pellet making machine x ray

feed pellet making machine - pellet mills latest price, manufacturers & suppliers

feed pellet making machine - pellet mills latest price, manufacturers & suppliers

Near Swad Kolhapur Restaurant, Chikhli, Pune Plot No. 1, Gat No. 1573, Dehu Alandi Road, Shelar Wasti Ambika Bhavan,1st Floor, Opposite Abhinav Vidyalay, Sagarli, MIDC, Phase 2, Dombivli East, Near Swad Kolhapur Restaurant, Chikhli, Pune - 412114, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra

electric pellet machine for sale | 6-16mm diameter

electric pellet machine for sale | 6-16mm diameter

Pellet machine for sale produces biomass pellets with various diameters 6-16mm in a quick and efficient way. Beston offers an electric type, which is eco-friendly. When customers choose biomass pellets as fuel, they also choose low-carbon life. We arrange quick shipment for customers. Moreover, we also provide a factory layout plan and other related processing machines. Just leave your need for us.

Many biomass waste can be made to pellet as the fuel, for example, sawdust, wood, rice husk, straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, peanut shell, branch, furfural residue and manure. Biomass pellet has high Calorific value and small volume. It is easy to transport. Tell us what raw material you plan to make pellets.

Nowadays, pellets have wide applications because of the no-pollution feature. The most major usage of pellets is as fuel. It can be used to heat a living stove, heating stove, industrial boilers, biomass electricity factory, etc. It has a small volume. However, their calorific value is three times even five times than the unpressed biomass.

Generally, this kind of production method is suitable for all of biomass. Biomass powder enters into pelletizing room. And it is distributed evenly around the mould. Besides, it is more environmental-friendly and economical to use electricity as power.

Lubricate the roller bearings automatically in a timed quantification way. It can work in 24 hours without stop. There is no need to add a labor force to maintain it. This part saves manual cost and management cost. The pellet maker machine for sale will have a longer life time.

The whole process is fully sealed, including the feeding process, making process and discharging process. This makes the factory workshop clean. Besides, in the pelletizing process, pellets can break and discharge automatically.

Two factors influence the selection of mold. The first one is the raw materials. Biomass has a different density and tenacity. For getting good pellets with a suitable diameter, consult us in advance. The second one is the final application of pellets. Normally, the fuel is widely applied in daily life. The demand for pellets size is different. If you have doubt when Using this pellet manufacturing machine, contact us to get more details.

Check every parts whether in the right place; Make sure there is nothing else in the silo and granulation room; Check electric pellet machine, Jiaolong silo, dial and conveyor whether in the right direction.

When first running, use wood chips with waste engine oil to make pellet. And feed wood chips before pellet production every time. Besides, when production finishes, investors also need to feed wood chips with engine oil. This step make sure that mould is filled with oily materials.

Turn on the following device in order: gear pump, main motor, butter pump, feeding motor, jiaolong motor. At first, justify rotary speed of Jiaolong engine to the lowest condition. Then turn up its rotary speed gradually.

Finally, after the production process and feeding oily materials, turn off the following device in order: feeding motor, Jiaolong motor, main motor, gear pump, setting gauge, butter pump. View the following videos about this pellets machine.

Pellet making machine for sale with the integrated system has high efficiency in a short time. Because of the cyclone dust collector, there is no dust flying in the manufacturing site. Beston offers ring die type with electricity consumption. Besides, we also provide other related machines, like crushing machines, drying machines, cooling machines, packing machines at an inexpensive price. Welcome to see these machines in a Beston manufacturing factory.

video: how to press xrf pellets using an automatic hydraulic press | spectroscopy guides - specac

video: how to press xrf pellets using an automatic hydraulic press | spectroscopy guides - specac

This video was prepared at Specac, to demonstrate how efficient, easy-to-use and powerful the Atlas Autotouchautomatic hydraulic press is for the preparation of XRF pellets for X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis.

This process was inspired by the University of Ghana, who used the Manual Hydraulic Press to prepare cocoa powder for analysis. Apparently, cocoa powder can protect the liver during high-dosage malaria treatment.

