reecent developments in mining

a look at recent developments in the mining sector

a look at recent developments in the mining sector

On the one hand, the Indian mining sector is seeing the government taking a pro-active role to develop it while on the other, there's a proposal to introduce a bill that may render it as one of the highest taxed in the worldThe Indian mining sector has witnessed various policy changes in recent times. There is a genuine and urgent requirement for mining resources in the country to meet energy requirements of consumers. The Government of India (GOI) has introduced or initiated a series of policy changes for the mining sector, including the proposed Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill 2011, various tax benefits, a liberalized foreign direct investment regime and eligibility for debt funding.

On the one hand, the Indian mining sector is seeing the government taking a pro-active role to develop it while on the other, there's a proposal to introduce a bill that may render it as one of the highest taxed in the worldThe Indian mining sector has witnessed various policy changes in recent times. There is a genuine and urgent requirement for mining resources in the country to meet energy requirements of consumers. The Government of India (GOI) has introduced or initiated a series of policy changes for the mining sector, including the proposed Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill 2011, various tax benefits, a liberalized foreign direct investment regime and eligibility for debt funding.

As per the GOIs recent FDI policy (April, 2012), 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is permitted under the automatic route for mining and exploration of metal and non-metal ores, including diamond, gold, silver and precious ores but excluding titanium-bearing minerals and their ores. In case of coal and lignite, 100% FDI is permitted under the automatic route for captive consumption by power projects, iron and steel and cement units only. 100% FDI under the automatic route is allowed for setting up coal processing plants like washeries.

As per the GOIs recent FDI policy (April, 2012), 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is permitted under the automatic route for mining and exploration of metal and non-metal ores, including diamond, gold, silver and precious ores but excluding titanium-bearing minerals and their ores. In case of coal and lignite, 100% FDI is permitted under the automatic route for captive consumption by power projects, iron and steel and cement units only. 100% FDI under the automatic route is allowed for setting up coal processing plants like washeries.

Under the External Commercial Borrowing (ECB) policy of the GOI, use of ECB proceeds for mining activities is one of the permissible end uses. Up to USD 750 million or equivalent per financial year per borrower under the automatic route can be borrowed. The tenor of the loan should be five years for ECB above USD 20 million and up to USD 750 million or equivalent.In a move to help borrowers raise ECB amidst volatile global markets, RBI has decided to keep the all-in-cost ceiling for ECB at 6 months Libor + 500 bps for ECB with average maturity period of more than 5 years. Mining companies can now import capital goods by availing of short term credit (including buyers/suppliers credit) in the nature of bridge finance under the approval route subject to certain underlying conditions. RBI has now allowed mining companies to refinance their existing rupee borrowings with fresh ECB proceeds. However, only 25% of the ECB proceeds can be used for refinancing purposes and the all-in-cost ceiling should not exceed the permissible all-in-cost prescribed under the ECB policy.

Under the External Commercial Borrowing (ECB) policy of the GOI, use of ECB proceeds for mining activities is one of the permissible end uses. Up to USD 750 million or equivalent per financial year per borrower under the automatic route can be borrowed. The tenor of the loan should be five years for ECB above USD 20 million and up to USD 750 million or equivalent.In a move to help borrowers raise ECB amidst volatile global markets, RBI has decided to keep the all-in-cost ceiling for ECB at 6 months Libor + 500 bps for ECB with average maturity period of more than 5 years. Mining companies can now import capital goods by availing of short term credit (including buyers/suppliers credit) in the nature of bridge finance under the approval route subject to certain underlying conditions. RBI has now allowed mining companies to refinance their existing rupee borrowings with fresh ECB proceeds. However, only 25% of the ECB proceeds can be used for refinancing purposes and the all-in-cost ceiling should not exceed the permissible all-in-cost prescribed under the ECB policy.

The GOI has introduced the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill, 2011 (The Bill), which is all set to replace the existing Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 (The Act), once it is passed by the Indian parliament.

The GOI has introduced the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill, 2011 (The Bill), which is all set to replace the existing Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 (The Act), once it is passed by the Indian parliament.

