Mining for gold is hazardous. It can result in critical injuries, or in some cases, fatalities. Therefore, its crucial that miners wear maximum protection during an operation. Similar to the precautions a construction company takes, a gold mining company needs to take specific preventive measures. This mostly includes providing safety gear or PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) for miners.
This is a reinforced hat thats used to prevent impact. At the mine site, this impact can be from above, like a falling rock, for example. It can also be lateral, like running into a piece of equipment.
According to the general method of classification, these hats are broken into two categories i.e. Type 1 and Type 2. Based on the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) system, they fall into three classes that include Class E, Class G, and Class C. All definitions are based on protection conferred. For miners, a hat usually comes fitted with a source of light (a torch). Some also have a visor installed. However, this doesnt come cheap.
No doubt, you need to take care of such pieces of equipment to prevent breakage or loss. This is when an asset management solution or equipment tracking software comes in. Companies like Cheqroom and Asset Panda offer similar software solutions.
The key feature of an asset management system is the real-time trackers that use notifications to help you locate tools and other goods. It doesnt matter if youre based in North America, or the UK, with good asset management software, a project manager can schedule the use of certain goods on a mobile app and organize their return using real-time data. Your company will ultimately reduce the chances of losing critical assets, resulting in lower operating costs.
Miners always wear overalls. These come fitted with bright reflectors which provide increased visibility. Sometimes, these reflecting attires come as separate jackets and trousers that are worn over work clothes. Overall, reflectors help prevent workers from bumping into each other in the dark. Whats more, miners can easily walk through the mine site without getting hurt.
Additionally, big mining companies like Alamos gold usually have specially designed clothing for their staff. Such clothing comes with specific add-ons, which confer further assistance. These may include connectors, anchors, and body support. All in all, they provide easy recovery when falling.
Its common knowledge that heavy equipment is used in the mining industry. For this reason, the protection of the miners hands and feet is important to prevent accidents. Thats why the gloves and boots worn at such a workplace are specialized and refortified.
Gloves are usually made of thick leather, plastic, wire mesh, or cotton. The type used is dependent on assigned work. All of these are insulated. Depending on the type, they offer a varying degree of shock absorption. Mining boots are normally high and cover the legs and reach just below the knee.
Although these boots differ based on environment and use, there are similarities. Some have a puncture-resistant sole and provide safety to the toe. Most have steel toes. Regardless of the type, they must also be waterproof and difficult to corrode when exposed to harsh conditions.
As mentioned earlier, mineworkers need protection from hazardous conditions on the job site. They also need sufficient protection from smaller particles that may cause immediate or long-term health issues that are mostly respiratory-related. These particles usually include dust, dirt, gases, chemicals, or radiation.
Its, therefore, important that workers in operating mines wear the correct safety gear for the eyes and lungs. These include approved safety goggles and face masks. Some facilities managers may insist on the use of a face-shield also. Gas masks might also be worn to prevent the inhalation of dust and other harmful matter.
Such masks usually come with suitable filters. These give the right balance of safety and ease of use. Lastly, the noise from the mining tool and machinery can cause hearing loss. Using industrial-grade ear muffs or earplugs immensely aids in preventing auditory problems.
Anyone who pans for gold hopes to be rewarded by the glitter of colors in the fine material collected in the bottom of the pan. Although the exercise and outdoor activity experienced in prospecting are rewarding, there are few thrills comparable to finding gold. Even an assay report showing an appreciable content of gold in a sample obtained from a lode deposit is exciting. The would-be prospector hoping for financial gain, however, should carefully consider all the pertinent facts before deciding on a prospecting venture.
Only a few prospectors among the many thousands who searched the western part of the United States ever found a valuable deposit. Most of the gold mining districts in the West were located by pioneers, many of whom were experienced gold miners from the southern Appalachian region, but even in colonial times only a small proportion of the gold seekers were successful.
Hydrogeochemical prospecting for gold: Groundwater collected from wells, springs, and drill holes may provide clues to the presence of subsurface gold deposits. As groundwater flows through the deposit, minute amounts of gold are leached from the rocks. These can sometimes be detected in groundwater samples collected from wells located down gradient from the deposit. USGS image.