We have published a series on XRF #SpectroscopySolutions content which focuses on the various applications of our sample preparation equipment, specifically in the field of X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy.

china pellet making machine, pellet making machine manufacturers, suppliers, price

china pellet making machine, pellet making machine manufacturers, suppliers, price

China manufacturing industries are full of strong and consistent exporters. We are here to bring together China factories that supply manufacturing systems and machinery that are used by processing industries including but not limited to: animal feed machine, pellet machine, pellet mill. Here we are going to show you some of the process equipments for sale that featured by our reliable suppliers and manufacturers, such as Pellet Making Machine. We will do everything we can just to keep every buyer updated with this highly competitive industry & factory and its latest trends. Whether you are for group or individual sourcing, we will provide you with the latest technology and the comprehensive data of Chinese suppliers like Pellet Making Machine factory list to enhance your sourcing performance in the business line of manufacturing & processing machinery.

checklist for the perfectly pressed xrf pellet | spectroscopy guides - specac

checklist for the perfectly pressed xrf pellet | spectroscopy guides - specac

The process of pressing sample pellets suitable for XRF spectroscopic measurementcoversmilling/grinding your sample to a suitablefineness, mixing the powdered samplewith x-ray powder or similar binder, inserting the mixture into a pellet die and finally compressing the die at pressuresbetween 15 and 40 tons.

The range of sample types for X-Ray Fluorescence analysis is potentially endless. Therefore, although these guidelines offer advicefor producing well-pressed samples, they are subject to change, according to the particular sample being analyzedand its individualXRF sample preparation needs. But whatever happens,the key to all analysis sample preparation is consistency in the preparation procedures.

The sample requirements of the spectrometer should be determined.To produce a sample for XRF analysis, you will need to know what size sample the XRFspectrometer will accept. Common sizes for round XRF pellets are 32 mm or 40 mm diameter.

Powders to be pressed should be as fine as possible but also with consistent particle size.This provides an optimaldistribution and evenness of any x-ray fluorescence sample andtherefore offers better accuracy, repeatability and consistency of results.

It is possible to directly press a sample in a die and depending on the sample holder of the spectrometer, it may be possible to use the pressed sample as it is. However, the most common method is to use a crushable aluminium support cup. These are low cost cups made from thin aluminium.

The cup should be a good fit in the die.Upon placing the cup in the die, the milled sample is then placed into the cup. The die is assembled and pressed. The aluminium cup is crushed and acts as a support for the sample. The sample can then be placed into the sample holder of the spectrometer.

Some spectrometers offer an automated loading system or a tool that can be used to load the sample. In these cases, samples are pressed into a metal ring. There are different rings available and this againdepends on the requirements of the spectrometer.

The most common is the 51.5 mm diameter ring which has an inside diameter of 35 mm into where the sample is pressed. In this case, a special ring die is needed which can hold the ring as the sample is pressed. Also, in situations where many samples are to be prepared for analysis at a later time, the rings offer good protection for the sample.

All dies should be constructed from a high-quality stainless steel. The pressing face used to contact the sample as it is pressed (referred to as die pellets) should be perfectly flat and smooth, commonly polished to a mirror finish.

The pressing procedure can be simply described as a load applied to the sample in order to compress it so that the powder will bind and form a solid pellet. If a foodstuff is to be analyzed, the load needed may be very low, perhaps as low as 2 tons. Pharmaceutical products may require a higher load to make the sample bind, perhaps 20 tons. Slag waste, mineral ores and fillers used in industrial manufacturing, depending on their makeup, may require a higher load of 25 tons upward.

However, some materials in all these categories may not bind at all or break up very easily even when supported in a cup. It is with samples like these that a wax binder could be considered at the milling stage. Wax binders are available in powder or tablet form.

If you want more information on using the Atlas Manual Hydraulic Press, Autotouch Automatic Hydraulic Press or Evacuable Pellet Dies for XRF pellet preparation,get in touch for a price and demonstration.

pcb x-ray machine | pcb x-ray inspection - uni x-ray 2021 updated

pcb x-ray machine | pcb x-ray inspection - uni x-ray 2021 updated

X-ray is widely used to measure the quality of electronic components because it can penetrate and generate images of the inside of devices it passes through, thus, clearly detecting the internal state of electronic components. For Complex electronic components, we can adjust the x-ray tubes angle, voltage, current, image contrast, and brightness to obtain effective image information.

