The Sentinel deposit is a sediment-hosted stratiform copper deposit. Mineralisation is predominantly primary sulphide copper, with sheet-like horizons of ore dipping north at 20-30o . The mineralisation is parallel to dominant foliation, within the structurally deformed carbonaceous phyllite host.Copper mineralisation at Sentinel is limited to the strongly deformed phyllite unit, with rare lowgrade mineralisation extending only 1-2 metres into the hanging and foot-wall from the contact. The ore-body strikes approximately east-west for 11 km and mineralised horizons dip 20 to 30 degrees in a northerly direction, generally parallel to the dominant foliation.The dominant copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite and typically occurs within bedding/foliation parallel quartz-kyanite-carbonate mm-scale veinlets. Within folded zones, veinlets tend to be thicker (mm scale), blebby, and more irregular, and often contain a relatively higher proportion of chalcopyrite. Late sulphide-bearing cross-cutting veinlets and disseminated or blebby chalcopyrite are less common.The oxidised horizon, up to approximately 70 m in depth, contains non-primary sulphide Cuminerals, predominantly chalcocite, and tarnished chalcopyrite. The top 5-15 metres from surface is typically leached of copper, or contains mixed refractory copper and trace oxide minerals.Nickel-cobalt mineralisation exists predominantly in the form of cobalt-pentlandite, with trace amounts of vaesite. Apart from rare sporadic metre-scales lenses (likely related to structures) the Ni-Co mineralisation occurs as a discrete horizon within the footwall phyllite. Footwall phyllite refers to the lowermost portion of phyllite that tends to be barren, or very low in copper mineralisation. Ni-Co mineralisation is best developed in the NE extent of the deposit, proximal to the Kalumbila Fault.
The Sentinel Pit is being mined in a series of terraced phases, using large-scale mining equipment, and with mining costs expected to be minimised through the adoption of bulk mining and ore handling methods featuring electric shovels and drill rigs, trolley-assisted (TA) haulage, and in-pit primary crushing and conveying (IPCC). Waste and ore haul cycle times, and hence fuel consumption, are expected to be reduced through the adoption of TA and IPCC.Open pit mining at Sentinel commenced in two surface box-cut areas of the Phase 1 Pit; ie, in the north west boxcut in April 2013, and then in the south boxcut from early 2014. Since 2013-2014, mining has proceeded in the Phase 1 pit to a current depth of approximately 200 m. The Phase 2 pit, immediately to the east, was progressively cleared and grade control drilled from 2016. Mining from the southern pit crest limits, 800 m across to the Musangezhi River, now extends along a strike length of 1.2 km and to a depth of approximately 25 m.Mining capacity will eventually increase to around 68 million bcm of ore and waste mined per annum. The ultimate 5.7 kilometres long, 1.5 kilometres wide and 390 metres deep pit will be mined in stages, with ore crushed in-pit and conveyed overland to the Sentinel process plant.Three in-pit crushers and associated overland ore conveyors have been installed and are operational within the main pit. The conveyors extending across to the plant crushed ore stockpile via a surface transfer bin. A fourth in-pit crusher is scheduled to be commissioned in late 2021. Pit expansion continued eastward with ongoing mining of the second mining stage during 2020. Mining follows conventional drill and blast, shovel and truck mining practice. The sequence of mining activities is also conventional and is generally as follows:- RC grade control drilling delineates the ore zones- a grade control model is developed from which blast limits and digging blocks are designed- ore and waste blocks are blasted to design, according to layouts based on varying hole patterns and powder factors to suit prevailing ground conditions - specific blast designs are engineered to suit excavations in close proximity to in-pit crushers and conveyors- trim blasts and perimeter blasting techniques are used to ensure pit wall profiles are cut to the correct angle and to minimise wall damage- electric and diesel/hydraulic shovels and excavators load the blasted rock into a fleet of 330 to 360 tonne and 240 tonne capacity haul trucks - ore is hauled direct to IPCs or to active and long-term stockpiles, whilst waste is hauled to surface dump tip heads- trolley assisted haulage is currently in use for waste hauls, and is proposed for future ore hauls from increasingly deeper mining elevations.Noteworthy changes from the 2015 Technical Report (FQM, May 2015) production plan are:- the proposed expansion of cupriferous ore processing to 62 Mtpa, commencing in 2022- a commensurate increase in total mining movement capacity to about 180 Mtpa from 2022, and 190 Mtpa from 2026- installation of a fourth IPC during 2021, near-surface, in the Phase 2 pit
