The crushing and screening stage in the industry is mainly composed of three-stage and a closed-circuit process. Gold ores need to go through coarse, medium, and fine crushing processes to be minimized into smaller pieces. The screening equipment is used to sieving the smaller gold ores into the proper size for the next steps.
The grinding operation usually adopts one or two ball mills with types of lattice and overflow. The second stage grinding operation forms a closed circuit with a spiral classifier or a hydro cyclone to ensure the grinding fineness.
Since traditional ball milling equipment appears some shortcomings such as fast wear and large energy consumption, many manufacturers adopt new wear-resisting rubber lining boards, sliding bearing to improve a mill operation efficiency and prolong a machine's service life.
The beneficiation stage is a crucial part of gold extraction during the whole gold ore processing plant. Placer gold mine and rock gold mine are most widely processed to extract gold concentration.
The gold slurry process of the carbon slurry method (CIP and CIL) is to put activated carbon into cyanide ore slurry, adsorb dissolved gold on activated carbon, and finally to extract gold from activated carbon.
Equipment required for carbon slurry gold mining process: Leaching mixing tank, activated carbon screen, Two-layer (three-layer) washing and thickening machine, fast desorption electrolysis system with high-efficiency and low-consumption, high-frequency dewatering screen.
It means that by ion exchange resin, gold also can be extracted from ore pulp. Like carbon, the process makes gold absorbed onto solid spherical polystyrene resin beads instead of activated carbon grains.
According to different physical and chemical properties of different types of gold ores, flotation separation utilizes various reagents to make the gold attached to the bubbles then scraping these gold particles from blades to get the concentrate.
A jigger is one of the main pieces of equipment in the gravity separation process. The jigging process mixes gold ore particles of different specific gravity together, then stratifying these particles. The minerals with small specific gravity will be on the upper layer while the minerals with large specific gravity will be on the lower layer.
A shaking table is used to process gold ores in the horizontal medium flow. The motor drives the surface of the shaker to perform the longitudinal reciprocating motion, as well as the differential motion of the washing stream and the surface of the bed. Gold ore particles are stratified perpendicular to the surface of the bed, then being separated parallel to the surface of the bed in reciprocating motion which allows gold ores with different particle sizes to be discharged from different parts to achieve separation.
It adopts lope water flow to achieve separation. With the effect of the combined force of water flow, mineral gravity, the friction created by the bottom of the tank, and ore particles, the gold ore particles will settle in different areas of the tank. The ore particles with small specific gravity will flow away with the water, while ore particles with larger specific gravity would stay.
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Henan Fote Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. (FTM) has more than 40-year experience in the design of gold mining equipment processes. Its beneficiation equipment and plants sales to many countries including Tanzania, India, South Africa, the United Kingdom and other regions. According to the actual needs of customers, all machines can be customized here.
As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.
Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.
Xinhai mineral processing equipment mainly include: grinding equipment, flotation equipment, dewatering equipment, magnetic separation equipment, and so on. Some of the equipment is Xinhai independent research and development, and has been awarded national patent. View details
Gold CIP Production Line adsorbs gold from cyaniding pulp by active carbon including 7 steps: leaching pulp preparation, cyaniding leaching, carbon adsorption, gold loaded carbon desorption, pregnant solution electrodeposit, carbon acid regeneration, leaching pulp. View details
In general, Xinhai extracts gold from old tailings by all-slime cyanidation and CIL technology. The gold tailings after cyanidation are dealt with tailings dry stacking method. It is a technology that recycles the filtrate to realize the water resources recycling in processing plants with pressure filtration process, and get rid of most cyanide in the tailings. For other elements in the gold tailings, Xinhai applies magnetic separation, flotation and other methods to deal with.
Xinhai gold tailings reprocessing technology is mainly from environment protection and full utilization of resource, reprocessing the valuable gold tailings. According to the different characteristics of gold tailings, the reasonable gold tailings reprocessing technology is designed to make the tailings give full play to the value.