For example, after BGA is welded, it is impossible to observe and check the welding quality of all soldered joints by traditional visual inspection method, especially under the belly of the welded joint, the AOI (automatic optical inspection) equipment cant be used to evaluate the appearance of soldered joints. X-ray inspection equipment can only be used to inspect the physical structure of BGA soldered joints.

The AX9400 is a top-of-the-range X-ray machine which incorporates the million high density FPD detector and 90-130KV 3-5m X-ray source. It is a full 360 rotation equipment which operates from any direction.

AX8400 X-ray machine, a cutting-edge equipment designed with high resolution and a high magnification features. It comes packed with special inspection capabilities, and is quite adapted for PCB, BGA and battery testing.

PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is the indispensable part used in the manufacturing of electronic products. Hence, you should rely on high-precision machinery and testing equipment to complete the excellent control of PCBA. For the accurate and high-performance testing, you need equipment such as AOI inspector, component cutting foot machine, wave soldering, X-ray machine, ICT test fixture, FCT test fixture, aging test stand, etc..

X-ray test is used to detect the sample that cannot be detected by the appearance of the position. X-ray penetrates the material of different densities due to the change in its light intensity. The resulting contrast effect can form an image to show the internal structure of the object to be measured. Hence, this X-ray test can detect the problem areas within the object to be tested without destroying its properties.

Uni X-ray was established in 2002 and has become a national high-tech X-ray equipment supplier engaged in the research of precision X-ray technology as well as the development and manufacture of X-ray intelligent inspection equipment. Our technology and equipment are widely used in testing SMT, BGA, CSP, Flip-Chip, IC semiconductor components, connectors, wire, photovoltaic components, batteries, ceramic products, and other electronic products. Our manufactured equipment is ergonomic, easy to use, cost-effective, reliable, highly qualitative, long-lasting. Our equipment is used by many domestic and foreign companies, including PCB manufacturing companies for testing services.

For the last few years, area array packages or devices such as QFNs, BGAs, CSPs, and flip chips are extensively used in all sectors like industrial, aerospace, military industry, communication, etc., where solder joints will get hidden under the package. Hence it will not be possible for traditional inspection devices to inspect PCB devices with more accuracy. Additionally, the appearance of surface mount technology (SMT) that helps in making both leads and packages become smaller. Components like PCBs have got more density with their hidden solder joints and buried holes.

X-ray inspection technology is otherwise called as automated X-ray inspection. This technology can find unseen features in any target object. Starting from the medical sector to aerospace manufacture, X-ray inspection is widely used to detect manufacturing errors. Compared to other inspection methods, X-ray can effectively penetrate into the inner packages, and inspect the quality of those hidden solder joints.

When it comes to PCB inspection, X-ray test is vastly carried out during the PCB assembly process to test the quality of PCBs. This is one of the major steps carried out by the PCB manufacturers to assure its quality. It can quickly and accurately detect the hidden defects without causing any damage to the target object.

X-ray imaging test works with the help of X-ray photons, which are passed through the target material kept on the operation platform. The resultant rays will be collected on the other side through a detector, which results in an image formation. Based on the differential absorption principle, the X-ray photons pass through the target object in a differential manner depending on its physical properties, such as density, atomic weight, and thickness.

Usually, heavier objects absorb more X-rays, so that they can develop into an image, whereas lighter objects are more transparent. Since different objects has unique characteristics, different amounts of X-ray photons are collected on the other end of the target object, to form a final image.

The attributes such as an increase in density, size reduction, and intense complexity of PCBs and their components have made it nearly impossible for traditional inspection methods to detect intricate defects thoroughly. The traditional inspection methods such as optical, ultrasonic, and thermal imaging methods are relatively not effective in inspecting the components especially PCBs. This is where an X-ray inspection test can take detailed images, compared to other tests.

X-ray inspection tests can study the wetting features of solder on pads beneath a component as well as the characteristics that remain hidden due to the high density of the printed circuit board (PCB).

X-ray inspection systems for PCBs, BGAs, and CSPs are divided into two categories. The inspection systems may be 2D or 3D, which may be operated either online or offline. Let us go through them in detail:

It shows the two-dimensional images from both sides of the PCB at the same time, thereby delivering a clear picture of the boards components. This mechanism is similar to the traditional medical X-ray, which was used to view the bone fractures. These 2D systems can be operated either online or offline.