Primary crushingThe primary crushing circuit consists of three semi-mobile, independent gyratory crushers (IPCs) operating in open circuit. The crushers operate with a nominal open side setting of 165 mm. With all three crushers operating, running times average 16 hours per day, although 24 hour operation is possible. Each crusher is located in-pit, to minimise haulage distances, with crushed ore conveyed to a pit top bin from where the ore is conveyed either directly to the mill feed stockpile, or to secondary crushing. In late 2021, a fourth IPC will be installed, thereby enabling three crushers to continue in operation whilst one is being relocated to a new position deeper in the pit.A fourth crusher, IPC4A, is now required to ensure crushing continuity when any of the other three are being relocated, and also importantly, to supplement crushing capacity for the proposed 62 Mtpa processing expansion. The nominal crushing rate of each of IPC1A, IPC2A and IPC3A is 4,000 tonnes per hour. After availability and utilisation factors, plus operational downtime, this rate equates to approximately 18 Mtpa crushed per IPC. The larger capacity IPC4A crusher, when operational, will have a nominal crushing rate of 5,500 tonnes per hour. After similar allowances and factors, this equates to approximately 25 Mtpa crushed.Crushed ore stockpiling and reclaimTwo parallel shuttle conveyors are used to deliver crushed material to the stockpile and to distribute the crushed ore along the length of the stockpile. The stockpile has a live capacity of at least 12 hours, approximately 60,000 tonnes. The total capacity of the stockpile can be utilised, if required, by bull-dozing the dead load into the stockpile discharge chutes. Ore is recovered from the crushed ore stockpile by four apron feeders (per mill) located in a tunnel underneath the stockpile.Milling, pebble crushingThe mills were selected on the basis of two milling trains, each comprising the largest SAG and ball mills currently proven at other operations, at the time of design. On that basis, a 28 MW SAG mill (internal diameter of 12.19 m (40 ft)) and a 22 MW ball mill (8.53 m internal diameter (28 ft)) were selected for each milling train. All the mills are equipped with gearless drives. Each milling train is designed to grind 3,500 tph of material from a feed size of 80% passing 130 mm to a product size of 80% passing 212 m. A pebble crusher is included in the circuit to crush pebbles ejected from the SAG mills, down to minus 12 mm before recycling them to the stockpile feed conveyor.Each SAG mill has a dedicated cyclone cluster, with cyclone underflow being directed to the ball mill. Each ball mill has two cyclone clusters, with cyclone overflow mixing with SAG cyclone overflow and gravitating to rougher flotation.
Sentinel copper ores have an average copper grade of approximately 0.50% Cu. At a processing rate of 55 Mtpa and with 90% recovery, the annual production of copper (in concentrate) is approximately 247,500 tpa Cu.The processing plant design is based on a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit designed to treat 55 Mtpa of ore, with a separate 4 Mtpa circuit designed to process nickel ore feed from Enterprise project or additional copper ore feed from Sentinel. 62 Mtpa processing is now proposed, commencing from 2022.The concentrator circuit comprises:- in-pit crushing of run of mine (ROM) ore- conveying of primary crushed ore to secondary crushing and to ore stockpiles- partial secondary crushing of primary crushed ore prior to stockpiles- SAG and ball milling of crushed ore, with size classification by hydrocyclones. A grind size of 80% passing 212 m is targeted- flash Flotation for fast floating coarse chalcopyrit ........
This ball mill will be sent to Chile for grinding the copper ore. After the cooper ore crushing to be 6mm, they are will be feeding into the ball mill to gridning 200 mesh up t0 70%. This ball mill will be close circuit with a hydrocyclone.
ZJH mainly focus on producing and supply crushers, ore grinding equipment, mineral Beneficiation equipment, laboratory and pilot scale ore dressing equipment for Mining and Mineral Processing Industry. Our aim is to work together with Mines, Mineral Beneficiation Plantsfor helping to reduce the operating cost ,to improve the operating efficiency.
