control efforts have to be minimized. For the error trajectory the square of the difference of set point trajectory and the predicted output trajectory is taken. Taking these into consideration Vien et al  describes the cost function, Cf, in terms of minimizing the error trajectory plus control effort. Taking the weighted least square performance, the cost function Cf is given as:
Based on the process model, the control block calculates the predictions for future control actions, the supervisory block generates the desired set point trajectory. The feedback loop with filter and disturbance predictor corrects incongruity between the model and unaccounted, therefore unmeasured, disturbances. It also reduces the noise levels. The predictor in the feed back control loop intimates the future effects of disturbances. Combination of the feed back corrections and the predictions from the model provide the necessary estimate of output.
MOCCA has been found to be far superior to the conventional PID or PI controllers and is being increasingly used. It is particularly useful where long time delays are involved. Its advantage is that it uses discrete step response data and can be used to model processes with unusual dynamic behaviour. Its added advantage over the PID system of control is that it rises faster and has no overshoot. This system has been used successfully in control of grinding circuits.
Mining and mineral processing generates large volumes of waste, including waste rock, mill tailings, and mineral refinery wastes. The oxidation of sulfide minerals in the materials can result in the release of acidic water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals. Recent studies have determined the mechanisms of abiotic sulfide-mineral oxidation. Within mine wastes, the oxidation of sulfide minerals is catalyzed by microorganisms. Molecular tools have been developed and applied to determine the activity and role of these organisms in sulfide-mineral-bearing systems. Novel tools have been developed for assessing the toxicity of mine-waste effluent. Dissolved constituents released by sulfide oxidation may be attenuated through the precipitation of secondary minerals, including metal sulfate, oxyhydroxide, and basic sulfate minerals. Geochemical models have been developed to provide improved predictions of the magnitude and duration of environmental concerns. Novel techniques have been developed to prevent and remediate environmental problems associated with these materials.
In any mineral processing operation, the term benefits of scale is used to denote the significant economic advantages can be obtained by having larger production volumes and using larger ships. Larger tonnage operations operate with fewer man-hours per ton, while capital costs for larger machines are less than the multiples of their relative production capacities. In order to compete on world markets, category 1 producers must consider the benefits of scale. For example, in the kaolin industry during the 1970s, a 100,000 tons/year operation was considered to be a reasonable commercial operation. For the current developments in Brazil, a minimum plant size of 300,000 tons per year is being quoted.
For category 2, the annual tonnage requirement is governed by market size rather than benefits of scale. Annual productions from such processing operations typically fall between 10,000 and 100,000 tons per year. The sizes of category 3 operations are typically governed by other factors such as market size or accessible market share.
Mining and mineral-processing industries producing lithium minerals, metals, and salts contribute to the lithium burden in the environment. The processing of lithium-containing minerals such as spodumene, in general, comprises crushing, wet grinding in a ball mill, sizing, gravity concentration, and flotation using a fatty acid (oleic acid) as the collector. The major lithium mineral in lithium ore is spodumene, which is considered insoluble in water and dilute acids. However, a small amount of dissolution may occur during processing of the ore especially in the grinding and flotation stages where some dilute (0.01M) sulfuric acid is used (see Table 6). Tailings are discharged to storage areas, and the decanted water is usually recovered for reuse. Lithium concentrations in tailing dams increase gradually. The dissolved lithium found in the tailing dams of lithium mineral beneficiation plants could be as high as 15mgl1. The repeated use of tailing waters without any treatment further increases the dissolved lithium levels in these waters.
Some of the lithium minerals are more soluble than the others. Manufacturing of lithium chemicals could contribute to the lithium burden in the environment. Most of the lithium chemicals are often more soluble than lithium minerals, and therefore, the risk to the environment could be higher than the risk introduced by the lithium minerals (see Table 5).