It creates the three-dimensional image of a PCB by forming a series of 2D cross-sections. This mechanism is similar to the CT scan used in the medical industry. This system also works using the laminography method, where it combines the cross-sections and eliminates the images from other sections to build up a specific area precisely. The CT method of the 3D system can only work offline due to its complex algorithms. But the laminography method can be used both online and offline.

Several X-ray devices are used online for data collection and comparison. Most of these devices are put after the reflow oven. Hence, it will be easier to process enormous quantities of complex PCBs, based on the additional cost and safety elements. However, the online operations will slow down the efficiency of the X-ray machine, thereby consuming more time and expenses. It is the slowest part of the assembly line, where the ability of the fabrication line becomes low.

All types of X-ray devices can be operated offline to achieve panel inspection and sampling inspection. This operation type is comparatively quick to run. It is possible to inspect PCBs conveniently at any stage in the assembly line. Hence, it is less cost-effective with higher productivity.

Selecting the perfect system for your operation must be done carefully. Opting for a 2D or 3D system with online or offline abilities usually depends on the measure of the target product inspected, the expected quality of the inspection, as well as the quantity of time required to complete the inspection process.

The X-ray inspection system with CT function is usually operated offline due to the requirement of more 2D images and complicated algorithms. Hence, this CT X-ray inspection system is used only in the less significant professional research areas. Other 2D and 3D systems were instructed with the best image at the least time in order to cut the cost of the inspection.

The detector is the major part of the PCB X-ray inspection system. It converts invisible X-rays into visible light. Hence, it is possible to view the images easily through the naked eye. By sensing the intensity of the X-ray beam passing through the object, the detector produces varied black and white values (gray levels) on the image. That is why if the detector gets damaged, its replacement costs will be tremendous.

Opt for the open tube or closed tube type, which is correlated with the resolution and life expectancy of the inspection devices. The more the resolution, the more will be the view of intricate and delicate details. If you inspect the target at a large scale, then its not an issue to choose the device with a relatively low resolution. As far as CSPs and BGAs are concerned, the resolution of 2m or smaller is needed.

The target type plays a vital role in influencing the distance between the sample and the X-ray tube focus. This type will eventually influence the magnifying level of inspection devices. Hence, the target type should be reflective or penetrating.

The penetrating ability of the X-ray tube is always proportional to the voltage. Hence when the voltage is large, it is easier to inspect the objects with higher density and thickness. If the inspected target is single-sided boards, select the devices with low voltage. Similarly, if the inspected target is multi-layer boards, select the high voltage. At a certain voltage level, the image definition is proportional to the X-ray tube power.

The spatial resolution is defined as the ability to spatially differentiate the structure of objects. In case if the user is checking an object for any spatial defect, there will be a change in the adjacent position within the object. This is considered as a defect between two lines. Since each line has a geometric shadow (vignette) while viewing under the X-ray beam, you can find the defects where the geometric shadows (vignettes) of two adjacent lines overlap exactly.

For example, consider that there is a BGA crack between the tin ball and the pad. The pad is geometrically shaded in X-rays, whereas the BGA ball is geometrically shaded in X-rays. Hence when the geometric shadows of the BGA ball overlap exactly with the geometric shadows of the pad, the crack cannot be seen.

The major purpose of the X-ray inspection system is to detect the defects by localizing and magnifying objects. The greater the geometric magnification, the greater will be the ability to inspect the minute defects in a target object. For example, a 5m defect with a geometric magnification of less than 1000X is not visible in the X-ray image. Geometric magnification is also called as optical magnification.

Maximum geometrical magnification of the system = (maximum distance of the detector + maximum distance of the ray tube) / Minimum object distance (the nearest distance of the ray tube to the object i.e. FOD) (0.25mm for FEINFOCUS)

Method:Close both front and back doors to see whether the contact indicator of the relay is ignited. If the contact indicator light on the relays KA2(front door) and KA3(back door) is on, the safety induction switch is effective. If the indicator light is not on, the safety induction switch is considered as unacceptable.

Method: Once when the total power is turned on, click on the software, and shake the joystick on the comfort to see whether the motion of X-axis and Y-axis is normal. Click both up and down buttons of the X-ray tube and the image detector on the software interface to check if the two axes are moving properly.