Geological and structural features in the district are representative of large, disseminated type, porphyry copper deposits.Mineralization in the district is extensive covering a surface area of approximately 30 square kilometers. An early pegmatitic stage associated with bornite-chalcopyrite-molybdenite assemblage was followed by a widespread flooding of hydrothermal solutions with quartz-pyrite-chalcopyrite. A pervasive quartz-sericite alteration is evident throughout the districts igneous rock fabric.An extensive and economically important zone of supergene enrichment, with disseminated and stockworks of chalcocite (Cu S), developed below the iron oxide capping. This zone coincides with the topography and has an average thickness of 300 meters. A mixed zone of secondary and primary sulfides underlay the chalcocite blanket. The hypogene mineralization, principally chalcopyrite (CuFeS ), extensively underlies the ore body. Molybdenite occurs throughout the deposit and the content tends to increase with depth.The Buenavista copper porphyry is considered world-class and unique. The deepest exploration results in the core of the deposit have confirmed significant increase in copper grades. Similar porphyry copper deposits usually contain lower grades at depth. The district is also unique for the occurrence of high-grade breccia pipes, occurring in clusters following the trend of the district.Current dimensions of the mineralized ore body are 5x3 kilometers, and projects to more than one kilometer at depth. Considering the geological and economic potential of the Buenavista porphyry copper deposit, it is expected that the operation can support a sizeable increase in copper production capacity.
Buenavista uses state-of-the-art computer monitoring systems at the concentrators, the crushing plant and the flotation circuit in order to coordinate inflows and optimize operations. In the original concentrator, material with a copper grade over 0.38% is loaded onto trucks and sent to the milling circuit, where giant rotating crushers reduce the size of the ore to approximately onehalf of an inch. The ore is then sent to the ball mills, which grind it to the consistency of fine powder. The finely ground powder is agitated in a water and reagents solution and is then transported to flotation cells. Air is pumped into the cells producing a froth, which carries the copper mineral to the surface but not the waste rock, or tailings. Recovered copper, with the consistency of froth, is filtered and dried to produce copper concentrates with an average copper content of approximately 24%. Concentrates are then shipped by rail to the smelter at La Caridad.In the second concentrator, material with a copper grade over 0.555% is sent to a three-phase milling circuit, where the ore size is reduced to approximately one-half inch. The ore is then sent to a circuit of six ball mills, which grind it to the consistency of fine powder. The finely ground powder is agitated in a water and reagents solution and is then transported to flotation cells. Air is pumped into the cells producing a froth, which carries the copper mineral to the surface but not the waste rock, or tailings.Recovered copper, with the consistency of froth, is filtered and dried to produce copper concentrates with an average copper content of approximately 24%. Concentrates are then sent by trucks or by railroad to the La Caridad smelter or to the Guaymas port, at Sonora, for exporting.As part of the expansion program for this unit, in 2013 we completed the construction of the first molybdenum plant with an annual production capacity of 2,000 tons of molybdenum contained in concentrate. The plant was designed to process 1,500 tons of copper-molybdenum concentrates per day with a recovery of approximately 80% of copper and 50% of molybdenum content. The molybdenum plant consists of thickeners, homogenizer tanks, flotation cells, column cells and a holo-flite dryer. The second molybdenum plant was designed to process 3,040 tons of copper-molybdenum concentrates per day for a recovery between 80% and 87% of copper and 60% of molybdenum content. It obtained its first production lot in July 2016 and fully initiated operations in November 2016.The Buenavista unit operates a leaching facility and three SX-EW plants. All copper ore with a grade lower than the mill cut-off grade of 0.38%, but higher than 0.25%, is delivered to the leach dumps. A cycle of leaching and resting occurs for approximately five years in the run-of-mine dumps and three years for the crushed leach material. There are three irrigation systems for the dumps and eleven dams for the pregnant leach solution (PLS). Plant I has four solvent extraction tanks with a nominal capacity of 18,000 liters per minute of PLS and 54 electrowinning cells and has a daily production capacity of 30 tons of copper cathodes with 99.999% purity. Plant II has five trains of solvent extraction with a nominal capacity of 62,000 liters per minute of PLS and 220 cells distributed in two bays and has a daily production capacity of 120 tons of copper cathodes with 99.9% purity. Plant III has three trains of solvent extraction with a nominal capacity of 167,100 liters per minute of PLS and 270 cells distributed in two bays and has a daily production capacity of 328 tons of copper cathodes with 99.9% purity. The plant produces copper cathodes of LME grade A.