Over the past several centuries the country has been thoroughly searched by prospectors. During the depression of the 1930's, prospectors searched the better known gold-producing areas throughout the Nation, especially in the West, and the little-known areas as well. The results of their activities have never been fully documented, but incomplete records indicate that an extremely small percentage of the total number of active prospectors supported themselves by gold mining. Of the few significant discoveries reported, nearly all were made by prospectors of long experience who were familiar with the regions in which they were working.
The lack of outstanding success in spite of the great increase in prospecting during the depression in the 1930's confirms the opinion of those most familiar with the occurrence of gold and the development of gold mining districts that the best chances of success lie in systematic studies of known productive areas rather than in efforts to discover gold in hitherto unproductive areas.
The development of new, highly sensitive, and relatively inexpensive methods of detecting gold, however, has greatly increased the possibility of discovering gold deposits which are too low grade to have been recognized earlier by the prospector using only a gold pan. These may be large enough to be exploited by modern mining and metallurgical techniques. The Carlin mine near Carlin, Nevada, produced gold from a large low-grade deposit that was opened in 1965 after intensive scientific and technical work had been completed. Similar investigations have led to the discovery of a Carlin-type gold deposit in Jerritt Canyon, Nevada.
Many believe that it is possible to make wages or better by panning gold in the streams of the West, particularly in regions where placer mining formerly flourished. However, most placer deposits have been thoroughly reworked at least twice--first by Chinese laborers, who arrived soon after the initial boom periods and recovered gold from the lower grade deposits and tailings left by the first miners, and later by itinerant miners during the 1930's.
Geologists and engineers who systematically investigate remote parts of the country find small placer diggings and old prospect pits whose number and wide distribution imply few, if any, recognizable surface indications of metal-bearing deposits were overlooked by the earlier miners and prospectors.
Convergent plate boundaries are the plate tectonic setting of many gold deposits. There, magma produced by the melting of descending lithosphere rises as magma chambers and crystallizes close to the surface. Gold in these hot environments is often dissolved in superheated water and carried away from the magma chamber along faults and fractures. The water temperature is very high near the magma chamber but drops with distance. As the water travels farther from the magma chamber, gold starts to crystallize out within the fracture to produce a vein gold deposit. USGS image.
One who contemplates prospecting for gold should realize that a successful venture does not necessarily mean large profits even if the discovery is developed into a producing mine. Although the price of gold has increased significantly since 1967 when the fixed price of $35 an ounce was terminated, the increases in the cost of virtually every supply and service item needed in prospecting and mining ventures have kept profit margins at moderate levels, particularly for the small mine operator. In general, wide fluctuations in the price of gold are not uncommon, whereas inflationary pressures are more persistent. The producer of gold, therefore, faces uncertain economic problems and should be aware of their effects on his operation.
Convergent boundary map: A present-day convergent boundary is located along the Pacific Northwest portion of the United States and extends north along the coast of Canada. Volcanic activity there will produce the gold deposits of the future. Gold deposits being mined today were produced by ancient activity on current plate boundaries or ancient activity on boundaries that are no longer active. USGS image.
Today's prospector must determine where prospecting is permitted and be aware of the regulations under which he is allowed to search for gold and other metals. Permission to enter upon privately owned land must be obtained from the land owner. Determination of land ownership and location and contact with the owner can be a time-consuming chore but one which has to be done before prospecting can begin.
Determination of the location and extent of public lands open to mineral entry for prospecting and mining purposes also is a time consuming but necessary requirement. National parks, for example, are closed to prospecting. Certain lands under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management may be entered for prospecting, but sets of rules and regulations govern entry. The following statement from a pamphlet issued in 1978 by the U.S. Department of the Interior and entitled "Staking a mining claim on Federal Lands" responds to the question "Where May I Prospect?"
"There are still areas where you may prospect, and if a discovery of a valuable, locatable mineral is made, you may stake a claim. These areas are mainly in Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Such areas are mainly unreserved, unappropriated Federal public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) of the U.S. Department of the Interior and in national forests administered by the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Public land records in the proper BLM State Office will show you which lands are closed to mineral entry under the mining laws. These offices keep up-to-date land status plats that are available to the public for inspection. BLM is publishing a series of surface and mineral ownership maps that depict the general ownership pattern of public lands. These maps may be purchased at most BLM Offices. For a specific tract of land, it is advisable to check the official land records at the proper BLM State Office."