There are mainly several methods of gold tailings reprocessing: 1. The iron recovery from gold tailings can adopts common processing technology such as gravity separation, magnetic separation, flotation, roasting magnetic separation and their combined processing technology. There are only four kinds of valuable minerals recovering by magnetic - gravity separation combined technology: magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, and garnet. Among them, the garnet is mainly iron aluminum garnet. 2. Gold and silver recovery from gold tailings by CIP. All-slime cyanidation carbon pulp gold extraction technology can recover the gold and silver from the old gold tailings. Xinhai usually adopts the all-slime cyanidation + CIP in the gold extraction from old tailings. The gold tailings after cyanidation are treated by dry stacking. That is a technology that recycles the filtrate to realize the water resources recycling in processing plants with pressure filtration process, and get rid of most cyanide in the tailings. 3. Other minerals recovery from gold tailings. The metal sulfide is mainly pyrite, and some are copper pyrite and bornite. The gold mineral is mainly natural gold, and some are electrum. The metal oxides are mainly speculative and siderite. The gangue minerals are mainly quartz, sericite, etc. The processing technology uses one-stage grinding, preferential flotation process. The gold and copper concentrate product can be recovered once. In general, the gold recovery method of gold tailings is mainly the all-slime cyanidation CIP method. It is the recovery of residual gold particles from tailings by using the property of gold soluble in cyanide. The gold recovery for large capacity and low-grade gold tailings is common heap leaching.
1. A gold processing plant in Inner Mongolia has a history of nearly forty years, which is a classical old processing plant. Before the new tailings pond construction completed in 2002, there are 90000 tons of tailings with recoverable tailing with high gold content in the old tailings pond. The gold content is about 1665 kg, and the silver content about 25 tons. Xinhai carried out industrial practice in handling tailings with the original 250tpd CIP plant. All-slime cyanidation method is applied to extract gold and silver from the gold tailings. To improve the indexes, vacuum was replaced by negative oxygen machine. Leaching and absorption at the same time. The gold-bearing carbon products finished product gold through electrolysis desorption. The main indexes are as follows: the original grade: gold 2.83g/t, silver 39g/t. The leaching rate of gold is 86.5%, the leaching rate of silver is 48%. The general recovery rate of gold processing and melting is 80.4%. The general recovery rate of silver processing and melting is 38.2%. The value of tailings is brought into full play, and also brings efficiency to the processing plant. 2. A tailings pond in North Korea stored more than 10 million tonnes of gold tailings. The average gold grade of the tailings is 1g/t. The recoverable valuable element is mainly gold, with little other kinds of harmful elements. There is no hidden danger of environmental pollution. Xinhai Mining provided the design of 2500t/d gold tailings flotation plant and helped it to realize the high-efficiency utilization of resource.
YUXI gold recovery equipment is meaning extracting gold and other precious metals from E-waste or other WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment), included electrolytic gold extraction and chemically gold extraction.
Precious metals recovery from electronic waste, extracting gold from computer prats, cell phones, circuit boards, PCB, YUXI gold recovery equipment will turn E-waste into Gold, Free technology and training support.
Different kinds of computer chips/CPUs, PCB, motherboards, connectors, pins, fingers, cellphones (mobile phones), computer Rams (RAM memory sticks), BGA ( ball grid array ), QFP (quad flat package), Ics, PLCC chips, which are all belong to circuit board components.
Free technology support: Our technical engineer will guide you step-by-step to recover gold and all other precious metals from any kinds of electronic waste, Free training support No pollution, environmental protection Free installation. Customized pre-design gold recovery from computer parts equipment One-step turnkey solutions expert for extracting & refining gold / precious metal from circuit boards, computer parts, cell phones, gold recovery from e waste
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Gold extraction from used circuit boards has been very popular in recent years. There is a saying Todays garbage is tomorrows mine. Our company specializes in producing such a set of used circuit board gold extraction equipment, which just verifies this sentence. Let professionals tell you how the circuit board gold extraction equipment extracts gold. With the popularity of electronic products in various fields, especially the acceleration of the replacement of electronic products such as mobile phones, computers and televisions, a large amount of electronic waste is generated. According to , in electronic waste, the gold content per ton of discarded electronic equipment is 17 times that of gold mines, and the copper content of computer circuit board gold extraction equipment is 40 times that of copper mines. Hundreds of millions of tons of e-waste are generated every year in the world, which is like a huge urban mine. The circuit boards of used mobile phones have the highest gold content. According to the United Nations report, metals such as copper, cobalt, silver, and gold in a mobile phone account for 23% of its weight. About 130 kilograms of copper, 2 kilograms of silver, 0.4 kilograms of gold and 80 grams of palladium can be separated from 1 ton of waste mobile phone circuit boards.