Grant of License-More transparency and competition The Bill provides that no person shall be eligible for grant of a mineral concession unless such a person is a citizen of India or a company defined under the Companies Act, 1956, or a firm registered under the Partnership Act, 1932 and has registered himself with the Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) or other authorised agencies.The registration of mineral concessions for major minerals will be administered by the IBM, minor minerals shall be administered by the respective state directorate and coal minerals shall be administered by the Central Government.In respect of major minerals, the minimum area for grant of reconnaissance cum exploration licence shall be 100 sq. km, a prospecting license shall be 1 sq. km and a mining lease shall be of 10 hectares. The mining lease for a major mineral shall be granted for a period between 2030 years and can be extended up to a further period of 20 years at a time.The Bill provides that a non-exclusive reconnaissance license, high technology reconnaissance cum exploration licence, prospecting licence and mining lease (hereinafter referred to as mining licenses) in respect of coal minerals, atomic minerals and beach sand minerals shall be granted and extended by the respective state governments only with prior approval of the Central Government.Additionally, mining licenses in respect of coal shall be granted by the state government to a company approved by the Central Government on pre-determined terms and conditions.The Bill envisages a grant of licence or lease to coal mining companies on a competitive bidding and auction process. This does not apply to government companies engaged in coal mining and to companies or corporations which have been awarded a power project on the basis of a competitive bids for tariffs. The GOI has recently notified the Auction by Competitive Bidding of Coal Mines Rules, 2012 (the Auction Rule).The Auction Rule came in to force from February 2, 2012 and provides detailed procedure for allocation of coal blocks through auction by competitive bidding, including procedure for allocation of coal blocks to government companies and to a company or corporation which has been awarded a power project on the basis of competitive bids for tariff.The auction proceeds shall be transferred to the respective state government where the coal block is located.Transfer of licence an aid to financing The Bill allows transfer of mining licenses with state government approval.However, transfer of mining licenses in respect of coal minerals, atomic minerals and beach minerals can only be done with prior approval of the Central Government. In case of financial institutions notified by the Central Government as mortgagees, no approval is required and this will enable banks to fund mining projects.

Grant of License-More transparency and competition The Bill provides that no person shall be eligible for grant of a mineral concession unless such a person is a citizen of India or a company defined under the Companies Act, 1956, or a firm registered under the Partnership Act, 1932 and has registered himself with the Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) or other authorised agencies.The registration of mineral concessions for major minerals will be administered by the IBM, minor minerals shall be administered by the respective state directorate and coal minerals shall be administered by the Central Government.In respect of major minerals, the minimum area for grant of reconnaissance cum exploration licence shall be 100 sq. km, a prospecting license shall be 1 sq. km and a mining lease shall be of 10 hectares. The mining lease for a major mineral shall be granted for a period between 2030 years and can be extended up to a further period of 20 years at a time.The Bill provides that a non-exclusive reconnaissance license, high technology reconnaissance cum exploration licence, prospecting licence and mining lease (hereinafter referred to as mining licenses) in respect of coal minerals, atomic minerals and beach sand minerals shall be granted and extended by the respective state governments only with prior approval of the Central Government.Additionally, mining licenses in respect of coal shall be granted by the state government to a company approved by the Central Government on pre-determined terms and conditions.The Bill envisages a grant of licence or lease to coal mining companies on a competitive bidding and auction process. This does not apply to government companies engaged in coal mining and to companies or corporations which have been awarded a power project on the basis of a competitive bids for tariffs. The GOI has recently notified the Auction by Competitive Bidding of Coal Mines Rules, 2012 (the Auction Rule).The Auction Rule came in to force from February 2, 2012 and provides detailed procedure for allocation of coal blocks through auction by competitive bidding, including procedure for allocation of coal blocks to government companies and to a company or corporation which has been awarded a power project on the basis of competitive bids for tariff.The auction proceeds shall be transferred to the respective state government where the coal block is located.Transfer of licence an aid to financing The Bill allows transfer of mining licenses with state government approval.However, transfer of mining licenses in respect of coal minerals, atomic minerals and beach minerals can only be done with prior approval of the Central Government. In case of financial institutions notified by the Central Government as mortgagees, no approval is required and this will enable banks to fund mining projects.

Payment of royalties, rents and compensations a huge financial burden These provisions of the Bill are very onerous on mine developers and will cause significant financial strain. Under the Bill, GOI proposes a general increase in the amounts paid as royalty and dead rent (as the case may be) to the Central Government or state governments from the existing rates as per the Act.A lessee of a mining lease, in case of a major mineral is required to deposit with the state government an amount calculated at the rate of 1 lakh per hectare of the lease area payable in equal installments over the mining plan period as security.The Bill requires every mineral concession-holder to pay to every family holding occupation or usufruct or traditional rights of the surface of the land over which the licence has been granted, a reasonable annual compensation.Concession-holders are required to pay the following amounts to the District Mineral Foundation, a trust established by the concerned state government with an objective to work for the interest and benefit of persons or families affected by mining activities in the district:

