The process of raking out stones from natural rock beds is known as the quarrying. The term quarry is used to indicate the exposed surface of natural rocks. The difference between a mine and a quarry should be noted. In case of a mine, the operations are carried out under the ground at great depth. In case of quarry, the operations are carried out at ground level in an exposed condition.
In this method, first of all naturally occurring cracks or fissures are located in the rocks, to be excavated. The steel wedges or points are then driven with the help of hammer, in hammer fissures or cracks and stones are detached. The split out blocks of stone can be converted into marketable forms and supplied to users.
If natural cracks or fissures do not appear, there artificial cracks will have to be formed. For this, a lime of holes is drilled along the rock surface. The holes are normally 12 mm in diameter and 20 to 25 cm deep depending upon the type of rock and also desired size or thickness of the excavated stone. The holes are generally drilled with the help of pneumatic drill. After drilling, each hole is provided with two pieced of feathers and a conical wedge or plug inserted in each hole.Sometimes, if rock to be excavated is soft, dry wooden plugs are inserted between the feathers put in the holes. After lightly fitting all the wooden plugs, water is sprinkled on them. Wet wooden plugs swell and exert a large force to split the stone along the line of the holes. After splitting, the stone is taken out and converted into desired forms.
Heating is most suitable for quarring small, thin and regular blocks of stones from rocks, such as granite and gneiss. A heap of fuel is piled and Fred on the surface of rock in small area. The two consecutive layers of the rocks separate because of uneven expansion of the two layers. The loosened rock portions arc broken into pieces of desired size and are removed with the help of pick-axes and crowbars. Stone blocks so obtained are very suitable for coarse rubble masonry. Sometimes, intermediate layers are to be separated from the top and bottom layers. In such a case, the intermediate layer is healed electrically and the expansion separates it from the other two.
In this method, the channeling machines driven by steam, compressed air or electricity are used to make vertical or oblique grooves or channels on the rock mass. These machines make rapidly the grooves having length of about 24 m, width of about 50 mm to 75 mm and depth of about 2.40 cm to 3.70 cm.
This process of separation of stone from the rock mass is almost invariably employed in case of limestones, marbles and other soft sandstones. It is possible to separate very large blocks of stones from the rocks by the application of this method.
In this method, the explosives are used to convert rocks into small pieces of stones. This method is used when stone to be excavated is of very hard variety and it has no cracks or fissures. Moreover, if stone is to be excavated on very large scale, blasting method will have to be adopted. No definite size blocks can be excavated by this method. After blasting, the excavated stone is sorted out in different sizes and categories. Explosives such as blasting powder, blasting cotton, dynamite and cordite are used. The operations involved are boring, charging, tamping and fining.
After placing the charge in the hole, a greased priming needle, projecting a little outside the hole, is placed in the hole which is then filled up with damp clay or stone dust in layers tamped sufficiently with a braced tamping rod. The priming needle should be kept on rotating while tamping is going on. This is done so that the needle remains loose in the hole. The priming needle is then taken out and 60 to 75 per cent of space created by withdrawal or needle is filled with gun powder. A bick ford fuse, a small rope of cotton coated with far, is placed just touching the needle. The other end of the fuse is kept at sufficient length so that the person igniting it can move away to a safe place.
The explosives should be stored in a magazine (a special type of building) which should be away from residential areas, petrol depots, etc. the magazine should have ventilators at high levels and should have concealed wiring. It should be protected from lighting. Smoke or fire should not be allowed in the nearby area. Explosives should be protected from extreme heat or cold and also from moisture. These should be handled carefully and gently. The magazine should be surrounded by barbed wire and the entry should he restricted.
The quantity of explosive required depends upon several factors such as strength of explosive, method of blasting; number of bore holes their sizes, position, etc and the type and mass of rock to be dislodged. It is very difficult to incorporate all the factors in an expression and obtain the exact amount of explosive required.
(a) To reduce the size of the big blocks of stones so that they are converted to easily lift-able pieces. This reduction in size is generally carried out at the quarry itself because that saves a lot of transportation costs.
(b) To give a proper shape to the stone. It is known that stones can be used at different places in the building, e.g., in foundations, in walls, in arches, or for flooring, each situation will require a proper shape.
Stones are really great for masonry. With proper size, shape, color, etc, homeowners can have walls around their house. While for business owners, masonry using stones can create an elegant fireplace since it has a resistance to fire. I knew that because our clients super-duper to have a fireplace in their yards.
At the same time, a quarry must not be located very close to a town because quarrying operations are full of hazards. This becomes especially important when blasting method has to be used for quarrying of stones.
(iii) Distance from main roads: Stones extracted from a quarry have to be transported to the nearby towns and cities. Naturally, the quarry must be located near to the main network of roads leading to those towns and cities.
(iv) Availability of water and dumping space: In quarrying operations, considerable man power is employed. Water is an important necessity for the work force. It must be available in sufficient quantity near the quarry site.
This method consists of using explosives for breaking stones from very hard rocks. It has been observed that quarrying of granites, basalts, traps, quartzites, and sandstones by wedging and other methods is very laborious and costly.
These hard rocks, however, can be loosened economically and easily by using explosives. The basic principle of this method is to explode a small quantity of an explosive material at a calculated depth within the rocks.