The mineralised zones on the Cobre Panam property are examples of copper-gold-molybdenum porphyry deposits. Supergene mineralisation Oxidation of sulphides near the surface weathering profile has leached copper from the present-day saprolite. Copper has been weakly and irregularly re-precipitated in the upper zones of the deposits. Secondary sulphides are dominantly chalcocite with minor covellite and rare native copper. These secondary minerals occur as fracture infills, coatings on primary sulphide minerals and disseminations. Where these sulphides have been oxidised, malachite is the main copper oxide mineral.Notably absent across the majority of the Cobre Panam deposits is the presence of a significant zone of enrichment. It is interpreted that this is likely due to removal by erosion of a previously welldeveloped phyllic alteration zone which may have overlain these deposits. Phyllic alteration zones are suitable host rocks for re-precipitation of copper as they can sufficiently neutralise the acidic fluids required for leaching. A well-developed phyllic alteration zone is developed at Brazo, which accompanies a significant secondary copper sulphide mineralisation zone.Hypogene mineralisation Hypogene mineralisation within the granodiorite and various porphyry lithologies consists of disseminated sulphides, micro-veinlets, fracture fillings, veinlets and quartz-sulphide stockworks. Copper mineralisation occurs as chalcopyrite with lesser bornite. Throughout all deposits the proportion of bornite relative to chalcopyrite appears to increase with depth. Molybdenite is present in quartz B veinlets (Gustafson and Hunt, 1975). Pyrite is ubiquitous but the tenor increases in association with phyllic and chlorite-silica alteration compared to other alteration assemblages. Within the phyllic alteration zone, pyrite occurs as disseminations and within D veinlets (Gustafson and Hunt, 1975) with quartz. Minor specularite and magnetite mineralisation occurs as dissemination and veinlets in all deposits. Mineralisation on the contacts between the andesite and feldspar-hornblende-quartz porphyry can reach high copper tenor in zones of biotite hornfels. Chalcopyrite is the dominant sulphide with minor pyrite and rare bornite, occurring in veinlets, blebs and disseminations. This style of mineralisation is often cross-cut by quartz-sulphide veining. Botija The Botija deposit is located in the northeast area of the Cobre Panam concession. Botija is hosted in several feldspar-quartz-hornblende porphyry dykes (up to four) which range in thickness from 20 m to 200 m, and which have intruded the granodiorite and andesite host rocks. In general, the dip of the more distinct dykes is approximately 70 to the north. Two irregular, keel shaped andesite roof pendants of approximately 500 m in diameter have been identified at Botija (Rose et al, 2012), separated by approximately 300 m and reaching depths of between 200 m to 300 m. A smaller pendant, up to 250 m along strike and extending to a depth of 150 m sits to the north of the deposit. ColinaThe Colina deposit is focused on a 3.0 km long by 1.2 km wide feldspar-quartz-hornblende porphyry sill and dyke complex (lopolith) that trends east-southeast. The majority of the feldspar-quartz-hornblende porphyry comprises of 50 m to 200 m thick sills that dip shallowly to the north and are often interconnected by dykes. Valle GrandeThe Valle Grande deposit is located to the southeast of Colina and is 3.2 km long and 1 km wide, striking northwest-southeast . The deposit is focussed on an irregular feldspar-quartz-hornblende porphyry lopolith. BalboaMineralisation at Balboa is dominantly hosted by a feldspar-quartz-hornblende porphyry that intrudes the adjacent andesite at a low to moderate angle, emanating from the north-northwest. Mineralisation is best developed in the central portion of the porphyry but weakens towards the contacts with the andesite. The porphyry can locally be described as a crowded feldspar porphyry, with variable percentages of feldspar and lesser quartz phenocrysts which range in size from 1 mm to 4 mm. MedioMedio is located immediately east-northeast of the Colina deposit and 2 km northwest of the Botija deposit. Drilling has delineated a 1.3 km by 800 m area of low to moderate grade porphyry mineralisation. Mineralisation is associated with silicified and sericitised porphyritic intrusive rocks and brecciated andesite volcanics. Copper tenor appears to be strongly correlated to vein and fracture intensity. Botija AbajoBotija-Abajo is approximately 2.5 km southeast of Botija. Drilling, completed mainly by PTC identified two deposit areas, Botija Abajo East and Botija Abajo West. Mineralisation is primarily located within feldspar-quartz-porphyry with some mineralisation extending into the andesitic tuffs. BrazoThe Brazo deposit is located approximately 3 km south-southeast of Botija. Copper and gold mineralisation was identified in a feldspar-quartz porphyry with dominant sericite alteration. The Brazo deposit has an approximate area of 600 m by 700 m and remains open to the east, northeast and at depth.