Method: This test is done to control the movement of each axis to the position of the equivalent limit sensor. When the indicator light of the sensor is switched on, the movement will halt. Check whether the computer is booting properly.

Method: First, turn off the device as well as disconnect the power supply. Open the back door, lubricate each screw rod with grease, and run it over and over to lubricate while cleaning the portions of the inner wall. In the end, open the side door and wipe it with a clean cloth.

If you are planning to buy a good camera, obviously the one with a higher pixel rate, say 24MP (megapixel), is better than the one with say 15MP, right? If this is the case for photography, choosing the best qualitative X-ray machine can be even more complicated. A lot of physics along with clever software is involved. The factors that can affect image quality in the PCB X-ray machine may include voltage, power, spot size, the field of view, the proximity of the X-ray source to the target object, as well as the detector resolution. Consider voltage as an example; a higher voltage (say 160kV) system will have greater X-ray penetration ability, compared to the lower voltage one (say 130kV). The higher voltage can unfavorably affect the image contrast and henceforth the quality. In that case, how can you determine the quality? The best practical solution is to pick several typical sample assemblies and create the X-ray system. Determining the quality of an image can be a subjective opinion. The good news is that you can very well find the systems targeted at PCB assemblies that can deliver image quality ranging from very good to excellent. Perhaps, this is connected more with the inspection set up rather than the technical competence of its components.

If you would like to check any missing solder balls or shorts between them, then 2D can be fine. Nevertheless, tilting will help in getting a better view if there are any components concealing the target area of interest. Hence, 3D will be used for an extensive detailed qualitative study of the target object.

Several X-ray systems allow a grade of automated inspection, like pass/fail criteria through programming sequences of inspections. This strategy helps to operate easily with repetitive inspection, thereby allowing an in line process if needed. Hence you need relevant skills to set it up and perform ad-hoc inspections. Nowadays in the recent X-ray machines, it is easier to interpret the final images easily with the help of varied colors. Though modern X-ray systems are easy to use, the inspector, at times, need to understand the application of all the settings like voltage and contrast settings. Not only that, but the inspector should also be able to interpret the findings which require the knowledge of PCB assembly.

Remember that the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) must be notified in advance before using an X-ray machine. There will be obligations for creating instructions, procedures for use, and involving radiation protection supervisors with advisors. The machine suppliers should provide timely advice, and perform an annual qualitative check on the system.

It is a well-known fact that there are varied types of the X-ray tube. Open tube types are comparatively quick, inexpensive, and easy to replace. Perhaps, you need to spend a few pounds and a couple of hours. But the tube should be replaced every 200-300 hours or so of use. In the case of Closed tube types, they can last for many years. But they are relatively more expensive, where you will spend thousands of pounds. Hence the selection of the best one depends on how much you will be using the system.

Select the X-ray detectors with standard or High Definition flat panels. The flow of X-rays leads to the degradation of detectors over time, say around 20% after ten years. Hence, it is recommended to replace every 8 to 12 years when the machine is in use.

We have the right combination of the technical knowledge with qualified service expertise to provide proper maintenance service on our every X-ray system. If you have any query about our products or services, you can immediately contact us via online chat, phone, or email, so that our professional team will solve them at once.

Uni-Xray has a team of well-experienced engineers to provide timely services for every customer, including consulting services, custom design, equipment qualification, safety inspection service, and so on.

Uni X-ray offers an exceptional range of after-sales services, such as online video instructions and installation guides for our customers to ensure that their new or existing equipment is in safe and good operating mode, with a long life cycle. Additionally, we provide prompt safety inspection with regular maintenance service as per the personalized needs of our customers. These services are also available for X-ray machines delivered by other suppliers.

Once when you share the application details to our team, we will recommend the best X-ray inspection solution for you. At times, a customized solution will be the best, where well work with you to suggest the right X-ray machine that will meet all your requirements. Hence, you can contact our sales and support team to discuss our services at any time as per your convenience.

6 things to consider when making pressed pellets for xrf analysis

6 things to consider when making pressed pellets for xrf analysis

XRF (X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry) is a chemical analysis tool commonly used for the quality control of raw materials and finished products in many industries including cement, mining and industrial minerals. The capabilities of XRF instrumentation have advanced significantly in the past decade in both sensitivity and stability such that they are no longer the most important source of error in an analysis. Sample preparation is now by far the most significant source of error in the analysis of materials by XRF. Viewed from this perspective, it is clear that high quality sample preparation techniques and practices are the key to achieving consistent and reliable analytical results.