Mining and mineral processing can cause arsenic contamination of the atmosphere (in the form of airborne dust), sediment, soil, and water. The contamination can be long-lasting and remain in the environment long after the activities have ceased (Camm et al., 2003). Recent estimates suggest that there are approximately 11 million tonnes of arsenic associated with copper and lead reserves globally (USGS, 2005). In developing mines containing significant amounts of arsenic, careful consideration is now given to treatment of wastes and effluents to ensure compliance with legislation on permitted levels of arsenic that can be emitted to the environment. Such legislation is becoming increasingly stringent. Arsenic contamination from former mining activities has been identified in many areas of the world including the United States (Plumlee et al., 1999; Welch et al., 1999, 1988, 2000), Canada, Thailand, Korea, Ghana, Greece, Austria, Poland, and the United Kingdom (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). Groundwater in some of these areas has been found with arsenic concentrations as high as 48000gl1. Elevated arsenic concentrations have been reported in soils of various mining regions around the world (Kreidie et al., 2011). Some mining areas have AMD with such low pH values that the iron released by oxidation of the iron sulfide minerals remains in solution and therefore does not scavenge arsenic. Well-documented cases of arsenic contamination in the United States include the Fairbanks gold-mining district of Alaska (Welch et al., 1988; Wilson and Hawkins, 1978), the Coeur d'Alene PbZnAg mining area of Idaho (Mok and Wai, 1990), the Leviathan Mine (S), California (Webster et al., 1994), Mother Lode (Au), California (Savage et al., 2000), Summitville (Au), Colorado (Pendleton et al., 1995), Kelly Creek Valley (Au), Nevada (Grimes et al., 1995), Clark Fork river (Cu), Montana (Welch et al., 2000), Lake Oahe (Au), South Dakota (Ficklin and Callender, 1989), and Richmond Mine (Fe, Ag, Au, Cu, Zn), Iron Mountain, California (Nordstrom et al., 2000).
Phytotoxic effects attributed to high concentrations of arsenic have also been reported around the Mina Turmalina copper mine in the Andes, northeast of Chiclayo, Peru (Bech et al., 1997). The main ore minerals involved are chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and pyrite. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater in the Zimapan Valley, Mexico, has also been attributed to interaction with AgPbZn, carbonate-hosted mineralization (Armienta et al., 1997). Arsenopyrite, scorodite, and tennantite were identified as probable source minerals in this area. Increased concentrations of arsenic have been found as a result of arsenopyrite occurring naturally in CambroOrdovician lode gold deposits in Nova Scotia, Canada. Tailings and stream sediment samples show high concentrations of arsenic (39ppm), and dissolved arsenic concentrations in surface waters and tailing pore waters indicate that the tailings continue to release significant quantities of arsenic. Biological sampling demonstrated that both arsenic and mercury have bioaccumulated to various degrees in terrestrial and marine biota, including eels, clams, and mussels (Parsons et al., 2006).
Data for 34 mining localities of different metallogenic types in different climatic settings were reviewed by Williams (2001). He proposed that arsenopyrite is the principal source of arsenic released in such environments and concluded that in situ oxidation generally resulted in the formation of poorly soluble scorodite, which limited the mobility and ecotoxicity of arsenic. The Ron Phibun tin-mining district of Thailand is an exception (Williams et al., 1996). In this area, arsenopyrite oxidation products were suggested to have formed in the alluvial placer gravels during the mining phase. Following cessation of mining activity and pumping, groundwater rebound caused dissolution of the oxidation products. The role of scorodite in the immobilization of arsenic from mine workings has been questioned by Roussel et al. (2000), who point out that the solubility of this mineral exceeds drinking water standards irrespective of pH.
A wide variety of minerals processing routes are used for REE deposits (Jordens et al., 2013; Krishnamurthy and Gupta, 2015). For many REE ores, processing techniques for the minerals are unproven on a commercial scale and processing is a major challenge that needs to be considered early in exploration. Physical concentration using density, magnetic and electrostatic properties are normally the most cost-effective. Monazite and xenotime, if reasonably well liberated and coarse-grained, are amenable to physical separation from mineral sands and some carbonatite ores. Finer grained phosphates, and most fluorcarbonates, require more complex and expensive processing via flotation, and/or acid leaching. Eudialyte can be concentrated by physical beneficiation but is difficult to dissolve, although techniques to solve this problem are now available at laboratory and pilot scale.
