mineral separation plants

major mines & projects | namakwa mine

major mines & projects | namakwa mine

The Namakwa ore reserves are contained within and non-reserves material, covers an ellipsoidal area of mineralization 15 kilometers in a northeasterly direction with a maximum width of about 4 km, with no overburden. The NE-SW dimension is interpreted to reflect prevailing winds at the time of the deposits formation. A narrow sub-economic corridor divides the reserves into two proximal ore bodies, Graauwduinen West and Graauwduinen East, which are more commonly called the West and East deposits. Nearly two-thirds of historic ore production has been extracted from the West mine pit, to a maximum depth of about 45 meters. In the medium term, 60-65% of extracted ore will be mined from the West pit, but the long-term LOM Plan calls for a nearly even split between West and East mines.The very large Namakwa HM deposit is broadly the result of prolonged, repetitive weathering-erosion-deposition cycles that were initiated with the breakup of the Gondwana Supercontinent approximately 100 million years ago. The separation of the African and South American proto-continents triggered weathering and erosion of massive volumes of sediment from high-grade metamorphic crystalline basement rocks of the one billion-year-old Namaqua-Natal orogenic belt. The sandy sedimentary sequence that hosts our Namakwa HM deposit is interpreted as being derived mostly from the Namaqua-Natal metamorphic belt which was welded onto the western and southern margins of the 2.6+ billion-year-old Kaapvaal Craton. High grade metamorphism facilitates the partitioning of titanium into ilmenite and rutile crystals making them available for erosion, transport and deposition to form economic deposits. Heavy mineral concentrations in beach placers, marine terraces and in coastal dunes were reworked by water and wind into what is now our Namakwa heavy mineral deposit, the end-product of 100 million years of geologic evolution.

The Namakwa Sands heavy mineral deposit at Brand-se-Baai was discovered in 1986 by Anglo American, who commissioned the integrated mine-MSP-smelter project in 1995. Ore is excavated from two open-pit dry mines and delivered by trucks and conveyors to two primary wet concentration plants. [2019 AR Form 10-K, p. 33]Namakwa Sands does not use blasting in its operations. The mined material is transported by trucks to the mineral sizers where primary reduction takes place.

Tronox Namakwa Sands undertakes the mining and beneficiation of heavy minerals. Facilities are based at three geographically separated sites situated at: Brand-se-Baai: East Mine, West Mine, Primary Concentration Plants (PCP) East and West and the Secondary Concentration Plant (SCP); Koekenaap: Mineral Separation Plant (MSP); and Saldanha Bay: Smelter facility and Receiving and Dispatch area.Heavy mineral sands are extracted and concentrated into magnetic and non-magnetic concentrate at the Mine. These magnetic and non-magnetic concentrate streams are transported to the MSP where the magnetic material is treated in the magnetic (ilmenite separation) Dry Mill Circuit to produce ilmenite and the non-magnetic material is treated in the Non-Magnetic Circuit to produce zircon and rutile related products. The ilmenite, zircon and rutile related products are transported to the Smelter, where the ilmenite is further processed, while the zircon and rutile related prod ........

pilot plants - royal ihc

pilot plants - royal ihc

Offering a comprehensive range of project services, IHC Robbins can provide expertise for a wide spectrum of heavy mineral mining needs, from flowsheet development and feasibility studies to full EPC turnkey project management services.

IHC Robbins uses the latest management systems and computer technologies in delivering these services, ensuring optimal standards in every project. Through its continued delivery of exceptional and innovative solutions, IHC Robbins has established an excellent position in the field of mineral sands consultancy.

mineral processing design and operations | sciencedirect

mineral processing design and operations | sciencedirect

Mineral Processing Design and Operations: An Introduction, Second Edition, helps further understanding of the various methods commonly used in mineral beneficiation and concentration processes. Application of theory to practice is explained at each stage, helping operators understand associated implications in each unit process. Covers the theory and formulae for unit capacities and power requirements to help the designer develop the necessary equipment and flow-sheets to economically attain maximum yield and grade. This second edition describes theories and practices of design and operation of apparatus and equipment, including an additional chapter on magnetic, electrostatic, and conductivity modes of mineral separation. Basics of process controls for efficient and economic modes of separation are introduced.