One of the most common methods of preparing samples for XRF analysis is by making pressed pellets. This process is particularly popular as it produces high quality results, is relatively quick and is a low cost approach.

The process of making pressed pellets for XRF analysis includes grinding the sample to a fine particle size, mixing it with a binder/ grinding aid in a grinding or mixing vessel, pouring the mixture into a pressing die and pressing the sample at a pressure of between 15 and 35T. The resulting pellet or tablet is then ready for analysis. While this is a common and relatively straightforward approach to preparing samples for XRF analysis, there are several important aspects that should be considered when designing a sample preparation protocol. These include the particle size of the sample, the choice of binder, the dilution ratio, the amount of pressure applied to the sample and the thickness of the final pellet. An additional consideration is sample contamination.

One of the key aspects of preparing pressed pellets is to make sure that the sample is ground to a particle size of <75m, but <50m is ideal. Depending on the sample type and volume, this can usually be accomplished with a few minutes of grinding with a typical ring and puck pulverizing mill. Small particle size is an important factor in producing pellets that provide the best analytical results because it effects how the sample will compress and bind together when pressed. More importantly, samples with larger or variable particle sizes can lead to heterogeneities in the sample. The sampling depth or critical escape depth for elements contained in a sample is energy dependent and, therefore, different for every element. Longer wavelength elements such as Na will have smaller escape depths than shorter wavelength elements such as Fe. This means that Na analysis is only sampling the first 10m or so of a sample and thus more susceptible to sample heterogeneities on that scale.

Larger particle sizes can result from the presence of hard-to-grind phases in a sample resulting in variable grinding of the sample. The presence of larger particle sizes at the analysis surface of the sample can lead to analysis errors through the "shadow effect" where larger grains shadow the X-ray signal coming from the smaller grains at the surface of the pellet.

The sample binder is literally the glue that holds the sample together. The optimal binder is usually a cellulose/wax mixture that homogenizes with the sample during grinding and will recrystallize under pressure to bind the sample together. These binders are available under various commercial names but are generally similar. Sometimes acrylic binders are used, but these are difficult to homogenize with a sample in a mill and need to be mixed by hand. Some binder grinding agents are available as pre-mixed pellets that can be automatically added to a mill during grinding.

The amount of binder added to a sample is an important consideration because it dilutes the sample and must also be added in the same proportion to every sample in order to avoid dilution errors. Since most modern XRF instruments provide substantial intensity for major elements it is safe to use a significant amount of binder in order to insure a good strong pellet. Weak pellets run the risk of breaking in the spectrometer potentially causing damage to the instrument. A 20-30% binder to sample ratio will almost always produce a very strong pellet that can be dropped onto the ground from a half a meter without breaking. If consumable costs are a concern, a lower binder/sample ratio can be used with some experimentation in order to determine the optimal dilution level.

Once a sample and binder are mixed, the material is pressed in a die using a hydraulic sample press. The pressure applied to a sample should be sufficient to compress the sample completely and recrystallize the binder. One of the most important factors is making sure that the sample is fully compressed so that no void spaces remain in the pellet. A pellet may look good but still contain void spaces which can result in a lowered intensity for lighter elements. You should experiment with your samples using increasing pressure until the intensity for the light elements reaches a maximum and stabilizes. Most samples will reach this maximum at 25-35T of pressure applied for 1-2 minutes. It's also important to release the pressure applied to a sample slowly to prevent cracking of the sample surface.

The thickness of your pellet is important to achieve the best analytical results. The pellet must be infinitely thick to the X-ray beam for all of the elements that are being measured. X-rays produced in the sample must be able to escape the sample without being reabsorbed in order to make it to the detector to be measured. Higher energy elements (usually those with higher atomic numbers) will have deeper escape depths in a sample relative to lower energy elements. The signal coming from higher energy elements sample more of the pellet than those coming from lower energy elements. The sample's ability to reabsorb X-rays is directly proportional to the sample's average atomic mass. The absorption capability of any sample can be calculated from its average elemental composition and the mass absorption coefficient for each element present.

