process grinding gt

glebar | case studies

glebar | case studies

Glebar takes pride in designing precision centerless grinding machine system solutions, tailored to our customers' unique specifications. Below is a small subset of centerless (and other types) of grinding applications that Glebar has provided solutions for over the years.

gt-9ac | guidewire grinding machine

gt-9ac | guidewire grinding machine

Traditional guidewire centerless grinders use sensors to detect the wire position and trigger diameter changes, limiting the number of tapers the system can produce. Since the GT-9AC has no sensors, there is virtually no limit to the number of tapers, and creating parabolic shapes is very easy. Traditionally, sensors or sensing systems must be physically moved by the operator or technician to change the profile or wire length. The GT-9AC accomplishes all of this automatically with a few taps of the touchscreen, significantly reducing setup time.With a centerless grinder, as the slide retracts and part diameter increases, the rate of the part through the machine increases. With fixed sensors, there is no feedback in between sensor points to detectthis change. This causes an unwanted non-linear or 'bowed' profileshape. The GT-9AC updates wire position constantly, so it is unaffected by changes to the wire feed rate. The result is crisp, clear tapers. Glebar has over four decades of experience grinding guidewires in stainless steel, Nitinol, and other materials, with both conventional and superabrasive wheels.

Since the GT-9AC has no sensors, there is virtually no limit to the number of tapers, paddles and parabolic shapes which can be ground on this machine. Traditionally, sensors or sensing systems must be physically moved by the operator or technician to change the profile or wire length. With the GT-9AC, all of this is accomplished automatically with a few taps of the touchscreen, significantly reducing setup time.

Available with a variable frequency drive on the work wheel spindle for increased wheel surface feet when running super abrasives such as vitrified CBN. Spindle RPM can be varied depending on the wheel type and wheel dressing parameters. A built-in automatic wheel balancing system dynamically adjusts and eliminateswheel vibration, producing superior surface finishes and improved wheel life. In addition, acoustic emission sensing allows for automatic touch-off and blade sizing to drastically reduce setup time.

Double-ended grinds or grinding multiple parts from the same wire is possible when using the optional Extractor. When combined with the Spool Cutter, it is possible to take NiTi orSLTstainless directly from spool to finished part.

The control software is entirely developed atGlebarand is fully customizable to address your application and process. The intuitive touch screen interface allows for ease of use and flexibility. The machine software interface was developed to allow an unskilled operator to run many high precision machines simultaneously.

This is done by using EtherCAT by and large the fastest industrial Ethernet technology.This machine can also interface withGlebar Advanced Analytics, our new cloud-based solution that allows operators and managers to remotely receive actionable real-time analytics on easy-to-read dashboards; reduce downtime. boost capacity, increase your availability and more.

10' (305 cm), 16' (500 cm) long wire/part loader and unloader interfaced to the machine control. Feeder will pick wires out of a bin, load them into machine, stage next part during grinding and unload finish part allowing hands-off machine operation.

Glebar prides itself on selling precision grinding machine system solutions, tailored to your specific needs. Below is a small subset of applications, performed on this machine, that Glebar has provided solutions for over the years.

Wheel balancing is crucial to achieving a good surface finish on the workpiece and is critical to the spindle bearing life. A technician balances the wheel using an offline, static system manually moving weights. The process is time-consuming, taking 30 to 45 minutes, delaying setup and production. The results are varied and not repeatable.

Machines that run on outdated operating systems such as Windows XP or Windows 7 are more vulnerable to malware, viruses, and other security issues. Microsoft no longer supports previous versions of Windows making it difficult to fix operating system related issues generating more downtime until a solution is found.

Super-abrasive grinding wheels require faster speeds to run effectively. Main machine spindles can have fixed speeds, limiting their ability to use CBN or Diamond grinding wheels. A fixed speed can cause belt squeal and added stress on the spindle. When the wheel stops, inertia allows it to continue spinning for minutes, especially with heavier wheels, delaying the start of the next job.

Dynamic spindle speed adjustment enabling work wheel rotation at higher speeds using super-abrasive grinding wheels. Provide the upgrade in real-time without having to ship the machine back to the factory for an upgrade.