Core drilling for gold: Core drilling the Bend massive sulfide deposit, located in the Medford District of the Chequamegon National Forest, Michigan. It is a small, metal-rich sulfide body hosted by Early Proterozoic Penokean volcanics. The mineralized horizon subcrops beneath 100-120 feet of glacial cover, and consists of massive pyrite with varying amounts of chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite-tenantite, bornite, arsenopyrite, chalcocite, and rare gold-silver tellurides. USGS image.
Successful gold mining under present conditions is a large-scale operation, utilizing costly and sophisticated machinery capable of handling many tons of low-grade ore each day. The grizzled prospector with a burro is no longer a significant participant in the search for mineral deposits, and the small producer accounts for only a minor share of the total production of metals including gold.
Gold core at the lab: The core recovered from the Bend massive sulfide deposit (see drilling photo above) was 3" in diameter and was recovered in 10-foot sections. The sections were extracted from the drill stem into plastic bags and taken to a laboratory for careful examination, sampling and analysis. USGS image.
Some degree of success in finding gold still remains for those choosing favorable areas after a careful study of mining records and the geology of the mining districts. Serious prospecting should not be attempted by anyone without sufficient capital to support a long and possibly discouraging campaign of preliminary work. The prospective gold seeker must have ample funds to travel to and from the region he selects to prospect and to support the venture. He must be prepared to undergo physical hardships, possess a car capable of traveling the roughest and steepest roads, and not be discouraged by repeated disappointments. Even if a discovery of value is not found, the venture will have been interesting and challenging.
Locations of important gold-producing districts of the United States are shown in some of the reports of the United States Geological Survey listed at the bottom of this page. Geological surveys of the principal gold-producing States where additional information may be obtained also are listed. Information may be obtained, too, from U.S. Bureau of Mines State Liaison offices located in the capital cities of most States. There are also a large number of layman's books about gold that describe gold deposits and gold prospecting.
Hydraulic placer mining at Lost Chicken Hill Mine, near Chicken, Alaska. The firehose blasts the sediment outcrop, washing away sand, clay, gravel and gold particles. The material is then processed to remove the gold. USGS image.
A placer deposit is a concentration of a natural material that has accumulated in unconsolidated sediments of a stream bed, beach, or residual deposit. Gold derived by weathering or other process from lode deposits is likely to accumulate in placer deposits because of its weight and resistance to corrosion. In addition, its characteristically sun-yellow color makes it easily and quickly recognizable even in very small quantities. The gold pan or miner's pan is a shallow sheet-iron vessel with sloping sides and flat bottom used to wash gold-bearing gravel or other material containing heavy minerals. The process of washing material in a pan, referred to as "panning," is the simplest and most commonly used and least expensive method for a prospector to separate gold from the silt, sand, and gravel of the stream deposits. It is a tedious, back-breaking job and only with practice does one become proficient in the operation.
Many placer districts in California have been mined on a large scale as recently as the mid-1950's. Streams draining the rich Mother Lode region--the Feather, Mokelumne, American, Cosumnes, Calaveras, and Yuba Rivers--and the Trinity River in northern California have concentrated considerable quantities of gold in gravels. In addition, placers associated with gravels that are stream remnants from an older erosion cycle occur in the same general area.
Much of the gold produced in Alaska was mined from placers. These deposits are widespread, occurring along many of the major rivers and their tributaries. Some ocean beach sands also have been productive. The principal placer-mining region has been the Yukon River basin which crosses central Alaska. Dredging operations in the Fairbanks district have been the most productive in the State. Beach deposits in the Nome district in the south-central part of the Seward Peninsula rank second among productive placer deposits of Alaska. Other highly productive placers have been found in the drainage basin of the Copper River and of the Kuskokwim River.
In Montana, the principal placer-mining districts are in the southwestern part of the State. The most productive placer deposit in the State was at Alder Gulch near Virginia City in Madison County. Other important placer localities are on the Missouri River in the Helena mining district. The famous Last Chance Gulch is the site of the city of Helena. There are many districts farther south on the headwaters and tributaries of the Missouri River, especially in Madison County which ranks third in total gold production in the State. Gold has been produced at many places on the headwaters of the Clark Fork of the Columbia River, particularly in the vicinity of Butte. Placer production from the Butte district, however, has been over-shadowed by the total output of byproduct gold recovered from the mining of lode deposits of copper, lead, and zinc.