The problem arises when the escape depth of a particular element is larger than the thickness of the pellet. Because this is an element dependent issue, a particular pressed pellet may provide good results for some elements but not others. In general, you should make sure your pressed pellet is thicker than the escape depth of the highest energy element you want to measure.

Usually a pellet made with 8-10g of sample for a 32mm diameter pellet or 13-15g of sample for 40mm diameter pellet will be sufficiently thick for the elements that can be measured by even the most powerful WDXRF instruments currently available.

Sample contamination is an additional consideration in the preparation of high quality pressed pellets for XRF analysis. Contamination usually occurs during the sample grinding process and originates from two main sources: the sample preparation device and sample to sample cross contamination.

Sample pulverizers are the sample preparation devices that have the potential to contribute the most contamination to a sample. Pulverizers usually use a ring and puck style grinding bowl to grind samples from coarse chips to a fine powder. This grinding action can add various elements contained in the grinding vessel to your sample which is why care must be used in choosing your grinding medium. Steel, tungsten carbide and ceramics such as alumina and zirconia are the most common choices. Steel can add Fe, Ni and Cr, tungsten carbide will add W and alumina and zirconia will add Al and Zr respectively. It is, therefore, important to consider what elements are being analyzed and choose the grinding vessel accordingly to avoid contamination. Tungsten carbide is often a default choice because of its hardness and because W is usually not a key element for analysis in many applications. The downside is that tungsten carbide is often the most expensive option.

Sample to sample cross contamination in the sample preparation process is potentially the biggest overall contributor to sample contamination. This is particularly true when working in an environment where a wide range of sample types are being analyzed.

XRF is by definition a comparative elementalanalysis technique where the instrument is calibrated with certified reference materials and unknown samples are measured against the resulting calibration curve for each element or oxide. It is therefore critical that all calibration standards and unknown samples be prepared in the same manor to ensure the accuracy of your analysis. Given this requirement you will need to develop a method that will address the issues detailed in this article for the full range of calibration materials and routine samples that you will need to analyze in your laboratory.

The most common contributors to error in the preparation of pressed pellets include the particle size of the sample, the choice of binder, the dilution ratio, the amount of pressure applied to the sample, the thickness of the final pellet and sample to sample cross contamination. The best practices for limiting this error require good method development coupled with attention to detail and consistency.

We can provide a complete range sample preparation equipment and reference materials for XRF analysis. Need some help ? We have a team of specialists who have extensive experience with XRF as well as other analytical techniques. Our team can help you choose the right sample preparation method, reference material or provide some insight into your analytical challenges.

wood pellet machine - wood pellet mill for sale

wood pellet machine - wood pellet mill for sale

Wood pellet machine is used to turn wood into pellets. Pellet is a new and renewable type of fuel option. As the promotion of environmental awareness, pellets is gradually taking the domination role in the heating area. Therefore, it is very worthy of investing in pellet making business. Obviously, you would make a great deal of money if you concentrate more on your pelletization project. As a professional manufacturer, Beston promises to supply superior and high efficiency wood pellet making machine for you. If you are intending to buy the machine, contact Beston now. And get a competitive wood pellet machine price from Beston Company.

Wood pellets are the most common type of pellet fuel. Wood pellet is one of the good options for heating. It is an excellent alternative resource for coal, natural gas, fossil fuel, and electricity. So, its high profiting to make wood pellets when you have a large quantity of wood. Of course, there are more advantages of using wood pellets as fuel. If you like, welcome to share them with us.

BKL-10, BKL-20, BKL-25, BKL-30 pellet machine are designed to meet different customers demands. They are applicable for large scale business and small scale business. So, you would obtain the proper model from Beston Company. If you need us to help you to choose the wood pellet mill machine, leave us your message and describe your situation and demands, such as raw material, output, factory area, destination, etc. Then, we would give you professional suggestions as soon as possible.

Quality guaranteed: all products of Beston are certified. We have CE, ISO certificates. The wood pellet making machine for sale adopts Q235B and the mold adopts 20CrMoTi which have high strength and toughness, especially high and low-temperature impact toughness. Good materials ensure a long service lifetime. If you buy the machine from Beston, you would save a lot of maintenance costs and use it for a long time.