Challenge: A Medical device customer needed to rapidly changeover between a family of Nitinol guidewires having various lengths and geometries. Since the geometry of the components varied in length, the customer needed to change tooling over frequently, a process that can take up to 4 hours. Also, rapidly removing over 30% of the the material as it thrufeeds into the machine accelerated tool wear on the existing system and as tooling degrades, dimensional integrity suffers.

If you have relevant drawings or illustration files, please upload them here. Files should be in .jpg, .pdf, or .tiff format and should be 10MB or less in size. If you need assistance regarding upload, please call us (201) 337-1500

cement grinding process explanations - liajones

cement grinding process explanations - liajones

On the one hand, clinker grinding could be the last step during the cement production process. So the cement grinding method control is directly related to the cement item good quality, yield, and expense. On the other hand, cement grinding could be the step consuming probably the most power. So picking top quality clinker grinding mill is extremely essential to increase companys economic positive aspects.

The grinded supplies are chosen by classifier system. The coarse one returns to grinding mill once more, in order to cut down heavily milled powder. The closed variety clinker grinding procedure can boost yield, lower power consumption, and product fineness is straightforward to control. But the system requires significant investment, and complex operation and upkeep.

Gypsum can improve grinding possibility of whole system, improving the output each and every machine. limestone is uncomplicated to become grinded, which can significantly increase the production of machine. Slag itself is hard to be grinded, but for those who add a specific volume of slag, you may enhance the output. Fly ash itself is just not straightforward to become grinded. However, given that itself is fine powder, it can tremendously make the raw mixture uncomplicated to become grinded.

You can find two types of cement production method: open cement grinding method and closed form of cement grinding production. Usually, much more cement plants adopt closed grinding process due to the fact it has greater output than open grinding procedure.

Cement ball mill, also names cement mill, cement clinker mill, is the important equipment for grinding cement clinker, gypsum, limestone, clay, coal immediately after crushing procedure. This really is basically a big rotating drum containing grinding media generally steel balls. As the drum rotates, the motion from the balls crushes the clinker. The drum rotates approximately when every couple of seconds.

Grinding systems are either open circuit or closed circuit. In an open circuit program, the feed rate of incoming clinker is adjusted to accomplish the desired fineness of the item. In a closed circuit program, coarse particles are separated from the finer product and returned for further grinding. Systems have been installed on Cement clinker, blast furnace slag, calcined alumina, calcium carbonate. Dry ball mills are efficient grinding systems in the common range of 500 microns down to 5 microns.

As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of mining machinery, such as China spiral classifier,Shaking concentrator,cement mill,Flotation separator, Henan Hongxing is always doing the best in products and service.

vlc 200 gt turning and grinding center | cutting tool engineering

vlc 200 gt turning and grinding center | cutting tool engineering

It is no secret that e-mobility is a growing market. A current study by the consulting firm Strategy Analytics, predicts the production output of electric vehicles will increase to 25% of the global market by 2025. It should be noted that the study uses electric as an umbrella term that covers all aspects of e-mobility, i.e. hybrids, fuel cell drives, and pure electric vehicles, and that the markets are highly heterogeneous. It is expected that 50% of the production will take place in China, and the other 50% will be throughout the rest of the world.

Heterogeneous markets means multiple manufacturers, even more models, and diverse drive concepts. In addition, about three quarters of vehicles will continue to have traditional combustion engines. This puts production planners and automotive industry suppliers in a difficult situation: How do you manage this product diversity and increasing production volumes?

EMAGs VLC series covers a broad range of machining technologies: turning, drilling, milling, gear hobbing, hard and soft machiningbasically everything that is required to build comprehensive manufacturing lines. VLC machines enable us to cover the entire process chain for the manufacturing of transmission components, from blanks to finished parts, explains Peter Loetzner, president and CEO EMAG LLC. Customers benefit from the unified design of our machinesconsistent transfer heights and an integrated pick-up automation system that make it easy to connect machines.

The pick-up automation system, which revolutionized the market almost 30 years ago, is the platform for the success of EMAG machines. Every machine in the VLC series features a parts storage area for raw and finished parts, as well as a working spindle that is automatically loaded and unloaded from this unit. It guarantees minimized non-productive times and high efficiency.