Idaho was once a leading placer-mining State. One of the chief dredging areas is in the Boise Basin, a few miles northeast of Boise, in the west-central part of the State. Other placer deposits are located along the Salmon River and on the Clearwater River and its tributaries, particularly at Elk City, Pierce, and Orofino. Extremely fine-grained (or "flour") gold occurs in sand deposits along the Snake River in southern Idaho.
Placers in Colorado have been mined in the Fairplay district in Park County, and in the Breckenridge district in Summit County. In both areas large dredges were used during the peak activity in the 1930's.
The most important mining regions of Oregon are in the northeastern part of the State where both lode and placer gold have been found. Placer gold occurs in many streams that drain the Blue and Wallowa Mountains. One of the most productive placer districts in this area is in the vicinity of Sumpter, on the upper Powder River. The Burnt River and its tributaries have yielded gold. Farther to the west, placer mining (particularly dredging) has been carried on for many years in the John Day River valley. In southwestern Oregon, tributaries of the Rogue River and neighboring streams in the Klamath Mountains have been sources of placer gold. Among the main producing districts in this region are the Greenback district in Josephine County and the Applegate district in Jackson County.
Minor amounts of placer gold have been produced in South Dakota (the Black Hills region, particularly in the Deadwood area, and on French Creek, near Custer) and in Washington (on the Columbia and Snake Rivers and their tributaries).
In addition to these localities, placer gold occurs along many of the intermittent and ephemeral streams of arid regions in Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and southern California. In many of these places a large reserve of low-grade placer gold may exist, but the lack of a permanent water supply for conventional placer mining operations requires the use of expensive dry or semidry concentrating methods to recover the gold.
In the eastern States, limited amounts of gold have been washed from some streams draining the eastern slope of the southern Appalachian region in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Many saprolite (disintegrated somewhat decomposed rock that lies in its original place) deposits in this general region also have been mined by placer methods. Small quantities of gold have been mined by placer methods in some New England States. Additional placer deposits may be discovered in the East, but prospecting will require substantial expenditures of time and money. The deposits probably will be low grade, difficult to recognize, and costly to explore and sample. Moreover, most of the land in the East is privately owned, and prospecting can be done only with the prior permission and agreement of the land owner.
Lode gold occurs within the solid rock in which it was deposited. Areas likely to contain valuable lode deposits of gold have been explored so thoroughly that the inexperienced prospector without ample capital has little chance of discovering a new lode worth developing. Most future discoveries of workable lode gold ore probably will result from continued investigations in areas known to be productive in the past. The districts in which such new discoveries of gold may be possible are too numerous to be listed in detail in this pamphlet. Some of the famous districts are: in California, the Alleghany, Sierra City, Grass Valley, and Nevada City districts, and the Mother Lode belt; in Colorado, the Cripple Creek, Telluride, Silverton, and Ouray districts; in Nevada, the Goldfield, Tonopah, and Comstock districts; in South Dakota, the Lead district in the Black Hills; and in Alaska, the Juneau and Fairbanks districts. Deposits in these districts generally are gold-quartz lodes.
Prospecting for lode deposits of gold is not the relatively simple task it once was because most outcrops or exposures of mineralized rock have been examined and sampled. Today's prospector must examine not only these exposures, but also broken rock on mine dumps and exposures of mineralized rock in accessible mine workings.
Gold, if present, may not be visible in the rock, and detection will depend on the results of laboratory analyses. Usually, samples of 3 to 5 pounds of representative mineralized rock will be sent to a commercial analytical laboratory or assay office for assay. Obviously, knowledge about the geological nature of gold deposits and particularly of the rocks and deposits in the area of interest will aid the prospector.
Found in Bulgaria are some of the oldest gold artifacts known to mankind, in the Varna Necropolis, a collection of graves built between 4700 and 4200 BC. This finding, dating back nearly 7000 years, provides evidence of the first civilization to use gold mining equipment. Some archeologists claim the Sakdrisi site in southern Georgia, which dates to roughly 4000 BC, is the worlds first gold mine.