Spritzer, the brand of natural mineral water was the best selling mineral water in Malaysia. Spritzer establishes the late of 1980s in Taiping, Perak with small set-up. In this day, Spritzer group and become the most intact and largest bottled water producer in Malaysia. The company today consist of five subsidiaries which are involved in the manufacturing and distribution of natural mineral water, sparkling natural mineral water, distilled drinking water, carbonated fruit flavoured drink, non-carbonated fruit flavoured drink, functional drink, toothbrushes, pre-forms and packaging bottles.
Spritzer Company own a vast of 300 arc site which is full of natural mineral resources. Besides that, the company is a environment friendly company. The surrounding of the arc site is surrounded by lush tropical rainforests greenery, away from pollution.
Production lines of the company are equipped with the state-of-the-art bottling technologies. All are operates automatically. Highly qualified professionals such as food technologists, chemists, microbiologists and engineers are all implemented in the plant.
Spritzer has received many awards since its incorporation in 1993. In year of 1994, 1997, 1999 and 2000, the company receive the Aqua Awards from The International Bottled Water Association. Ministry of International Trade and Industry awarded the spritzer company the Industry Excellence Award in year 2003. The supreme quality of Spritzer water has been recognized all over the world. One of the greatest achievement by Spritzer is they have won Readers Digest Trusted Brand Award Platinum for 10 consecutive years from 1999 to 2008. In the same year, Spritzer also won the SME Recognition Award. This have proven that the performance of the Spritzer Company once again acclaim by the SMEs professional evalution platform. (Company Profile)
Filtration is to remove the suspended solid from the water. It is the micro filter process after the pre-ozonation process. The first filtration process is the preliminary filtration which break down the solid from big to small. Follow by the intermidiate and membrane filtration to further break down until they become fine solid.
The finish products are now pack in box according to the product categories. The 230ml cup water and 600ml bottle water are packed 24 units in a box, the 1500ml bottle water is packed 12 units in a box while the 6000ml and 9500ml bottle water are packed 2 units in a box. The boxes are then sealed with tape to protect the products inside and prevent damages.
The boxes are then arrange in 11 boxes per layer on the pallet. Each pallet contains 5 layers which mean 55 boxes. The pallets are then wrapped with plastic wrap to stabilize the boxes and shift to the warehouse.
A packaging of a particular product is essential for the company as this does not only help in increasing consumer perception towards the company as well as to help in the effectiveness and efficiency of a companys operation. With this, the plastic bottles from Spritzers company are unique from their competitor in which they manufacture their own bottle by using small white balls called pre-form. Through this innovative design and new packaging solution, it is able to reduce the raw materials consumption and become more light-weighted. Since a pre-form is approximately 6cm long only, hundreds of pre-forms are able to be stored in a standard size box before it is being produced into a bottle. Therefore, the advantage of the small size of these pre-forms is to save up the storage space, causing even more pre-forms can be produced to speed up the overall production process.
In addition to that, producing the bottle from pre-form by Spritzer itself can assist the company to ensure a better quality of their bottle can be achieved. For instances, if Sprizter are to purchase their bottle from manufacturer, bottles quality are tougher to be control because a cheaper or thinner raw materials might be use by the manufacturer in order to save cost and to maximize their profit. This indirectly brings a bad image to Spritzer Company. In worst case, when the manufacturer has problem with their bottles delivery time, Spritzers production process will be delayed too. Thus, effectiveness of company is affected.
During the production process, the production machines perform the activity steps by steps from pre-form to a finished product like Spritzer Mineral Water, for example. Since the bottles are manufacture by company itself, the labelling of the bottle has to be done by company too. For a convenient and easier purposes, label of bottles are arranged in a roll to stick on the bottle quicker through an automated process instead of sticking it on the bottle piece by piece. Hence, production process is faster now.
Spritzer has works towards becoming a modern and up-to-date company whereby they use machine with air compreyer in their production line. This is different from a machine without air compreyer as the machine with air compreyer helps to ensure a smoother production flow of the company. This is because when a machine without air compreyer in the production line is broke down; another machine with air compreyer can still operate as bottles are stored inside the compreyer.