The VLC 200 GT was developed primarily with a focus on transmission gears and was first launched in 2016. Because of their large production numbers and high quality requirements, transmission gears are ideal parts to be machined on the VLC 200 GT, Loetzner explains. When we analyzed the machining process, we found that we could perform the entire machining process in a single clamping operation. To achieve this, EMAG combines the processes of hard turning and grinding. The shoulder and the bore are hard-turned first. Only a few micrometers of material is then left to be removed from the transmission gear. This ensures a much shorter grinding process using aluminum oxide or CBN grinding wheels, which saves costs in two ways: through lower tool costs resulting in a lower unit cost, and through faster cycle times. The machining quality also benefits from the combination of turning and grinding: When there is only a small amount of material remaining to be ground away after turning, the specifications for the grinding wheel can be based more precisely on the end quality requiredas a result, surfaces with an average peak-to-valley height Rz of less than 1.6 micrometers can be reliably achieved with the VLC 200 GT.

Transmission gears will continue to be among the most commonly manufactured parts in the automotive industry well beyond the year 2025. However, with the increased electrification of the power train, certain older transmission designs are having a rebirth. Peter Loetzner explains: We are seeing a trend toward CVT transmissions. This is mainly due to the high efficiency of this design, whose smooth adjustment of the gear ratio without any interruption of the traction force ensures the optimal use of the supplied energy and therefore a low fuel consumption. Applied to hybrid vehicles, this means greater ranges from a single battery charge, enabling for example the fully electric operation in city traffic for an entire day.

The continuously variable transmission results in especially comfortable driving, and is based on an intelligent design concept that does not use any toothed gears. Instead, power is transmitted via a steel belt or a lamellar chain which run around two shafts with conical disks. The quality of the components is extremely important. This is why the precision hard-machining is usually done in a multi-stage process on different turning and grinding machines. Especially in hard machining, production planners have little tolerance for error because the initial cost for hardened blanks is already high. EMAG took to the task with delight.

The machining area of the VLC200GT can be configured based on the application. Available options include internal and external spindles, block toolholders, or EMAGs proven 12-post turret. The machines flexibility allows us to use it for CVT pulley disks, in addition to transmission gears, Loetzner explains further.

EMAG has equipped the VLC 200 GT with an external grinding spindle in addition to the tool turret again, a combination of hard turning and grinding. This combination of processes allows us to optimally configure the grinding wheel for the surface of the CVT disk all the other surfaces and bore holes can be made to the required specs by turning alone, Loetzner says. This results in lower tool costs and cycle times due to reduced wear on the grinding wheel, which means that it needs to be dressed less often. When it does need dressing, the VLC 200 GT features a separate diamond-coated dressing spindle. With its separate rotating dressing system and gap control monitoring, the machine is perfectly equipped to exploit the advantages of CBN grinding, Loetzner emphasizes. To ensure sustained process reliability and high machining quality, the integrated measuring pin is used to check the diameter and length of the clamped component at the end of the process. Corrections are made as necessary. Operator comfort and ease of access were also important priorities for EMAG's developers: Large doors provide easy access to the machining area. Tools and clamping devices can be changed quickly and conveniently.

gt-610 sd | automated infeed/thrufeed centerless grinder

gt-610 sd | automated infeed/thrufeed centerless grinder

Smaller than competing machines in size and horsepower and tooled up with cheaper grinding wheels yet achieves a level of autonomous intelligent operation and efficiency never before achieved on a centerless grinder.

Thesuper high rigidity roller guidescarry thework rest blade on one axis and the regulating wheel onan independent secondaxis. Both are precision ground surfaces and maintain a resolution of 0.1microns.The high-speed, high-performance multi-axis controller ensures that diameter control is maintained.

A 15HP motor drives the 10" (254 mm) diameter x 8-5/8" (219 mm) wide grinding wheel mounted on a twin-grip super precision spindle. With a variable speed vector drive, the machine maintains constant surface speed as the work wheel wears, ensuring repeatable and efficient grinding performance. The workhead assembly design allows a single operator to replace the grinding wheel in under 15 minutes.

Where this machine shines is in the control software, which is entirely developed atGlebarand customizable to address your application and your process. The intuitive touch screen interface allows allmovableaxes of the machine and peripherals to be programmed for an efficient, short cycle.The controller can also interface with a gantry system for efficiency. A laser micrometer can also be integrated to directly feedback part diameters for automatic size compensation.