In the 19th century, gold rushes occurred around the globe and people migrated to different regions hoping to strike it rich. The Victorian Gold Rush took place in Victoria, Australia, between 1851 and the late 1860s, and the Second Boer War took place in South Africa between 1899 and 1902. In America, the famous California Gold Rush took place in 1949, and discovery of Nevada's Carlin Trend,North America's largest gold depository,took placein 1961.
Since the beginning of civilization, humans have mined around 6 billions troy ounces of gold. Today, 2.5 percent of all gold production happens in Nevada, making it one of the primary regions on earth. As of 2017, China produced the most gold per year at 429 metric tons, followed by Australia, and then Russia. However, there's still a lot of gold out there, and you can join in the gold mining industry by investing in basic gold mining equipment.
There are two basic steps to gold mining: prospecting and production. "Prospecting" refers to the actual search in a certain area for valuable minerals, and "production," also known as mining, is the physical act of removing the gold from where you found it. Since different equipment exists for prospecting and mining, this article explores, briefly, equipment used for prospecting, and then focuses, primarily, on gold mining equipment.
How do you find gold? In the gold mining industry, theres a lot of value in learning from others who have gone before you. No one ever gets all the gold out of any one location. So, try going to where gold exists in abundance. Consider this: the California Gold Rush only removed a small percentage of the gold thats out there. That's right.
There are areas in California that are still open to recreational prospecting, including the Auburn State Recreation Area and the South Yuba Recreation lands. Once you get your feet wet in an area proven to have gold, you can move on to other areas closer to home. After mastering prospecting and gold-mining techniques, you might even want to look for gold in your own back yard.
Some people say, Gold is where you find it. What this means is you have to learn what to look for. First, understand that the way water moves in rivers and streams determines where gold deposits might settle. Next, you need to learn why gold concentrates in certain areas, and then search those areas.
Once youve selected a specific waterway for mining, youll want to pick specific points to search. Since it is impractical to search the entire stream or river, there are ways to read a waterway to determine the most likely places to find gold. The following describes how to find those places.
The first thing to know is gold is heavy. Its about 19 times heavier than the same amount of water and 6 times heavier than solid material found in streams and rivers. So, anything that slows the movement of water is likely to trap gold deposits. Things that slow down moving water are:
Water on the downriver side of obstacles will move slower, and this is where heavier gold will settle. When looking at a chosen waterway, begin by searching for natural dams where gold may have collected. Another place that collects heavier objects in a waterway is inside bends, places where water naturally slows down. Heavy objects will often form a bar at these points, and the upside of a bar inside bends is a great place to look for gold.
Once gold has settled in a stream, over time, it works its way down layers of soil and settles in bedrock. A great location for gold is in the material coating bedrock under a stream. Choose a location on the inside a bend where there is an obstruction and then dig to the bedrock. Sifting the soil coating bedrock, usually, will produce gold.
Learn to delay the excitement of seeing gold for the first time and you will have more gold-filled dirt to take home with you. Once you get better at choosing locations, and especially if you find a proven location, its best to spend your time digging and removing dirt, rather than sifting and cleaning it on site. Delay celebrating and get as much dirt as possible to take home. Once you get home, sift and clean the gold youve found.
Another great place to look for gold is in tall grass growing above an inside bend. Grass acts like a sieve and the largest gold pieces end up at the roots of grass. They often call this kind of gold oat gold. The pieces might be smaller than gold found in other places, but there could be a lot.
If you want to invest a little in your endeavor, you can purchase a metal detector designed to find gold. This gold mining equipment can cut down on the time spend hunting, but a mid-level detector can cost about $600.
When considering getting involved in gold prospecting and mining, make sure you learn and follow the rules. There are certain places where prospecting is legal and others where it is not. Many prospecting clubs exist and joining one can help ensure you are following rules. For examples, most sites require that you refill any holes you have dug, and that you do not destroy local plant life. Learn the rules before you head out with your gold mining equipment.
Once youve finished prospecting and have a location where you know there is gold, you will need gold mining equipment. What you use will depend on the size of your operation. If you are working in the gold industry, you will have industrial gold mining equipment. If you are mining on your own as a hobby, youll need smaller, personal gold mining equipment. Lets look at both.