High-tech: we equip timing and quantitative feeding device, automatic lubrication system, and automatic breaking andautomatic dischargingdevice for wood pellet maker for sale. Therefore, it enables 24h continuous work automatically and no maintenance.

Simple operation: it adopts a simple touch-tone to start up the machine. Then, it would begin the normal pellet making process automatically. There is no need to train the worker on how to use the machine. Just do the following guidelines that the manufacturer provides for you.

We just list five advantages of Beston wood pellet mill for sale. In fact, there are more advantages, such as cost-effective, clean and tidy, eco-friendly, and competitive price, etc. Want to know more about our machine, welcome to contact us. Then, you would get more detailed introductions on biomass pellet making machine.

Wood and wood pellets all can be used to make a fire to provide thermal value. Through deeper and comprehensive research, it is verified that wood pellet is obviously more superior to wood. Maybe you have many doubts and suspicions on some questions. For example, what are the differences between them? And, what are the advantages of them? Here, Beston would like to make a comparison from the four points to show them visually and vividly for you.

Volume: wood pellets are made by the process of crushing and pressing. So, wood pellets are smaller than wood. They are more convenient for storage and transportation. While, most types of wood have a larger size. If you want to buy fuel resource from a long distance place, youd better choose wood pellets that are made by wood fuel pellet making machine.

Safety: burning wood pellets is very safe and clean. There is no harm. While, if you choose to burn wood directly, it would give off flame sparks that may lead to burns. You are taking a big risk using the wood for heating. Thus, it is better to choose wood pellet considering your safety.

Eco-friendly: there is no smoke and harmful substance production when you make pellets with sawdust pellet making machine and burn pellets. As we all know, burning wood directly are forbidden by the government in many rural places. It would make lots of smoke which would make pollution to the air and affect our health. So, wood pellets are more eco-friendly.

Although burning wood directly is cheaper than wood pellets, wood pellets are more cost-effective and eco-friendly in the long run. Wood pellets made from wood pellet machines for sale have no pollution and high calorific value. Now, believe you already have a right and proper choice between the two options. Its welcomed to contact us at any time.

Shred to the required size: use the crusher to make raw material: 2-5mm in diameter. If your raw material is 1-2cm that can be pelleted directly without a crusher. Crusher is equipped for large diameter raw materials. So, it is optional for your project. Whether need or not depends on your raw materials.

Packaging: pour the cooled pellets into bags and keep them in a dry and well-ventilated area to prevent the finished wood pellets from moisture. Certainly, you can use a temperature and humidity controlled warehouse to store the wood pellets if you have large batches.

The above are the five working process to make wood pellets. It fully demonstrates how to make wood pellets for you. Hope you have a complete understanding of them. Surely, you can watch the video mentioned to learn them deeply and clearly.

-2. Whats the diameter of the finished wood pellets? Commonly, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm, 16mm are the standard wood pellet diameter. If you need customized service, please contact us. Note: diameter is proportional to output. You will make more wood pellets if you make them in a larger diameter.

-3. How many container cabinets are needed? For the BKL-10 and BKL-20 biomass wood pellet machine, a small cabinet is enough. For the BKL-25, BKL-30, a large cabinet is required. Note: it is for one set of machines. It would be different if you order many sets of wood pellet makers from Beston Company.

-4. Whats your delivery time of wood pellet manufacturing equipment? One set: 20 workdays. Above five sets: 25-40 workdays; 40-50 workdays are needed when you order the accessory equipment: crusher, dryer, etc.

Wood pellet machine turns dried sawdust, wood shavings, and wood chips into wood pellets. Wood pellets are a kind of renewable and cost-effective resource. They will have a broader market in the near future. So, take a big step toward the wood pelleting business now! You would definitely achieve huge success through investing wood pelleting project. Meanwhile, pyrolysis plant, charcoal marker machine, waste oil distillation equipment, and egg tray machine are also Beston main products. The products of Beston Company are widely sold to more than 60 countries and regions in Europe, South America, Southeast Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and so on. So, rest assured to purchase what you need from Beston Company now. And, leave a message to get a competitive wood pellet machine price now! Please feel free to give your inquiry in the form. We will reply in 24h. Product Model: Your Name (required): Your Email (required): Your Tel(required): Your Country: Your Company: Your Message (required):

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