As mentioned earlier, Spritzer uses cutting edge technology in its factory. All the products manufactured from Spritzer are carried out in a fully automated production line so qualities of products are consistent. This is beneficial to Spritzer as it creates an image of doing its business responsibly and committed to good corporate governance because it aims to provide the best value for its customer.
When production line is operated in such a manner to achieve desirable results, the whole production processes are able to finished earlier. When a company works effectively, sooner or later it can use its remaining resources to allocate to other purpose like producing multiple products. This leads to a wider product range from Spritzer which include production of natural mineral water, distilled drinking water, carbonated fruit flavoured drink, functional drink, toothbrushes, water dispenser, performs and packaging drinks.
An innovative technology such as a fully automated machine is used by Spritzer to increase its production effectiveness and efficiency. When this modern machine is used, it has to be control and manipulated by technical and skilled labour so that it can be better operated. An unskilled labour with zero knowledge on information technology (IT) will not be able to perform their job well. If Spritzer hires skilled manpower, they needs to pay a higher wages to them and this surely increase production and variable cost of the company thus minimizing profit margin.
From our tour session to Spritzer Company, it has been observed that there are only two production lines in the production department. All the different products are produced in the same centralized production line. This will caused the production to be less effective and efficient. In a simple word, when the production line machine is producing "POP Carbonated Fruit Flavoured Drink", it has to be produced finish before another product line such as "Spritzer Mineral Water" can be produce next in the same production line machine.
The Spritzers own manufacturer bottle is a lighter weight bottle that has 30% less plastic. This also means pre-form used to produce the bottle is not a 100% non-plastic bottle. (Annual Report, 2012) When plastics or pre-forms price rises, production price will tend to rise too. This indirectly affected the production processes effectiveness.
The company provided the water bar for the customer to watch the video about the company background in order to provide a better understanding to the visitors about the company. The water bar displayed all the products of Spritzer so that visitors able to know more about the company products. Water bar allow the visitors to make purchases of Spritzer products.
The produced pre-forms will be sends to the production department for product development process. All the pre-forms will be sending into the fully-automated machines for further process in order to form the bottle of the mineral water.
Spritzer locates each of the productionmachines very well in order to eliminate bottlenecks and wasted or redundant movement during production process. The production machines are placed in sequence and close to each other so that the production is running smoothly. Also, it can also reduce manufacturing cycle time, utilizes labour efficiently and encourages proper maintenance activities.
Spritzer fully utilizes the space within the plant. Spritzer facilitates the entry, exit, placement of materials and products to bring convenience to the employees and reduce transportation cost. Departments are interconnected to each other through indoor corridor. It can facilitate communication and interaction between employees and supervisors. Also, it can also offer a visual control of operations or activities.
Spritzer is known as the world class eco-friendly manufacturing plant. According to the official website of Spritzer, Spritzer is one of the Malaysia best-selling natural mineral water that is manufactured and bottled out of a vast 300 acre site with bountiful natural mineral water resources in an environmentally friendly site walled by lush tropical rainforests greenery, away from potential pollution, therefore safeguarding the natural water source and confirming the high quality of the product. All bottles of mineral water are extracted from an aquifer placed over 400 feet deep underground in the tropical rainforest.It can directly build a strong positioning, gain customers confidence on company and promote products quality. Besides that, all the employees are working under a very comfortable, healthy, safety and security environment.
Spritzer does not facilitate the entry and exit for visitors. Visitors are not allowed to use the indoor corridor even though the departments are interconnected to each other because some of the departments are not allowed to be visited and are confidential. Since the entire range of the plant is very wide, visitors need to use working path to visit the plant. Besides that, visitors are not allowed to use indoor car park as well. Visitors have to park their vehicle at outdoor car park. Therefore, the facility layout does not bring convenience to visitors.
Since the preform-manufactured room is separated from the production process room, so it indirectly lengthensthe production lead time. The employee needs to carry the preform to production room to transform into bottle. The reason why the preform-manufactured room is separated from the production process room is because of Spritzer starts to produce their own bottles in the last few years. Spritzer used to outsource bottles from another manufacturer. In order not to mess up the original position of production machine, Spritzer decides to build the preform production machine in another location. Therefore, it indirectly lengthens the production lead time although it can reduce the cost of warehousing and transportation.