Gold extraction equipment from waste circuit boards is used to sort and refine precious metals such as gold, silver, palladium, platinum from electronic waste, precious metal chip components and anode mud. Chips, north-south bridges, storage chips, integrated circuits, and plastic encapsulation field effects that cannot be returned after disassembly are the collective materials that contain the highest amount of gold and silver in the components, and can be used for baking with ozone (ozone can completely destroy the formation of combustion Harmful flue gas), roasting slag adopts dissolving carrier, leaching copper, lead tin, and hydrochloric acid medium to extract gold, platinum and palladium, and extract gold, platinum and palladium. For chip capacitors with high content of silver and palladium, the acid method is used to independently extract silver and palladium. For gold-plated circuit boards and plug-ins, it is recommended to use fluorine-free environmentally friendly gold stripping agent to quickly strip and extract gold. For acoustic surfaces containing silver and palladium, metal encapsulated triodes, and integrated circuits, use a special cutting machine to remove the metal shell and punch out the chip. Then, according to the chip and integrated circuit plan, valuable metals are extracted. For electrolytic capacitors with high aluminum content, they are rolled After crushing, the metal aluminum is directly smelted. For the zener diodes, some varactor diodes, and other glass-encapsulated components, and plastic-encapsulated light-emitting tubes, the valuable metals are extracted after crushing, and the circuit boards are leached with organic acid and subjected to liquid electrolysis. Produce electrolytic copper and palladium-containing circuit boards (the double-sided circuit boards basically contain palladium, and the palladium is used as a copper-plated substrate in the via hole as the wire), and then the palladium is leached with acid, and then the palladium is extracted.
A Sweden smelting plant called Rnnskr did an analysis report about the contains of the scrap computer circuit board. The metals contains can reach 49% high. Also, the scrap cellphone circuit board contains over 6 kinds of valuable metals as gold, silver, palladium, platinum, copper, tin, etc. The rate of each metals are as below: Au 100 g/t, Sliver 3.3 kg/t, Cu 268kg/t, Pd 100g/t, Pt 30g/ton, Sn 3kg/t.
In gold ore mining area, even the grade of the gold ore is less to 3g/t, it still has the mining value. Even for the concentrated gold ore after mining, the gold contains is around 70 g/t only.For some other valuable ores like silver ore or copper ore, the grade is still lower than the scrap PCB.
For different electronic devices, both of the metals rates and the contains are different. Normally the TV boards contains lesser precious metals than computer boards and it contains more iron and nickel. But both of them contain basically same kinds of metal elements.
Compare to extract the precious metals from ore, it will take much less energy consumption to process the scrap circuit board and produce less quantity of secondary waste. The recovered resin can be used as padding material and it can effect reduce the energy loss.
The primary materials industry is currently in a transformation phase following a long period of low raw material prices, which extended from the mid-1980s to the middle of the 1st decade of the current century.
Increased demand for raw materials since the beginning of the millennium has given initial impetus to capacity expansion at existing sites. However, the remaining reserves are limited to some of the large deposits rich in the ore that can readily be processed. Additional resources will have to be invested in the extraction and/or processing to increase production at those sites.
Mining and quarrying are the starting points for recovering rock and minerals from the surface and underground economic mineral deposits. The operations like drilling, blasting, primary crushing optional and materials handling are done at the mine sites.
To sustain the value-add stream, the mining industry should guarantee a continuous flow of primary materials such as ore concentrate in sufficient quantities. Recycling cannot be excluded from the raw material supply debate, but recycling alone cannot fully meet demand in the industrys growth segment. However, recycling can be viewed as urban mining, which provides a domestic and geopolitically secure source of minerals.