Mineral Processing Design and Operations: An Introduction, Second Edition, helps further understanding of the various methods commonly used in mineral beneficiation and concentration processes. Application of theory to practice is explained at each stage, helping operators understand associated implications in each unit process. Covers the theory and formulae for unit capacities and power requirements to help the designer develop the necessary equipment and flow-sheets to economically attain maximum yield and grade.

This second edition describes theories and practices of design and operation of apparatus and equipment, including an additional chapter on magnetic, electrostatic, and conductivity modes of mineral separation. Basics of process controls for efficient and economic modes of separation are introduced.

Mineral Processing Design and Operations: An Introduction, Second Edition, helps further understanding of the various methods commonly used in mineral beneficiation and concentration processes. Application of theory to practice is explained at each stage, helping operators understand associated implications in each unit process. Covers the theory and formulae for unit capacities and power requirements to help the designer develop the necessary equipment and flow-sheets to economically attain maximum yield and grade. This second edition describes theories and practices of design and operation of apparatus and equipment, including an additional chapter on magnetic, electrostatic, and conductivity modes of mineral separation. Basics of process controls for efficient and economic modes of separation are introduced.

Mineral Processing Design and Operations: An Introduction, Second Edition, helps further understanding of the various methods commonly used in mineral beneficiation and concentration processes. Application of theory to practice is explained at each stage, helping operators understand associated implications in each unit process. Covers the theory and formulae for unit capacities and power requirements to help the designer develop the necessary equipment and flow-sheets to economically attain maximum yield and grade.

This second edition describes theories and practices of design and operation of apparatus and equipment, including an additional chapter on magnetic, electrostatic, and conductivity modes of mineral separation. Basics of process controls for efficient and economic modes of separation are introduced.

mineral processing - an overview | sciencedirect topics

mineral processing - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Mineral processing, mineral beneficiation, or upgradation involves handling three primary types of ROM material, which have been blasted, fragmented, and brought out from an insitu position. These materials can be used directly or by simple or complex processing and even by applying extractive metallurgy like hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical methods. The categories are:

The journey from ROM ore to concentrate and finallymetal travels through many operations of liberation, separation, concentration, and extraction before it reaches the end users. These activities have been diagrammatically summarized in Figs.13.53 and 13.54. Apanoramic view of State of the Art zinc and lead smelting is depicted in Fig. 13.55.

Figure13.54. A complete flow diagram, including crushing, grinding, density media separation, froth flotation, and pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical process route to achieve the highest purity of metals. PGE, platinum-group elements.

Figure13.55. Panoramic view of hydro-metallurgical smelter of Hindustan Zinc Limited at Rajpura-Dariba, Rajasthan, India. The smelter has an annual production capacity of 210,000 t zinc and 100,000 t lead metal, and 160 MW captive power plant.

Mineral processing or mineral beneficiation or upgradation involves handling of three primary types of ROM ore material which has been blasted, fragmented and brought out from in situ position. These materials can be used directly or by simple or complex processing and even applying extractive metallurgy like hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical methods. The categories are as follows:

The journey from ROM ore to concentrate and ultimately to metal has been conceptualized. The various unit operations used for liberation, separation, concentration and extraction have been discussed in the previous pages of this chapter. The activities and the typical sequence of operations in the process plant have been diagrammatically summarized in Fig. 12.54.

Mining and mineral processing industries have been the key focus of research in many countries due to its increasing sustainability concerns that affect global warming and climate change. This chapter analysed and summarised the significant research outputs published on the environmental impact assessment of mining and mineral processing industries through life cycle assessment (LCA). This chapter presents valuable insights in identifying the gaps, where should the focus be in the mining and mineral processing industries for a sustainable future.

The review results reveal the assessment indicators in human health and ecosystems are key factors that are mostly missing in the previous studies which are crucial for people or community living nearby mining area. This chapter identifies the research gaps to the existing literature that can form the base for future research direction in the field of LCA and sustainable energy integration in mining and mineral processing industries.