Every company has their own competitive advantages to help them stay in this competitive environment. This goes the same for Spritzer. Besides being located in a place rich of flora, they are also trying their best to go green by producing their own twist to recycle bottle from preforms. This bottle is lighter because it has 30% less plastic and save recycling space by at least 65%. With this, carbon emissions can be reduced (Spritzer Annual Report, 2012). This is one of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) contributions. To further contribute to the community to increase their brand image, they have sponsorship on cultural event, sport events, concert, education and entertainment. For instances, Spritzer has donated their beverages product for earthquake victims in Fukushima, Japan as well as engaging in a charity drive for flood victims in Bangkok, Thailand (Spritzer Annual Report, 2012).
On the other hand, providing a good customer service is another competitive advantage of Spritzer. Unlike their competitors, Spritzer provides their customer with online store at their website. The order for at least 2 cartons of beverages can be done at Spritzers official website with a free delivery service for certain area like Ipoh, Taiping, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. This has always benefited customer who are busy and do not have the time to shop. Ordering can be done with just a few clicks. Customer can even order it at home now after returning from a tiring work day. With Spritzers help, customers life has become more convenient, comfortable and easy. Besides buying it for home use, customer can also buy it for their office use. With their lightweight, portable mini dispenser now, customer can even order and bring it to any outdoor events like birthday parties.
Besides that, Spritzer produces quality beverages. Spritzer differentiates themselves from their competitors in terms of the quality and benefits that can be get from their beverages that customers will not be able to find in others brands beverage products. The products of Spritzer are all concern about customers health. The University of London has found that Spritzer bottled water contains a trace mineral which is called orthosilicic (OSA). This is the only silicon that human body can absorb and use. OSA is naturally found in the water underground and not synthetically produce. This is the reason Spritzer able to create the competitive advantage in term of this unique selling point of their beverages. OSA can found in all the beverages products of Spritzer such as natural mineral water, carbonated flavored water and functional drinks (Spritzer Fibre). The unique selling point of OSA is, this element can reduce the aluminum level contain inside our body. OSA is an element that able to promote skin and nails growth, formation of collagen for skin elasticity, strengthening of bones, prevents Alzheimer and reduces coronary heart disease. Since people tend to be more focus on their health now therefore, Spritzer is able to attract customer to consume their drink.
Based on our interview with the Product Manager of Spritzer Company in Taiping, Perak, we realize that Spritzer, just like any other organisation performed outsourcing method too to help them in their daily operation. By transferring an activity which was previously performed in house to an external entity which enables the organization to be a customer now is called as outsourcing. (Varadarajan, 2009) The logistic company will need to transport the raw materials to the companys factory for production. If the outsourced logistics company did not perform its job well by not being able to transport the goods on time, it will affect Spritzer Companys efficiency and effectiveness. Other than that, Spritzer outsources their maintenance services and material resources. Besides that, (Dogerlioglu, 2012) said that "The challenge in delivery is to meet the deadline issue since there will be monetary penalties for not meeting expected delivery time". This means that when Spritzer outsources logistics department, the delivery of their time can affect the success of whole project. Spritzer has utilized several outsourcings help to run its business operation. One of the outsourcings that are used by Spritzer is logistics outsourcing. (Kenyon & Meixell, 2010) mentions that numerous numbers of manufacturing companies do not own or manage the transportation and warehouse resources for inbound and outbound shipments from their facilities. (Kenyon & Meixell, 2010) also mentions that logistics can have a significant impact on cost, revenue and performance of the firm. For example, if inbound material flows from the supplier are unpredictable, companys internal operation will not be able to support the production strategies without a high level of safety stock. On the contrary, if the flows of finished goods to the customer are unpredictable, then the customer base will be frustrated. Although Spritzer has their own transportations, however Spritzer also utilizes logistics outsourcing in order to transport raw materials that are purchased from outside. Spritzer utilizes their own transportations to distribute finish products to retailers and customers.