To provide a completely hands-off system, this machine incorporates a 6-axis robot, which picks a part from a pallet, places it in a high accuracy optical gauge, measures the component in three places, and then the machine determines what to do next to reach its target diameter. It then proceeds to grind, clean and dry the part.OPC interfacing to supervisory plant controls is also available to gather production data and track maintenance and critical operational statistics.

This is done by using EtherCAT by and large the fastest industrial Ethernet technology.This machine can also interface withGlebar Advanced Analytics, our new cloud-based solution that allows operators and managers to remotely receive actionable real-time analytics on easy-to-read dashboards; reduce downtime. boost capacity, increase your availability and more.

Diameter contact gauge mounted on exit side of the machine measures the ground part. Diameters at several points can be measured, used for size compensation, and compared against high and low user-defined limits. Contact measurement is unaffected by coolant.

For rapid changeover from one set of part holding grippers to a different set (i.e. 8 station to 5 station).The entire gripper assembly is easily disconnected, lifted out of the keyed mount, and then dropped into the next mount and reconnected.

Automatically picks parts from trays, loads into machine, unloads and places back to parts tray. Fully guarded and interlocked access doors. Robot arm incorporates two grippers for staging the loading and unloading during the grind cycle, reducing idle time.

Glebar prides itself on selling precision grinding machine system solutions, tailored to your specific needs. Below is a small subset of applications, performed on this machine, that Glebar has provided solutions for over the years.

If you have relevant drawings or illustration files, please upload them here. Files should be in .jpg, .pdf, or .tiff format and should be 10MB or less in size. If you need assistance regarding upload, please call us (201) 337-1500

glebar guidewire grinder-hng medical incorporated

glebar guidewire grinder-hng medical incorporated

The CAM.2 represents the ultimate in medical guidewire grinding, capable ofholding the tightest tolerances in the industry.In the exciting field ofmicro-grinding, the capability of the CAM.2 to produce flats, radiuses,needle points, and non-linear shapes makes this the perfect machineto grind complex medical guidewires, dental parts, and small precisionparts for various industries.Combining the latest in multi-axisservo motor control, submicron positioning, and an intuitive 15" HMI,the CAM.2 offers unmatched performance.With the CAM.2's full-fledgedG-code underpinnings, direct integration with CAD/CAM packages isseamless.Previously unproduceable parts can be made easily, withminimal setup time, and with limited operator training.Previously unproduceable parts can be made easily, withminimal setup time, and with limited operator training.Glebar's abilityto customize all aspects of our system, going beyond material handlingto incorporate features that were previously separate operations, havesaved customers time, floor space, and production costs.

For less complex geometries, centerless modeincorporates the best of both worlds, maintaining absolute length and diameter control while allowing for greater speed and material removal using a wider wheel

The GT-9AC excels at precision grinding medical guidewires with multiple tapers, paddles, and even parabolic shapes, all at the fast speeds of a conventionalcenterless grinder. Using the latest in high speed imaging technology and a 1 micron encoder the whole length of the feeder, the machine can updatethe position of the wire every 0.00025" (0.006 mm) at typical grinding speeds. Faster position updates result in better length accuracy and repeatability, allowing the GT-9AC to easily hold the tighter tolerances required by today's guidewires. The GT-9AC has no fixed sensors or sensing banks! Changingwire length or wire profile is easy and takes only seconds.The maximum length of grind is limited only by the overall length of the feeding system. Thingsthat were simply not possible before, like changing the speed of the regulating mid-profile, are accomplished effortlessly.

The TF-9DHD is an automatic infeed/thrufeed centerless micro grinder.Small in footprint, very capable grinder. Utilizing up to an 8-5/8 (219mm)wide work wheel, it is able to remove more material, faster and with bettersurface finishes than similar machines with narrower grinding wheels.Thismachine is superior to competingmachines in the same class due to thefact that it can run a 15HP main spindle motor in such a small package. Thismeans more material can be removed per pass than largermachines.

The fastest andmost accurate profile metrology system available for longparts or multiple short parts. The P4K's strongest feature is the ease of useby line operators -- it is able to scan multiple single parts or one long part inone operation. Conventional methods measuring long components to ahigh degree of precision require high magnification vision systems andprecision stages that require a fair amount of programming and are notsuited for the factory floor. On the P4K, parts are simply clamped in a fixtureand scanned with a mouse click. It has the ability to scan multiple singleparts or one long part in one operation. By pulling the product through alaser gauge using a high precision linear stage, and matching diameter andlength readings in real time at a rate of 10,000 readings per second, we areable to produce an astounding data set, where we gather a diameter andlength reading every 30 millionths of an inch. Reporting, lot control, anddata aggregation for SPC analysis are standard features. However, the P4K'sstrongest feature is the ease of use by line operators. The best way todetermine that the P4K will meet and exceed your measurement needs is tohave us perform a Gauge R&R study using your actual parts!