Mineral processing operations involve a number of process variables that change randomly with uncertain frequencies. The control strategies developed with the use of PID controllers have been found to be inadequate especially in non-linear systems and systems with large lag times. The present development to solve these problems fall under two categories:

The self tuning control algorithm has been developed and applied on crusher circuits and flotation circuits [22-24] where PID controllers seem to be less effective due to immeasurable change in parameters like the hardness of the ore and wear in crusher linings. STC is applicable to non-linear time varying systems. It however permits the inclusion of feed forward compensation when a disturbance can be measured at different times. The STC control system is therefore attractive. The basis of the system is:

The disadvantage of the set up is that it is not very stable and therefore in the control model a balance has to be selected between stability and performance. A control law is adopted. It includes a cost function CF, and penalty on control action. The control law has been defined as:

A block diagram showing the self tuning set-up is illustrated in Fig. 18.27. The disadvantage of STC controllers is that they are less stable and therefore in its application a balance has to be derived between stability and performance.

The empirical model predicts the process output for a certain predicted time. The error is not fixed as in a PID system, but extends over a time period and minimized. The concept is therefore time based and known as an extended horizontal control system. The algorithm is known as Multivariable, Optimal Control Action or MOCCA [25]. The MOCCA system can be considered as an improvement on the level concept described earlier. It is based on the fact that the prediction of output equals the sum of the future actions plus past control action. It is developed around a step response under steady state conditions by combining:

To derive the model, Sripada and Fisher [25] considered a steady state condition. Also for a single input-single output system (SISO), the predicted output for horizon 1 to P is obtained in N number of step responses. The future and past control actions were written as:

The predicted horizon P, is the number of predicted outputs that the control objective has been optimized The control horizon H is the number of future control actions which minimize the cost function against the predicted horizon.

Optimization of the control system is achieved from performance criteria including any constraints. It is necessary to know the set point and predicted output trajectories for future control effort. The errors and control efforts have to be minimized. For the error trajectory the square of the difference of set point trajectory and the predicted output trajectory is taken. Taking these into consideration Vien et al [6] describes the cost function, Cf, in terms of minimizing the error trajectory plus control effort. Taking the weighted least square performance, the cost function Cf is given as:

Based on the process model, the control block calculates the predictions for future control actions, the supervisory block generates the desired set point trajectory. The feedback loop with filter and disturbance predictor corrects incongruity between the model and unaccounted, therefore unmeasured, disturbances. It also reduces the noise levels. The predictor in the feed back control loop intimates the future effects of disturbances. Combination of the feed back corrections and the predictions from the model provide the necessary estimate of output.

MOCCA has been found to be far superior to the conventional PID or PI controllers and is being increasingly used. It is particularly useful where long time delays are involved. Its advantage is that it uses discrete step response data and can be used to model processes with unusual dynamic behaviour. Its added advantage over the PID system of control is that it rises faster and has no overshoot. This system has been used successfully in control of grinding circuits.

Mining and mineral processing generates large volumes of waste, including waste rock, mill tailings, and mineral refinery wastes. The oxidation of sulfide minerals in the materials can result in the release of acidic water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals. Recent studies have determined the mechanisms of abiotic sulfide-mineral oxidation. Within mine wastes, the oxidation of sulfide minerals is catalyzed by microorganisms. Molecular tools have been developed and applied to determine the activity and role of these organisms in sulfide-mineral-bearing systems. Novel tools have been developed for assessing the toxicity of mine-waste effluent. Dissolved constituents released by sulfide oxidation may be attenuated through the precipitation of secondary minerals, including metal sulfate, oxyhydroxide, and basic sulfate minerals. Geochemical models have been developed to provide improved predictions of the magnitude and duration of environmental concerns. Novel techniques have been developed to prevent and remediate environmental problems associated with these materials.

In any mineral processing operation, the term benefits of scale is used to denote the significant economic advantages can be obtained by having larger production volumes and using larger ships. Larger tonnage operations operate with fewer man-hours per ton, while capital costs for larger machines are less than the multiples of their relative production capacities. In order to compete on world markets, category 1 producers must consider the benefits of scale. For example, in the kaolin industry during the 1970s, a 100,000 tons/year operation was considered to be a reasonable commercial operation. For the current developments in Brazil, a minimum plant size of 300,000 tons per year is being quoted.

For category 2, the annual tonnage requirement is governed by market size rather than benefits of scale. Annual productions from such processing operations typically fall between 10,000 and 100,000 tons per year. The sizes of category 3 operations are typically governed by other factors such as market size or accessible market share.