Mining at Cobre Panama involves ultraclass scaled mining equipment and conventional open pit methods at up to approximately 83 Mbcm of ore and waste mined per annum. The multiple pits will be mined in an optimized sequence and in phases, with ore crushed in-pit and conveyed overland to the nearby processing plant. Each of the Cobre Panam deposits is amenable to large scale, conventional open pit mining methods comprising of typical drill and blast, shovel and haulage truck techniques.At the end of 2020, four rope shovels, three ultraclass loaders and thirty ultraclass trucks were operating in the Botija Pit. The Botija pit will be mined first, followed by the Colina and Media pits. Mining in the Valle Grande and BABR pits will commence towards the end of mining of the Colina pit, with the Balboa pit being mined last. The crusher feed is expected to ramps up to 85 Mtpa in 2021 and ultimately to 100 Mtpa in 2023 at which rate it remains until 2041 before dropping to 75Mtpa between 2042 and 2054. The overall life of mine strip ratio (tonnes) is 1:1.Building upon the technologies developed at other FQM operations, the Project features in-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC). Blasted ore will be hauled to IPCC installations strategically located within the open pits. These installations will be near surface at the outset, but will be moved deeper into the pits as mining proceeds over time. In-pit conveyors will be extended to suit and these will converge on surface at a central transfer station discharging to a permanent overland conveyor connecting to the plant site.Trolley-assisted haulageTrolley-assisted haulage is a concept that is being adopted during the early life of operations. The primary truck haulage fleet is being delivered trolley-assist ready (TA). Additional pit ramp width has been included in the detailed pit phase designs to allow for the physical placement of transformers and catenary wire poles . In places, these ramps could be extended onto the waste dumps.Waste dumping The planned waste dumps (referred to as waste rock storage facilities, WRSF) are located surrounding the various pits, wherever space dictates, and in areas that have been largely sterilised by exploratory drilling. The dump profiles have been designed with a 32 batter angle, a 30 m batter height, 26 m width berms, and minimum 55 m wide ramps at 1:10 gradient. The overall angle of each ultimate dump slope is approximately 22.Drilling and blastingNear-surface saprolite material is being mined essentially as free-dig. As and when required, bench development that requires blasting will be blasted on bench heights of between 5 and 10 m and using small diameter blast holes.Below this horizon, production drilling and blasting will take-place in rock conditions requiring a range of drilling/charging patterns and powder factors. Due to the mix of large and medium sized rotary drills there will be large and medium diameter holes used to blast ore and waste.High and medium grade ore is preferentially direct fed to the crushers. However, some of this tonnage must be mined and stockpiled and hence, high and medium grade ore stockpiles are considered to be active throughout the mine life.Long term low grade ore and saprock ore stockpiles are developed over the life of the mine and are not reclaimed until the final years of operations.
Mining is open-pit, using a fleet of ultraclass electric shovels and ultraclass haul trucks. Four in-pit semi-mobile primary crushers feed two overland conveyors to the secondary crushers and main processing complex. The three 28 megawatt SAG mills and four 16.5 megawatt ball mills installed at Cobre Panama are the largest installed anywhere in the world, except for Sentinel. Cobre Panamas eighth mill came on line in mid-December 2019, providing additional capacity on the third milling train. A series of small debottleneck projects were commissioned during 2020, targeting to an annualized throughput of 85 million tonnes for 2021. Mill throughput for the month of December 2019 was 6.6 million tonnes and during December 2020 was 6.2 million tonnes. The Cobre Panama Technical Report released in March 2019 includes the plan for expansion of Cobre Panama from 85 Mtpa to 100 Mtpa starting in 2023. Description (Technical Report, March 2019) The initial four primary gyratory crushers located in the Botija Pit are semi-mobile in-pit installations. The primary crushing circuit will comprise up to five semi-mobile, independent, gyratory crushers (3 x ThyssenKrupp KB 63 x 89 and 2 x ThyssenKrupp KB 63 x 130) operating in open circuit. Each crusher will be positioned in-pit and remote from the plant area, and crushed ore will be transported to the plant by an overland conveyor. Crushed ore will be conveyed out of the pit to a surface transfer point, and thence by dual overland conveyors to where it will discharge into either secondary crusher feed bins or bypass direct via apron feeders to a coarse ore stockpile at the concentrator. Two trains of six apron feeders feeders and conveyors will draw ore from below the coarse ore stockpile and feed two parallel wet-grinding lines, each consisting of a 28 MW semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill and two 16.5 MW ball mills, all equipped with gearless drives. A third train of six apron feeders and conveyors will feed to a third SAG mill