Readily accessible primary sources of raw materials containing moderately to highly enriched ore, which can quickly be processed, are now depleted mainly in most countries. In special metals, few deposits anywhere in the world meet all of those criteria.
Essentially what remains consists of ore deposits that fail to fully meet one of the criteria mentioned above or gangue with low concentrations of value minerals leftover from previous processing operations, which now serves as a secondary deposit (tailing dumps).
On the other hand, rapid industrial growth in the emerging nations worldwide is putting considerable stress on the supplies of timeless materials such as copper, nickel and cobalt. New fields of technology and a general increase in the complexity of technical goods have driven up demand for raw materials, which up until now have been available in sufficient quantities as by-products.
As a result of general economic growth and increased productivity worldwide, high-grade ore deposits (high concentration, low dissemination) can no longer satisfy demand, raising the visibility of complex deposits worldwide. Besides, deposits with insufficient or deficient value mineral concentration, complex mineralization or complex composition present real challenges to the engineering perspective.
There is now a tendency for the raw materials extracted from primary sources to be more finely structured and complex. To an increasing extent, the value minerals are only present in low to very low concentrations. As a result, fine to very fine grain sizes are increasingly becoming the norm during the mineral processing stage (comminution/flotation particle size). Typical particle sizes necessary to achieve mineral liberation amounts for good deposits in the range of 50-200 m.
Therefore the development of reliable process technologies for mechanical liberation of the valuable minerals and enrichment of the valuable mineral content by sorting (density sorting, flotation, magnetic separation and electro-separation) and classification down to the 1 (0.5) m range is required.
Ore is an aggregate of economically essential minerals from which a valuable metallic constituent can be profitably mined and extracted. Most of the rock deposits contain metals or minerals. When the concentration of valuable minerals or metals is too low to justify mining, it is considered a waste or gangue material. Within an orebody, the beneficial minerals are surrounded by gangue minerals. It is due to this primary reason; we need to go for mineral processing. It is necessary to liberate and concentrate those valuable minerals from the bulk mass through a suitable mechanical treatment.
Mineral processing refers to all operations of the treatment of crude ore. There are two major primary operations in mineral processing. One is comminution, and the other one is concentration. In addition to these, there are many other sequential secondary operations involved in mineral processing, including sampling and dewatering.
The cleaning of ore by removing certain valueless portions is also needed to maintain the quality in output. The fundamental operations of ore-dressing processes are a) the breaking apart of the associated constituents of the ore by mechanical methods and b) the separation of the valuable components (beneficiation) into concentrate and tailings, using appropriate methods.
For example, most copper deposits have a grade of less than 1% Cu, which is very low. The ore value without processing could justify its mining, but usually, it doesnt, especially for underground mining. The ore should be upgraded to 20%, at least, to be sold and cover the mining costs.
Mineral processing consists of removing gangue from the ore with minimum losses of useful minerals; then, it increases the ores economic value. Moreover, it allows the separation of valuable minerals between each other, which increases the ore value again.
For instance, polymetallic deposits like lead-zinc ores can be beneficiated to produce a bulk concentrate of lead-zinc. Still, also, the bulk concentrate can be separated to lead concentrate and zinc concentrate. The value of separated products is much higher than the bulk concentrate.
By reducing the amount of gangue material, we reduce energy consumption for extractive metallurgy. For example, the extraction of 1 ton of lead from 30% grade ore by smelting requires almost 1.3 more energy than to extract the same quantity of Pb from 60% grade ore.
Besides, in the grinding section, there is a tip to reduce energy consumption. As far as the ore requires fine liberation, more energy for further grinding is needed. But you can minimize the grinding power by removing the maximum possible amount of gangue at a coarse size. For instance, some lead ore can be upgraded by gravity separation at a size of about 1 mm. After that, only the smaller bulk pre-concentrate is ground to 100 microns for Froth flotation.
For instance, the leaching of copper calcite ore by sulfuric acid will be much higher in acid consumption if the amount of calcite is high because calcite is a significant mineral consumption of acidic reagents. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the maximum of calcite before the leaching step.