Glebar already makes the most reliable feeder for Guidewire onthe market using tried-and-tested vacuum feeding technology.Now we've transformed it into a stand-alone device which canseamlessly connect and feed parts into existing third-party machinesincluding, swiss screw machines, other manual machines, etc. We'veupgraded the control system and added a 7-inch color HMI for simpleand easy access to all aspects of feeder operation, whichwouldtraditionally be set from the HMI on the grinder. The feeder allowsmultiple modes of operation, including a completely standalone cyclingmode that doesn't require any signals from a grinder. The GlebarStandalone Feeding System is designed to feed long products, such asGuidewires, Catheter Bodies, Metal Tubing and many other products toother process devices.

The GSR-6 was designed to deburr guidewires while automaticallyseparating pass and fail parts. This automated process removes theoperator and may prevent against Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.With its ability to automatically separate pass and failing parts, touchscreen controls, wide variety of presets for radii and/or chamfers (or theability to create your own custom configuration), thecompact GSR-6 Deburringsystem is difficult to match in performance and ease of use.

The CAM.3 representsa new eraofmicro grindersand medical component grinding.Completely designedfrom thegroundup, the CAM.3 micro grinder is built for high performanceandefficiency.Partsarefedthrough the machine and spun at a higher velocityresultingin a quickgrindmaximizing uptimeand throughput.The CAM.3 grinding wheel runs with a 16 diameter and upto 3 wide. The work wheel is powered by a direct driveservo motorand ABEC7 spindlebearings. It can also be outfitted with an internalbalancingsystem minimizingvibration while running at high speeds.

In 2020, Glebar Company acquired Tridex Technology and Everite Machine Products world leaders in Electrochemical Grinding (ECG). Tridex and Everite focus on creative manufacturing solutions utilizing ECG technology for both standard and custom applications. ECG combines abrasive grinding and electrochemical erosion producing a more efficient, cost effective, and burr free part.

The ECG process removes material with low cutting force increasing wheel life and providing a burr free, stress free part with no recast or heat affected zone. Improves production times by eliminating the need for secondary operations such as deburring, wire brus.

Features a stationary table and optional rotary table to fit your production needs. Provides burr free and low force cutting leaving no recast or heat affected zones while cutting. Has numerous applications across many materials and industries includingmedical device, automotive, and aerospace.

The PGS-100 is a fully programmable pointing and material handling system to manufacture a wide variety of medical device points on tubing or solid wire using ECG technology. When added to the Tridex Model SG-1645 or SG-2060 electrochemical grinders, it offers very fast set-up times and can be changed over from one size to another in only minutes. It also facilitates secondary operations such as electro-polishing, bead blasting, slotting, etc. without losing point orientation. Capable of producing tri-bevel, back bevel, trocar, diamond, stylet, Franseen, and custom points.

The GT-610 CNC is the complete lights-out centerless grinding solution for applications where a high degree of automation, data gathering, and gauging feedback is required. Built on a mineral cast base for rigidity, vibration, and thermal stability, the GT-610 CNC weighs over 8,000 pounds. Glebar's vast experience and unique infeed centerless grinding technology shine in this higher precision machine tool, able to process challenging components, such as titanium aerospace fasteners, arthroscopic shavers, bone drill blanks, and small powdered hard metal components. This fully automated system is capable of grinding and gauging multiple components (up to 8 or more) to a high degree of precision. Configurable with pick/place gantries or six-axis robots, this machine ensures a hands-off, high production, or frequent changeover operation with the assurance of automatic size compensation and 100% inspection. The GT-610 CNC includes integrated two-axis CNC work-wheel and regulating wheel dressers capable of dressing an 8.625 (219mm) wide grinding wheel and a 10" (254mm) wide regulating wheel. Another available option is our patented programmable work rest blade, which adjusts the lateral position of the parts (when grinding).