If you want to use industrial mining equipment, make sure you have the proper training. If working for a business, they should provide needed training. However, if you purchased industrial gold mining equipment for a personal claim, be certain you know what you are doing. Safety should always come first.
Miners use drills for underground mining to create access holes for descending underground, or to place explosive charges to bring material to the surface. The drill miners choose depends on how and what is being mined.
Blasting tools create an explosion to blast away chunks of material to access minerals. Blasting can also remove chunks of unwanted materials that are keeping other machines or people from getting to a seam of wanted materials. In underground and open pit mines, miners use both drilling and blasting tools, often together. They use drills to place blasting tools at the right depth and in the right place.
Earth-moving machines move around large amounts of materials. They might haul material after blasting, move other materials allowing access to seams of minerals, dig underground mines, or get down to the bedrock where minerals might exist.
Crushing equipment moves materials around an underground mine. Miners use this equipment to keep the flow of materials going at an efficient rate, and to save money. It is easier to remove crushed rocks rather than heavy chunks, so crushing equipment saves time and effort.
A sluice box is a way to sift through raw material more quickly. Essentially, its automated panning. These machines used to be large and heavy in the early days of panning, but are now lightweight and easier to use. If youre serious about mining, they are worth checking out.
A higher quality sluice box, high banker boxes have a water pump allowing more material to move through faster. These boxes recycle water so you dont have to rely on water flow in the river. They recover more gold than basic models.
If you arent going into the professional gold mining industry, but are looking for a hobby or a part-time job to bring in a little extra money, consider joining a mining club to help you once you begin your prospecting journey. The club will help you learn about personal gold mining equipment, but, for now, lets take a quick look at what you will need.
There are lots of different sizes, colors, and options in gold pans. Essentially, a 14-inch plastic pan is the best size, by far. Color does not matter, however gold shows up better in black. Black sand shows up better in blue or green. There are many new kinds of pans, but a basic pan with sharp, undercut riffles is all you need. Make sure the bottom of the pan is as wide as possible to catch more gold.
You will need a place to store the gold you find. All you need is a waterproof container you can close tightly, such as a 35mm film container. You can purchase containers on the internet, specifically made for holding gold.
The last thing to consider is investing in Gold Lab, a personal system that recovers gold from the concentrate you have refined. A good gold panner can get most of the gold from refined dirt, but a Gold Lab kit will allow you to further refine and recover 100% of your gold.
Once you have your equipment, its time to get in the river to pan for gold. This simple technique mimics what the river does naturally. You recover material, or dirt and place it in the pan, from a river location where you think there might be gold. Then, you shake it in a left-to-right motion underwater to sweep away light materials while causing heavier materials to go to the bottom of the pan.
Take the pan with the riffles on the far side and shake it, vigorously, left and right. This breaks up materials sending heavier items to the bottom. Do not slosh water out of the pan. If you need to, repeat the previous step and break up larger chunks again.
Continue shaking the pan back and forth and keep removing the top layer of lighter materials until you are down to only the heaviest materials, such as coins, BBs, old bullets, buckshot, nails, garnets, black iron rocks and black sand. You should now be able to see gold in the pan when shaking and tilting it forward slightly.
Use a magnet to remove black sand and other metal objects. Keep removing things until only gold remains. Remove the larger gold pieces and save any leftover concentrate. Let it sit for a while so you can recover any remaining pieces of gold that settle.
If you have enjoy the outdoors, and have just a little ambition, you can make a hobby out of gold prospecting and mining. All you need are basic tools that as your gold mining equipment and the willingness to do a little research. Once you decide where to go, or join a mining club to help you find locations, pack up your tools and prospect. It may take practice at panning before you find anything, but once you do, youll love the feeling of satisfaction and discovery. If you find you enjoy the hobby, invest in semi-professional gold mining equipment and see if you can up the amount you discover. Even if you only discover a few flakes, prospecting can be a great way to make new friends, learn about the gold industry, and understand a little about gold prospectors of old. Its an inexpensive hobby, so grab basic gold mining equipment and get started today.