linked to the other train of ball mills to maximise their usage and enable maintenance of the treatment rate whilst also being able to operate independently. The SAG mill circuits will be closed by a combination of trommel screens followed by washing screens; conveyors will deliver screen oversize to pebble crushers via metal removal systems. A dedicated system for the recycling of reject balls is provided. The pebble crushing circuits will include pebble bins, up to four cone crushers, and a bypass arrangement. Crushed pebbles will return to the SAG mills via the stockpile feed conveyors. The pebble crushing plant is located adjacent to the secondary crushers. A parallel pebble handling circuit provides for standby and direct return of pebbles to stockpile, so as to support crusher and bin maintenance. Discharge from each SAG mill will be cycloned to recover the finished product whilst unfinished product will be evenly split between two ball-mill circuits. The four ball-mill circuits will be closed by hydrocyclones. The finished product from all cyclones will gravitate to two surge tanks, via in-stream particle and chemical samples, prior to pumping to the flotation area. Linked to the ball mill circuits will be two gravity gold recovery plants. A proportion of the ball mill discharge will be pumped to the two gravity gold circuits comprising scalping screens and centrifugal gravity concentrators. The centrifugal gravity concentrators will recover the free gold and direct it to a gold plant for upgrading to bullion. Tails from the gravity concentrators will be returned to the milling circuit.
Ore from the several open pits will be treated in a conventional process plant to produce a copper concentrate which will be pumped to the port, filtered and then loaded onto ships destined for world markets. Additionally, a molybdenum concentrate will be produced which will be filtered and bagged in the process plant before containerisation for export.The processing plant design is based upon a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit to an initial nameplate throughput capacity of 85 Mtpa, expandable to 100 Mtpa capacity.Aside from in-pit primary crushing, the processing plant will include conventional facilities, such as:- crushing (secondary and pebble) and grinding (SAG/ball) to liberate minerals from the ore-froth flotation to separate most of the copper and molybdenum minerals from minerals of no commercial worth- differential flotation to separate the copper and molybdenum minerals from each other- storage of tailings and provision of reclaim water for the process- removal of water from the productsThe process plant is designed to process ore at a head grade of up to 0.65% Cu and 0.023% Mo. These levels are higher than the highest sustained head grades of 0.46% Cu and 88.40 ppm Mo scheduled to be mined in 2023 and 2029, respectively, but the design provides the flexibility to accommodate a wide range of head grades over the Project life.FlotationGround slurry will be directed to a flotation circuit where a bulk sulphide concentrate, containing copper, molybdenum, gold and silver values, will be collected and concentrated in a rougher followed by cleaner flotation. A primary high grade concentrate from the first rougher cell will be collected and cleaned directly in columns to produce a final product. The balance of concentrate from the remainder of the rougher cells will be collected, fed into three regrind mills, and then cleaned in two stages of mechanical cells followed by a one column stage to produce a final bulk concentrate. The rougher and cleaner circuits will be installed to meet ultimate capacity, with no further additions required. The bulk concentrate will be thickened in conventional thickeners (with no flocculant) and pumped to a differential flotation plant, where copper minerals will be depressed, and molybdenite floated into a molybdenum concentrate.Concentrates Copper/gold concentrate piped from the plant site will be filtered, reclaimed using a mechanical reclaimer and loaded by closed conveyors on to bulk ore carriers. The filtrate water will be treated at the port in a water treatment plant or aternatively pumped through a return pipeline to the TMF. The concentrate will be filtered in automatic filter presses and when dry (8% to 9% moisture), will be stored in a covered building with a capacity of 140,000 t. The molybdenum concentrate will be filtered, dried, and packaged in containers for shipment to offshore roasters. Tailings from the molybdenum flotation circuit will constitute the copper concentrate, which will be thickened/pumped/piped approximately 25 km to a filter plant at the Punta Rincn port site. If the molybdenum head grade is unsuitable, the molybdenum separation plant can be readily bypassed.Tailings disposal and process water reclaim For the first approximate fourteen years of the operation, tailings containing silicate, iron sulphide and other minerals from the rougher and cleaning steps will be deposited into the TMF located north of the mine and plant. The TMF is of centre line/downstream construction.The plant is equipped with preparation facilities for all required liquid and solid reagents, including frother, collector, promoter and lime. In addition, a ball charging system is provided in the milling area for feeding balls into the respective mills.