The highly automated GT-610 Infeed/Thrufeed Grinding System was originally designed to grind the hardest material on Earth, diamond. It now also excels at grinding metal (steel, carbide, titanium, etc.) and composite materials for the automotive, aerospace,

medical, metal, and mining industries. The machine has been field-tested in some of the harshest industrial environments, proving, again and again, its reliability and its ability to offer large capabilities, all in a small package. Enclosed on a granite bed (standard platform) for reduced vibration and thermal stability. An enclosure with mist collection protecting the operator from debris and misting offering a clean and safe work environment also comes standard. As with our GT-610 CNC, the GT-610 can also be put on a 5,000-pound mineral cast base designed for superior vibration

determination of the grinding force on optical glass based on a diamond wheel with an ordered arrangement of abrasive grains | springerlink

determination of the grinding force on optical glass based on a diamond wheel with an ordered arrangement of abrasive grains | springerlink

Owing to its excellent physical and chemical properties, such as high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, and low density, optical glass is widely used in high-tech fields such as aviation, aerospace, and national defense; however, the grinding force during the processing of optical glass seriously affects the surface quality. Therefore, in the present paper, a mathematical model of the grinding force of diamond wheels with the ordered arrangement of abrasive grains on optical glass materials is established. The influences of the grinding wheel landform layout parameters and processing technology on the grinding force are discussed. The results of theoretical analysis and experimental research show that the ordered arrangement of abrasive grains can effectively reduce the grinding force. The values predicted by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the established mathematical model can provide theoretical guidance for the optimization of parameters in the processing process.

Aurich JC, Braun O, Wamecke G, Cronjger L (2003) Development of a superabrasive grinding wheel with defined grain structure using kinematic simulation. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 52(1):275280. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-8506(07)60583-6

Herzenstiel P, Aurich JC (2010) CBN-grinding wheel with a defined grain patternextensive numerical and experimental studies. Mach Sci Technol 14(3):301322. https://doi.org/10.1080/10910344.2010.511574

Zhang Y, Fang C, Huang G, Xu X (2018) Modeling and simulation of the distribution of undeformed chip thicknesses in surface grinding. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 127:27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2018.01.002

Yang ZB, Zhang Z, Yang RY, Liu AJ (2016) Study on the grain damage characteristics of brazed diamond grinding wheel using a laser in face grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87:853858. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8454-2

Yang ZB, Zhang MJ, Zhang Z, Liu AJ, Yang RY, Liu S (2016) A study on diamond grinding wheels with regular grain distribution using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Mater Des 104:292297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.04.104

Su YH, Lin B, Cao ZC (2018) Prediction and verification analysis of grinding force in the single grain grinding process of fused silica glass. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96(1-4):597606. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-1643-4

Zhang X, Zhang Z, Deng Z, Li S, Wu Q, Kang Z (2019) Precision grinding of silicon nitride ceramic with laser macro-structured diamond wheels. Opt Laser Technol 109:418428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2018.08.021

Chen MJ, Zhao QL, Dong S, Li D (2005) The critical conditions of brittleductile transition and the factors influencing the surface quality of brittle materials in ultra-precision grinding. J.Mater.Proc.Technol. 168(1):7582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.11.002

Sun J, Wu YH, Zhou P, Li SH, Zhang LX, Zhang K (2017) Simulation and experimental research on Si3N4 ceramic grinding based on different diamond grains. Adv Mech Eng 9(6): 0559. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 05596

Pashmforoush F, Esmaeilzare A (2017) Experimentally validated finite element analysis for evaluating subsurface damage depth in glass grinding using Johnson-Holmquist model. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 18(12):18411847. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12541-017-0213-2

This research was supported by the financial supports from the National Natural Science Funds of China (U1904170), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of Henan, and the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China.

Zhibo Yang conceived the experiments and reviewed, Dongyu He, Wang SUN, Yuqi Zhang, and Shiyu Zhang conducted the experiments, Hongbin Shi,Shian Liu, and Yanru Zhang analyzed the results. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

The authors confirm the paper described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors; that its publication has been approved by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work is carried out.

The copyright to the English-language article is transferred to Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The author warrants that his/her contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.

Yang, Z., He, D., WangSun et al. Determination of the grinding force on optical glass based on a diamond wheel with an ordered arrangement of abrasive grains. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 115, 12371248 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-021-07204-1

Related Equipments