911MPE has for target market what mining professionals consider the pilot-plant scale mining operation or artisanal mining operations with a focus around under 500TPD. Metals you can extract include: gold, silver or other of the precious group as well as the classic base metals; copper, lead, zinc, nickel, molybdenum. Much of our ultra-small scale equipment allows you to process from just a few kilo (pounds) per day and work on your passion for a small budget.
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Below is a video I share on some of my mining consultancy and expertise I offered on site for some clients of my company,Exploits Gold and Consult Company Limited,Kumasi-Ashanti Region of Ghana in the West Africa.
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In 2019, South African authorities granted 19 refining licences, while in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, 26 refineries were either completed or under construction; these refineries increase the likelihood of local beneficiation and can help prevent illegal gold mining or smuggling.
Refiners that are not accredited with international organisation the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA), however, add little value, and export nonoptimally refined gold product and material, with little interest in where the material is sourced or how it is extracted, he stresses.
Some of these new refineries could be destroying value and harming the industry by not complying with responsible sourcing activities, thereby indirectly funding conflict and ensuring that African governments do not receive their rightful royalties.
He adds that being an LBMA-accredited refiner provides assurances that practices and processes in these refineries are aligned to the requirements of international entity the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
This mining is often characterised by human rights violations, money laundering and environmental damages, he states. Illegal mineworkers do not process their material through formal channels, so the material does not form part of Rand Refinerys mining supply chain.
Rand Refinery estimates the value of the legitimate local scrap market to be from 2 t/y to 5 t/y. Gold in the form of scrap from smaller refiners, however, exceeds tens of tons every year. Baijnath maintains that much of this scrap may contain material from illegal miners, illegally mined material from across borders, and stolen gold.
Further, while Rand Refinery previously sourced responsible artisanal and small-scale miner- (ASM-) mined gold in Africa, the companys model allowed for stringent vetting and due diligence when dealing with a subsidiary of the central bank of an African country.
Our requirements, and the need to engage and assist with continuous improvement, designed to protect the host government and ASMs, mean that we will not compromise on standards, and suspend trade if issues are not addressed.
Baijnath suggests that the introduction of an ASM policy locally, if implemented within the required regulatory controls, governance structures and duty of care, has the potential to add to gold volumes.
He asserts that, should such an ASM mechanism be regulated to satisfy LBMA responsible-sourcing requirements, ASM gold could be delivered to the LBMA ecosystem, where it will fetch the highest return and reinforce the tenets of responsible mining.
Our sourcing processes are a key strategic differentiator. We have robust systems and processes, and deal only with credible mines. All the gold received at Rand Refinery can be classified as responsible gold, as it comes from sources that can be verified through tracking and traceability, including geological fingerprinting, explains Baijnath.
The companys gold input is sourced from large-scale gold miners, with some listed mining companies also being shareholders of Rand Refinery. Current shareholder mines and shareholder joint venture operations in Africa comprise 85% of its current sourcing, and other well established local and international mines the bulk of the remaining sources.
Rand Refinerys sourcing from shareholder and nonshareholder mines is aligned to the OECD and complies with the LBMA Responsible Gold Guidance and Responsible Silver Guidance for Good Delivery Refiners.
Every depositor, shareholder or not, has to pass a rigorous onboarding process and due diligence. Changes in the internal or external environment of a previously onboarded customer have to be vetted by a committee, as there have been occasions where depositing customers have been suspended or relationships terminated, owing to noncompliance.
Rand Refinery offers further traceability through the RandPure programme, where it offers products with full certification of origin. A product can be commissioned to be produced from a single point source mine or a blend of responsible mines.
The company sources responsibly mined gold through its programme, which requires site visits and necessary assurances. It also conducts stringent due diligence and continuous monitoring for secondary and recycled gold and requires secondary depositors to undergo suitable third party audits to verify their sourcing practices.
Rand Refinery transacts only on a principal-to-principal basis it only enters into formal agreements with the gold owner. The owner must be a company and not an individual. We can confidently say that all material deposited at Rand Refinery is of known provenance, he concludes.
Edited by: Nadine JamesFeatures Deputy Editor EMAIL THIS ARTICLE SAVE THIS ARTICLE ARTICLE ENQUIRY To subscribe email [email protected] or click here To advertise email [email protected] or click here