Mining and mineral-processing industries producing lithium minerals, metals, and salts contribute to the lithium burden in the environment. The processing of lithium-containing minerals such as spodumene, in general, comprises crushing, wet grinding in a ball mill, sizing, gravity concentration, and flotation using a fatty acid (oleic acid) as the collector. The major lithium mineral in lithium ore is spodumene, which is considered insoluble in water and dilute acids. However, a small amount of dissolution may occur during processing of the ore especially in the grinding and flotation stages where some dilute (0.01M) sulfuric acid is used (see Table 6). Tailings are discharged to storage areas, and the decanted water is usually recovered for reuse. Lithium concentrations in tailing dams increase gradually. The dissolved lithium found in the tailing dams of lithium mineral beneficiation plants could be as high as 15mgl1. The repeated use of tailing waters without any treatment further increases the dissolved lithium levels in these waters.

Some of the lithium minerals are more soluble than the others. Manufacturing of lithium chemicals could contribute to the lithium burden in the environment. Most of the lithium chemicals are often more soluble than lithium minerals, and therefore, the risk to the environment could be higher than the risk introduced by the lithium minerals (see Table 5).

Mining and mineral processing can cause arsenic contamination of the atmosphere (in the form of airborne dust), sediment, soil, and water. The contamination can be long-lasting and remain in the environment long after the activities have ceased (Camm et al., 2003). Recent estimates suggest that there are approximately 11 million tonnes of arsenic associated with copper and lead reserves globally (USGS, 2005). In developing mines containing significant amounts of arsenic, careful consideration is now given to treatment of wastes and effluents to ensure compliance with legislation on permitted levels of arsenic that can be emitted to the environment. Such legislation is becoming increasingly stringent. Arsenic contamination from former mining activities has been identified in many areas of the world including the United States (Plumlee et al., 1999; Welch et al., 1999, 1988, 2000), Canada, Thailand, Korea, Ghana, Greece, Austria, Poland, and the United Kingdom (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). Groundwater in some of these areas has been found with arsenic concentrations as high as 48000gl1. Elevated arsenic concentrations have been reported in soils of various mining regions around the world (Kreidie et al., 2011). Some mining areas have AMD with such low pH values that the iron released by oxidation of the iron sulfide minerals remains in solution and therefore does not scavenge arsenic. Well-documented cases of arsenic contamination in the United States include the Fairbanks gold-mining district of Alaska (Welch et al., 1988; Wilson and Hawkins, 1978), the Coeur d'Alene PbZnAg mining area of Idaho (Mok and Wai, 1990), the Leviathan Mine (S), California (Webster et al., 1994), Mother Lode (Au), California (Savage et al., 2000), Summitville (Au), Colorado (Pendleton et al., 1995), Kelly Creek Valley (Au), Nevada (Grimes et al., 1995), Clark Fork river (Cu), Montana (Welch et al., 2000), Lake Oahe (Au), South Dakota (Ficklin and Callender, 1989), and Richmond Mine (Fe, Ag, Au, Cu, Zn), Iron Mountain, California (Nordstrom et al., 2000).

Phytotoxic effects attributed to high concentrations of arsenic have also been reported around the Mina Turmalina copper mine in the Andes, northeast of Chiclayo, Peru (Bech et al., 1997). The main ore minerals involved are chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and pyrite. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater in the Zimapan Valley, Mexico, has also been attributed to interaction with AgPbZn, carbonate-hosted mineralization (Armienta et al., 1997). Arsenopyrite, scorodite, and tennantite were identified as probable source minerals in this area. Increased concentrations of arsenic have been found as a result of arsenopyrite occurring naturally in CambroOrdovician lode gold deposits in Nova Scotia, Canada. Tailings and stream sediment samples show high concentrations of arsenic (39ppm), and dissolved arsenic concentrations in surface waters and tailing pore waters indicate that the tailings continue to release significant quantities of arsenic. Biological sampling demonstrated that both arsenic and mercury have bioaccumulated to various degrees in terrestrial and marine biota, including eels, clams, and mussels (Parsons et al., 2006).

Data for 34 mining localities of different metallogenic types in different climatic settings were reviewed by Williams (2001). He proposed that arsenopyrite is the principal source of arsenic released in such environments and concluded that in situ oxidation generally resulted in the formation of poorly soluble scorodite, which limited the mobility and ecotoxicity of arsenic. The Ron Phibun tin-mining district of Thailand is an exception (Williams et al., 1996). In this area, arsenopyrite oxidation products were suggested to have formed in the alluvial placer gravels during the mining phase. Following cessation of mining activity and pumping, groundwater rebound caused dissolution of the oxidation products. The role of scorodite in the immobilization of arsenic from mine workings has been questioned by Roussel et al. (2000), who point out that the solubility of this mineral exceeds drinking water standards irrespective of pH.