Reserves at December 31, 2020: Mineral Reserve: The actual cut-off grade for the estimate varies due to variable processing recovery, but otherwise reflects a longerterm consensus copper price of $3.00/lb, a molybdenum price of $13.50/lb, a gold price of $1,200/oz and a silver price of $16.00/oz.Mineral Resource: 0.15% Cu cut-off grade.
Ball mill is the key equipment for grinding materials. those grinding mills are widely used in the mining process, and it has a wide range of usage in grinding mineral or material into fine powder, such as gold, ironzinc ore, copper, etc.
JXSC Mining produce reliable effective ball mill for long life and minimum maintenance, incorporate many of the qualities which have made us being professional in the mineral processing industry since 1985. Various types of ball mill designs are available to suit different applications. These could include but not be restricted to coal mining grate discharge, dry type grinding, wet mineral grinding, high-temperature milling operations, stone & pebble milling.
A ball mill grinds ores to an end product size of thirty-five mesh or finer. The feeding material to a ball mill is treated by: Single or multistage crushing and screening Crushing, screening, and/or rod milling Primary crushing and autogenous/semi-autogenous grinding.
Normal feed sizes: eighty percent of six millimeters or finer for hard rocker eighty percent of twenty-five millimeters or finer for fragile rocks (Larger feed sizes can be tolerated depending on the requirements).
The ratio of machine length to the cylinder diameter of cylindrical type ball mills range from one to three through three to one. When the length to diameter ratio is two to one or even bigger, we should better choose the mill of a Tube Mill.
Grinding circuit design Grinding circuit design is available, we experienced engineers expect the chance to help you with ore material grinding mill plant of grinding circuit design, installation, operation, and optimization. The automatic operation has the advantage of saving energy consumption, grinding media, and reducing body liner wear while increasing grinding capacity. In addition, by using a software system to control the ore grinding process meet the requirements of different ore milling task.
The ball mill is a typical material grinder machine which widely used in the mineral processing plant, ball mill performs well in different material conditions either wet type grinding or dry type, and to grind the ores to a fine size.
Main ball mill components: cylinder, motor drive, grinding medium, shaft. The cylinder cavity is partial filling with the material to be ground and the metal grinding balls. When the large cylinder rotating and creating centrifugal force, the inner metal grinding mediums will be lifted to the predetermined height and then fall, the rock material will be ground under the gravity force and squeeze force of moving mediums. Feed material to be ground enters the cylinder through a hopper feeder on one end and after being crushed by the grinding medium is discharged at the other end.
Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.
Ball Mills What Are These Machines and How Do They Work? Short flash video at bottom of page showing batch ball mill grinding in lab. May have to click on browser "Allow Active X blocked content" to play A Ball Mill grinds material by rotating a cylinder with steel grinding balls, causing the balls to fall back into the cylinder and onto the material to be ground. The rotation is usually between 4 to 20 revolutions per minute, depending upon the diameter of the mill. The larger the diameter, the slower the rotation. If the peripheral speed of the mill is too great, it begins to act like a centrifuge and the balls do not fall back, but stay on the perimeter of the mill. The point where the mill becomes a centrifuge is called the "Critical Speed", and ball mills usually operate at 65% to 75% of the critical speed. Ball Mills are generally used to grind material 1/4 inch and finer, down to the particle size of 20 to 75 microns. To achieve a reasonable efficiency with ball mills, they must be operated in a closed system, with oversize material continuously being recirculated back into the mill to be reduced. Various classifiers, such as screens, spiral classifiers, cyclones and air classifiers are used for classifying the discharge from ball mills. This formula calculates the critical speed of any ball mill. Most ball mills operate most efficiently between 65% and 75% of their critical speed. Photo of a 10 Ft diameter by 32 Ft long ball mill in a Cement Plant. Photo of a series of ball mills in a Copper Plant, grinding the ore for flotation. Image of cut away ball mill, showing material flow through typical ball mill. Flash viedo of Jar Drive and Batch Ball Mill grinding ore for testing Return To Crushing Info Page Contact Us Copyright 1994-2012 Mine-Engineer.Com All Rights Reserved