For Spritzer Company to be successful, outsourcing is an important factor of contribution because outsource help to reduce cost, to focus on their core-businesses (Dogerlioglu, 2012) mentioned that "By outsourcing, companies can focus on their core activities and not activities that do not bring them a competitive advantage. The purposes are reducing cost, decreasing time spent and increasing quality of output. According to (Matthias Holweg F. K., 2012) outsourcing initiatives are key to firm efforts to focus on core competencies, alter engrained practices and attain significant cost reductions in non-core processes. For Spritzer Company, they had chosen to outsource their raw materials. This is because, by applying outsourcing in their core business daily operation, Spritzer Company does not need to produce the raw materials by themselves. Therefore, outsourcing raw materials helps Spritzer to reduce their production cost as produce raw materials is not the co-business. Spritzer understand that, by reduce the cost for producing non-core product, they can actually increase the budget on the production for their Core products. As the most of the customer are price sensitive, hence, Spritzer must reduce their cost so that they will not need to increase their product price. According to (John E. Mello, 2008) cost reduction was the most frequently discussed reason for considering outsourcing, and often the determining factor in the decision. One of the factors is outsource allows the company to have a cost reduction. After interview the Spritzer Company, we found that, by implemented outsourcing into their business operation, Spritzer able to save their storage and transportation costs. This is because, Spritzer able to save their storage area as they does not need too much spaces to store their materials. Based on (FREDRIKSSON, 2011) outsourcing is when a supplier is appointed by a firm to conduct an action that was earlier performed by the firm. Spritzer has outsourced their labeling from other suppliers. This is because their main business is producing mineral water. Labeling is only one of the part of their products. Thus, there is not necessary for them to produce the labeling by themselves as this will make the production cost to increase. Outsourcing defines more than just the buying of raw materials and standardized intermediate goods. It means discovering a partner with which a company can set up a mutual relationship and having the partner carry out relationship-specific investments so that it able to produce goods or services that match the company's specific needs. (GROSSMAN & HELPMAN, 2005) By having a good relationship and mutual goals or objectives with the outsourcing company, Spritzer can actually get special rate from the outsourcing company so that they can lower their operating cost and generate more revenue. They can get the lower price compare to other companies that using the same outsourcing company. This will establish competitive advantage for Spritzer.
Based on (Harland, 2005), outsourcing can enable firms to focus on "core" activities. This is also one of the reasons that motivate Spritzer Company to outsource raw materials. By outsource raw materials, Spritzer Company does not need to produce raw materials by their own. Hence, the company can save their time and resources such as human resources and capital resources to fully focus on their core activities. This allowed Spritzer to have a better control of product quality during their production. Based on the research, one of the main reasons that many companies nowadays choose to outsource is to have a better focus on their company main core activities. Normally, most of the company will only choose to outsource their non-core activities. As referred to the journal (Ashish Oza, 2007), non-core activities were gradually being outsourced for two reasons. First, outsourcing non-core activities allows firms to focus on the activities they do best and improve their overall performance. This statement had proven that, Spritzer Company had made a right decision as they chosen to outsource their non-core activities. Spritzer no longer needs to divide their resources into two sectors which are core activities and non-core activities. The company now can straight away focus on their core activities and hence, they can improve their quality of product, and shorten their production time.
(Koszewska, 2004) mentions that outsourcing is a very highly effective competitive tool and a well-known enterprise management strategy that is widely used by nowadays firm to strengthen their position in the market. Spritzer contracts out some of the duties, functions and processes to external providers who have advanced technology and specialized expertise in a given area.
Spritzer should improve the ways they welcoming the visitors. Since the visitors are not allowed to walk through the interconnect department because some of the departments are not allowed to visit, the security guards should lead the visitors to the reception. This is because the surrounding of the factory is huge. Some of the visitors may lost their way. Furthermore, the indoors car pack should open for visitors. This is because the outdoor car park is far away from the reception.
To shorten the production lead time due to the preform-manufactured room is separated from the production process room and also not to mess up with the original position of production machine, the company should improve the technology such as combine the function of preform machine and bottle producing machine into one machine. By this the production time can be shorten and the manpower can be cut down.