A wide variety of minerals processing routes are used for REE deposits (Jordens et al., 2013; Krishnamurthy and Gupta, 2015). For many REE ores, processing techniques for the minerals are unproven on a commercial scale and processing is a major challenge that needs to be considered early in exploration. Physical concentration using density, magnetic and electrostatic properties are normally the most cost-effective. Monazite and xenotime, if reasonably well liberated and coarse-grained, are amenable to physical separation from mineral sands and some carbonatite ores. Finer grained phosphates, and most fluorcarbonates, require more complex and expensive processing via flotation, and/or acid leaching. Eudialyte can be concentrated by physical beneficiation but is difficult to dissolve, although techniques to solve this problem are now available at laboratory and pilot scale.

natural radionuclides in zircon and related radiological impacts in mineral separation plants | radiation protection dosimetry | oxford academic

natural radionuclides in zircon and related radiological impacts in mineral separation plants | radiation protection dosimetry | oxford academic

P. P. Haridasan, P. M. B. Pillai, A. H. Khan, V. D. Puranik, Natural radionuclides in zircon and related radiological impacts in mineral separation plants, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Volume 121, Issue 4, December 2006, Pages 364369, https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncl057

The activity concentration of uranium and thorium present in zircon obtained from mineral sand industries are presented. External gamma radiation levels and inhalation of airborne dust are found to be the significant routes of radiation exposure to occupational workers. The annual average dose attributed to zircon processing is estimated to be 2.3 mSv in the plants under study. This paper presents the results of external gamma measurements, estimation of airborne radioactivity in zircon process locations and radon and thoron in the occupational environment of two mineral separation plants in India. Analyses of the solid wastes and liquid effluent generated and resultant environmental impacts are indicated.

heavy minerals processing plant design, machine & install, etc | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

heavy minerals processing plant design, machine & install, etc | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

Heavy minerals, such as zircon, rutile, garnet, etc., can be applied to many applications. Zircon can be made to jewelry for decoration, and it is also an important material for casting, ceramic, glass and refractory industry. Zircon can also be smelted to be used in chemical and nuclear industries. Rutile is the material to get metal titanium, and as we all know, titanium is a very critical metal that is used in various high-end industries including semi-conductor, military equipment, aerospace industry, etc. Garnet is always the best natural abrasive material for semi-conductor, optical lens as well as bearing for precise instrument and horologes.

Heavy minerals are presented both in placer material and original rock mine. Normally two or more kinds of heavy minerals intergrowth together, and due to this characteristic, the processing plant would require multi beneficiation methods. Based on the heavy minerals processing experience and necessary processing test, Prominer can supply complete processing plant combined with various processing technologies, such as gravity separation, magnetic separation, flotation, electric separation, etc., to recover all kinds of heavy minerals and separate them as independent concentrates. For rock type ore, the primary processing is crushing and grinding to a suitable size that the minerals are liberated from veins and then the liberated material goes for separation stage. For placer mine, normally it needs to be sieved first to take out all big size veins and then goes for separation. Also, after analyzing if the liberation size is fine, then grinding will also be required.

Due to the variety of minerals contained in placer sand, the placer sand with gold has been described in page 10 the gold solution section already. So it will not be repeated. Here we only introduce the processing technology of common heavy minerals such as tin ore, zirconium sand, rutile, garnet, monazite, xenotime, magnetite, hematite, ilmenite and chromite as following:

Gravity separation is commonly used to separate those heavy minerals from low-density minerals, such as quartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, pyroxene, etc. After gravity separation the concentrate contains those heavy minerals and some other impurity minerals.

Magnetic separation is mainly used for separating magnetic mineral, such as magnetite, ilmenite, etc. For example, zircon has no magnetoconductivity, so through magnetic separation zircon can be separated from other heavy minerals. Also, for different heavy minerals, the magnetoconductivity are not the same. Based on this characteristic, heavy minerals can be separated from each other.

Sometimes heavy minerals are not easy to be separated by common processing technologies, then electrical separation may be another choice. It takes advantages of the electrical conductivity differences of different heavy minerals, for example, rutile can be easily recovered by electric separation.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

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