Properly spaced holes charged with calculated quantities of explosive will not only break the calculated volume of rock into blocks of manageable size but also throw them at a proper distance from the quarry.
(iv) The hole is then summed. Stemming consists of filling the remaining 2/3 to 1/2 depth of blast-hole (above the last compacted layer of explosive) with inert and non-combustible material like powdered clay, rock and,sand.
A Safety fuse is essentially a thin strain of gun powder properly wrapped in a cotton thread. When ignited, it burns from one end to the other end at a fixed speed, generally 100-130 seconds per meter.
As the current is switched on, the filament in the detonator gives a powerful spark. This ignites the sensitive charge which makes a small explosion that is sufficient to blow the main Explosive in the blast hole.
Thank you for all the information about the quarrying of stones. I learned that my grandpa worked in a quarry and I got curious about what that was. That is really cool that quarrying can be done manually or by machines. I had no idea that they could automate everything.
A good friend of mine was thinking about going to a drilling and blasting service for an upcoming project. He wants to look into the various components of this work. I will let him know that there is a firing of the shot that must happen.
A Dressing of Stone:- After quarrying, Stones are to be dressed for finish surface. The stone dressing can be done easily just after quarrying. The stone blocks are cut and squared as per requirements with the help of dressing tools. There are many types of tools uses for the dressing of stones such as pitching tools, masons hammer, club hammer, scabbling hammer, spacing hammer, drafting chisel, point chisel, punch chisel, claw chisel, soft stone chisels scabbling pick, puncheon, and ax.
In this type of finish, a margin of about 30 mm width mark on all the edges of the stone and the central portion makes to project about 20 mm. When a number of vertical or horizontal grooves about 10 mm wide formes in this projected portion.
This type of finish presents a net-like appearance. When a margin about 30 mm wide mark on all the edges of the stones and the central portion provides with about 10 mm wide irregular shaped swing kings, having a depth of about 5 mm. The sunk surface is a point by an also pointed tool.
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The method used for quarrying of stones depends upon the types of stones its intended use and the type of its geological formation. For Example, when the rock formation consists of horizontal layers at shallow depth, we may be able to easily quarry them in layers. In other words, If the stone is one whole crystalline mass, we have may ballast them with explosives.
In this method, the channeling machines are driven by steam, compressed air or electricity are used to make vertical or oblique grooves or channels on the rock mass, These machines make rapidly the grooves having a length of about, 24 m, a width of about 50 mm to 75 mm and depth of about 240 cm to 370 cm. The process consists of the following steps:
This process of separation of stone from the rock mass is almost invariably employed in the case of marbles, limestone, and other soft sandstones. Very large blocks can be separated from the rocks by the application of this method.
This is a common method of quarrying all types of rock. The main purposes of stone quarrying the stones by blasting are to loosen large blocks of rocks and not to violently blow up the whole mass to convert it into pieces
You must have heard the word mine and quarry. The operations of taking out the materials from the ground at great depths are known as mining, whereas in the case of the quarry, the operations for taking out the match as (Stone) are carried out at ground level in an exposed condition.
In stone masonry, the general rule to be observed is the direction of the natural bed should be perpendicular to the direction of the pressure, such an arrangement of stones gives maximum strength of stonework.
Natural beds of stone can be detected by pouring water and observing its fall in the direction of layers. Which respect to natural beds, stones for different work are placed in different situations as follows.
The rock surface should be properly checked for cracks and fissures. The presence of these may cause planes in the stones, along which they may split. Then, the quarrying will be easy and quick as well as economical.
It is an important property to be considered when a stone is used for flooring and pavement. The coefficient of hardness is to be found by conducting a test on a standard specimen in Dorys testing machine.
The process of removing moisture from pores is called seasoning. The best way of seasoning is to allow it to the action of nature for 6 to 12 months. This is very much required in the case of laterite stones.
1. Strength : The stone should be able to resist the load coming on it. Ordinarily this is not of primary concern since all stones are having good strength. However in case of a large structure, it may be necessary to check the strength.
4. Toughness:Building stones should be tough enough to sustain stresses developed due to vibrations. The vibrations may be due to the machinery mounted over them or due to the loads moving over them.The stone aggregates used in the road construction should be tough.
6. Porosity and Absorption:Building stone should not be porous. If it is porous rainwater enters the pour and reacts with stone and crumbles it.In higher altitudes, the freezing of water in pores takes place and it results in the disintegration of the stone.
7. Dressing: Giving the required shape to the stone is called dressing. It should be easy to dress so that the cost of dressing is reduced. However the care should be taken so that, this is not at the cost of the required strength and the durability.
9. Seasoning:Good stones should be free from the quarry sap. Laterite stones should not be used for 6 to 12 months after quarrying.They are allowed to get rid of quarry sap by the action of nature. This process of removing quarry sap is called seasoning.
10. Cost:Cost is an important consideration in selecting a building material. The proximity of the quarry to the building site brings down the cost of transportation and hence the cost of stones comes down.
Stoneis a heterogeneous substance characterized by wide ranges of mineral composition, texture, and structure. Consequently, the physical and chemicalproperties, i. e., the durability, are extremely variable.