Since the fully automated machine that used by Spritzer to increase its production effectiveness and efficiency are rely on the technical and skilled labour, the company should provide all the employees training programme so that all the employees have the ability and skill to manipulated or control the machine. When all the employees acquire the skills, the wages for the all the employees will be same because all of them have the same skill. This can reduce the cost of the wages.
To expand the current markets of Spritzer, the company should add more production lines because there are only two production lines in the production department. By adding more production lines, the company can produce more products in the same time. For example they can produce the "POP Carbonated Fruit Flavoured Drink" and "Spritzer Mineral Water" at the same time.
In order to reduce avoid the plastic or preforms price rises that will indirectly affected the production processes effectiveness, the Spritzer company should produce the 100% non-plastic. With the 100% non-plastic, Spritzer will involve in environment friendly and also indirectly increase the image of the company
As a conclusion, we know that, the production process of a company is most important process of a company. The performance of the production process will directly affected the overall performance of a company. The Spritzer has a very good production process. Each product production process is planned perfectly. For example the manufacturing process of mineral water from stage one which is collecting the underground water until the end of the process filling the water into the bottle. All stages are well-planned and is the most efficient and effective ways.
Furthermore, the layout of a company is important too. Spritzer locates each of the production machines very well in order to eliminate bottlenecks and wasted or redundant movement during production process. The space of the company have been fully utilize too. For example, Spritzer facilitates the entry, exit, placement of materials and products to bring convenience to the employees and reduce transportation cost. Departments are interconnected to each other through indoor corridor. Spritzer is known as the world class eco-friendly manufacturing plant. The mineral water was bottled out of a vast 300 acre site with bountiful natural mineral water resources in an environmentally friendly site walled by lush tropical rainforests greenery, away from potential pollution. Besides that, all the employees are working under a very comfortable, healthy, safety and security environment.
By completing this assignment, we as a student have much knowledge that can gain from the Spritzer. First of all, the well planned of produce process. For example, we have to plan a good schedule to completing the assignment so that we can finish it on time. Besides that, the company provide a comfortable working place for the employee so that the employee can perform better. We as a student so provide our own self a comfortable study place so that we can more concentrate while studying. In order to reduce the pollution, Spritzer has produced the bottle that only contains 30% of plastic and is recyclable. This has created the awareness of global warming. We must involve our self in more activities that are eco-friendly. By all this, we can become a people that more effectiveness and efficiency.
Calcium carbonate production line is to produce calcium carbonate powder by grinding basic material such as limestone or marble. And the calcium carbonate plant includes a complete set of calcium carbonate manufacturing equipment. For example, there are crusher, vibrating feeder, elevator bucket or belt conveyor, calcium carbonate grinding mill, air classifier, silos, dust collector, calcium carbonate coating machine, packing machines and so on. Daswell manufactures and supplies complete set of calcium carbonate grinding plant machinery with high quality. And all these machines are designed and manufactured according to customersspecific requirements. Calcium Carbonate Plant Calcium carbonate plant is also known as calcium carbonate processing plant, calcium carbonate grinding plant or calcium carbonate manufacturing plant. It is a calcium carbonate production line where ground calcium carbonate powder are made mechanically in factories. With versatile applications ...Get Solutions Calcium Carbonate Processing Plant Calcium carbonate processing plant is a production line that obtaining ground calcium carbonate powder by grinding limestone or marble. Usually there are a complete set of machinery needed for the calcium carbonate production line. And some calcium carbonate manufacturing plants ...Get Solutions
Firstly, the quarried limestone will be crushed in primary and secondary crusher to proper sizes. Then the limestone will go through vibrating screen to reject unqualified limestone. And then the feed limestone will be transferred to product silo through bucket elevator. Through vibrating feeder, feed limestone is metered into calcium carbonate grinding mill. In the grinding mill, feed limestone is ground to fine and even ultra fine calcium carbonate powder. To get more fine and ultra fine ground calcium carbonate powder, the calcium carbonate powder from grinding mill can go through air classifier. If you want to get coated calcium carbonate, you can direct the calcium carbonate powder into the calcium carbonate coating machine. And then the natural and coated calcium carbonate powder will go through dust collector. And finally the final product will be packed.