Today the mining sector uses huge devices to extract large quantities of ore to satisfy the industrial demand. But, without mineral processing, this large volume of ROM cant be subjected to metal extraction, as purification technologies are still reduced in size compared to mining equipment.
Several metallurgical researches concluded that there is a limit of the ore metal content that allows its extraction into a purified form. It may be impossible to extract the metal from the ore under a cut grade.
The amount of losses in extractive metallurgy is intimately related to the feed grade, the ores metal grade. As far as the grade is high, extraction efficiency is high, and metal losses into the slag are low.
The ore concentration by mineral processing operations is always advantageous in terms of capital and operation costs. On the other hand, the direct purification of the valuable part of the ore is costly.
For example, you can clean up silica sand from iron content and other impurities by acid leaching. But usually, it is carried out by simple mechanical agitation, screening, and magnetic separation. Even by froth flotation, these processes are cheaper than chemical treatments.
It is always recommended to separate minerals from gangue by physical methods as far as possible in metallurgy. The reduction of the amount of gangue will reduce reagents consumption and environmental problems.
Physical processes such as crushing, grinding, agitation, screening, gravity separation, magnetic separation, and electrostatic separation are friendly environment operations. Even froth flotation is relatively helpful because it doesnt require large quantities of chemicals.
For example, many old gravity separation tailings contained the right amount of valuable mineral but werent recoverable. The froth flotation processs innovation allowed the beneficiation of these tailings and the recovery of useful minerals.
Mineral processing removes impurities from the ore and allows to produce of a clean product of higher quality. For example, silica sand for metallurgy applications that contains iron impurities less than 0.1% has a higher price than which includes more than 0.1%. But, an amount of 0.3% iron or higher isnt acceptable.
In mineral processing, we need to have enough knowledge and skills in many other disciplines. Physics for running physical separation such as gravity and magnetic separations; mechanical engineering for equipment running and maintenance; chemistry for flotation, leaching and other processes; automation for controlling and sampling; geology and mineralogy; metallurgy; economic; even biology for bioleaching
Engineering challenges in mineral processing include; the optimum grinding size (for ore breakage with minimal input energy), the most efficient process (to adapt to have the most efficient separation between the wanted and unwanted materials), technologies related to the feeding system, the product removal system, the separation vessel designs, etc.
For example, a chromate processing plant has around sixteen percent of Cr2O3 losses because of the very fine size ranges, and the existing technologies are not economically viable to further upgrade the ore.
The mining industry is under increasing economic, environmental and social pressures relating to diverse factors. It is currently contending with the need to redefine itself in the context of sustainability while remaining competitive in increasingly harsh market conditions.
The integration of mining and mineral processing technologies into advanced underground mining systems is considered to provide several benefits that should contribute to sustainability in economic, environmental and social terms. An advanced underground mining systems key technologies would be selective mining technologies; ore pre-concentration technologies, and information technologies for system integration and automation/tele-remote control.
Essential targets for advanced underground mining systems should include: improved ore body characterization; reliable control over ore fragmentation; minimization of waste rock mined; maximum use of underground voids for waste rejection; depreciation of waste rock hoisted to the surface; minimization of the size and extent of the complete surface footprint (relating to infrastructure, waste management and environmental impact); increased production control and capacity (this may relate to throughput rate for development and stoping, as well as other production performance parameters: agility, flexibility, selectivity, reliability, maintainability); maximization of the extent of the mineral resource that can be mined as ore and the mine life; and optimization of the mines overall financial performance (mine, mill and environs).
One possible implication of the above is that mining will be subterranean, submarine, or extraterrestrial in the future. The need is seen for industry-government academia collaborative research for the innovation to develop advanced mining systems.
A likely need is to work in a phased strategy, such as: develop and integrate what are best bet technologies for ore pre-concentration (within the mine workings) using physical processes; over the longer term, develop continuous mining machines that break rock mechanically and link to mobile modules for pre-concentration; ultimately the pre-concentration processing should be evolved into full, chemical processing modules for the recovery of metals, rather than minerals, for in situ recovery; and maintain research from the outset in information technology and automation to facilitate the integration and control of the systems development above.