Quarried limestone is often too big to feed into calcium carbonate grinding mill. Besides, different calcium carbonate grinding mill have different feed material required sizes. So there is great need of primary and even secondary crushers. Usually, the jaw crusher is used to crush the basic materials such as limestone or marble. And there is also vibrating screen to screen the qualified sizes of feed material.
Calcium carbonate grinding mill is the central equipment for calcium carbonate manufacturing plant. And there are many kinds of calcium carbonate grinders available, such as ball mill, roller mill, vertical mill, wet grinding mill and so on. Since different grinding mills have different capacity and diameters, Daswell can help you to choose the best suitable one for your calcium carbonate grinding plant. And there are several factors to be considered, such as raw material property, desired fineness, production capacity and so on. Ball Mill for Grinding Calcium Carbonate Ball mill grinder is usually used to grind crushed materials, such as ores, chemicals, ceramic raw material and others. This article mainly talks about ball mill for grinding calcium carbonate. Ground calcium carbonate powder is in greater demand worldwide in ...Get Solutions Wet Grinding Mill for Calcium Carbonate Daswell wet grinding mill for calcium carbonate is used to produce fine and high quality ultra fine ground calcium carbonate powder in wet milling way. In other words, the calcium carbonate particles are dispersed in a liquid by impact or ...Get Solutions
Calcium carbonate air classifier is used for further cut of calcium carbonate powder. After being ground in calcium carbonate grinding mill, the calcium carbonate powder will be transferred into air classifier. In there, the air flow inside will carry the lighter powder upward and get further cut, while the coarse ones will fall down due to gravity. Calcium carbonate grinding mill and air classifier together can produce fine and ultra fine calcium carbonate powder.
To protect environment as well as the safety of employees, calcium carbonate grinding plant will be equipped with dust collector. Of course, Daswell offers several kinds of dust collectors to ensure the dust free working environment.
Calcium carbonate coating machine is used to coating calcium carbonate powder with stearic acid. And to obtain coated calcium carbonate, you can simply add a calcium carbonate surface treating machine to your calcium carbonate plant. As a result, your calcium carbonate grinding plant can both produce natural calcium carbonate powder as well as coated calcium carbonate powder, which make more economic value for you. For both uncoated and coated calcium carbonate powder are very useful minerals in many industries, such as paper, paint, plastic and other industries. Daswell calcium carbonate coating machine are made of high quality material to work long time and they can produce high quality coated calcium carbonate powder with great consistency and uniform. Calcium Carbonate Coating Machine Calcium carbonate coating machine for sale in Daswell machinery. Calcium carbonate powder surface coating machine is used to modify the surface of ground calcium carbonate powder. As a result, the property of the ground calcium carbonate powder will be changed ...Get Solutions How to Produce Coated Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate coating often refers to coating ground calcium carbonate powder with stearic acid to change the property of GCC powder. Stearic acid is water soluble, and will react with calcium carbonate particles to form a surface coating of calcium ...Get Solutions
Daswell offers mainly two kind of calcium carbonate powder packing machine according to automatic style. One is semi automatic and the other is fully automatic. As the name implies the semi automatic calcium carbonate packing machine still needs human labor to finish the packing process. While fully automatic calcium carbonate packing machine needs no more human labor and can pack and transfer bags of calcium carbonate powder to set area. Besides, there are also valve mouth packing machine and ton bag packing machines available. And no matter which kind of Daswell calcium carbonate packing machine you choose, they are of robust designs and built to work for long service time. Whats more, they are both efficient and accurate when handing calcium carbonate powder.
As stated above, there are many machines for a calcium carbonate production line. And the smooth operation of the calcium carbonate plant depends on the well operation of each piece of equipment. For great convenience and efficiency, the calcium carbonate manufacturing plant is equipped with computer control system. With this system, employee can monitor the whole calcium carbonate manufacturing process, and make adjustment easily. Please fill the form below to get free quotes. We will reply in 24 hours. Product Model: Your Name(required): Your Email(required): Your Tel: Your country: Your Company: Your Message(required):