Payment of royalties, rents and compensations a huge financial burden These provisions of the Bill are very onerous on mine developers and will cause significant financial strain. Under the Bill, GOI proposes a general increase in the amounts paid as royalty and dead rent (as the case may be) to the Central Government or state governments from the existing rates as per the Act.A lessee of a mining lease, in case of a major mineral is required to deposit with the state government an amount calculated at the rate of 1 lakh per hectare of the lease area payable in equal installments over the mining plan period as security.The Bill requires every mineral concession-holder to pay to every family holding occupation or usufruct or traditional rights of the surface of the land over which the licence has been granted, a reasonable annual compensation.Concession-holders are required to pay the following amounts to the District Mineral Foundation, a trust established by the concerned state government with an objective to work for the interest and benefit of persons or families affected by mining activities in the district:

The holder of a mining lease is required to allot at least 1 non-transferable share at par for consideration other than cash to each person of the family affected by mining-related operations.Every concession holder has to provide employment to the families affected by the mining activities in accordance with rehabilitation and resettlement policies.Upon termination of a mining lease, the lessee is obliged to compensate the land holder for any damage caused due to the mining activities.The concerned state government should determine the compensation amount payable by the lessee. The Bill also empowers the concerned state government to take stringent action for non-payment of compensations under the Bill, including forfeiture of the security deposit and revocation of lease, etc. The Bill also empowers the Central Government and state governments to levy and collect cess on mining of major mineral in the nature of custom duty or excise duty, when the minerals are exported or sold.Under the extent Foreign Trade Policy of India, mining is considered to be a manufacturing activity, and therefore, mining companies exporting ores and minerals can avail of any of the following schemes:(i) Advance Authorization schemes;(ii) Duty Free Import Authorization scheme;(iii) Duty Exemption Passbook scheme; and(iv) Duty Drawback scheme.

The holder of a mining lease is required to allot at least 1 non-transferable share at par for consideration other than cash to each person of the family affected by mining-related operations.Every concession holder has to provide employment to the families affected by the mining activities in accordance with rehabilitation and resettlement policies.Upon termination of a mining lease, the lessee is obliged to compensate the land holder for any damage caused due to the mining activities.The concerned state government should determine the compensation amount payable by the lessee. The Bill also empowers the concerned state government to take stringent action for non-payment of compensations under the Bill, including forfeiture of the security deposit and revocation of lease, etc. The Bill also empowers the Central Government and state governments to levy and collect cess on mining of major mineral in the nature of custom duty or excise duty, when the minerals are exported or sold.Under the extent Foreign Trade Policy of India, mining is considered to be a manufacturing activity, and therefore, mining companies exporting ores and minerals can avail of any of the following schemes:(i) Advance Authorization schemes;(ii) Duty Free Import Authorization scheme;(iii) Duty Exemption Passbook scheme; and(iv) Duty Drawback scheme.

The Bill empowers the Central Government to establish a body corporate to be named as the National Mining Regulatory Authority (NMRA) to perform various functions assigned under the Bill in relation to major minerals (other than coal). State governments may also establish corresponding state level regulatory authorities. Interestingly, the Central Government may supersede the NMRA for a period of 1 year and appoint a person to exercise its powers and discharge functions.In addition, the Central Government can set up the National Mining Tribunal (National Tribunal) to exercise jurisdiction powers and authority conferred under the Bill. However, any order passed by the NMRA and the state regulatory agency shall not be subject to revision by the National Tribunal.

The Bill empowers the Central Government to establish a body corporate to be named as the National Mining Regulatory Authority (NMRA) to perform various functions assigned under the Bill in relation to major minerals (other than coal). State governments may also establish corresponding state level regulatory authorities. Interestingly, the Central Government may supersede the NMRA for a period of 1 year and appoint a person to exercise its powers and discharge functions.In addition, the Central Government can set up the National Mining Tribunal (National Tribunal) to exercise jurisdiction powers and authority conferred under the Bill. However, any order passed by the NMRA and the state regulatory agency shall not be subject to revision by the National Tribunal.

Under the extent Foreign Trade Policy of India, mining is considered to be a manufacturing activity, and therefore, mining companies exporting ores and minerals can avail of any of the following schemes: (i) Advance Authorization schemes; (ii) Duty Free Import Authorization scheme; (iii) Duty Exemption Passbook scheme; and (iv) Duty Drawback scheme. Under the 3% Concessional EPCG scheme, capital goods imported for mining would qualify for concessional rates of customs duty @ 3 % subject to certain export obligations being fulfilled. Capital goods and equipment imported for the purposes of a specific mining project also attracts customs duty at a lower rate of 10 %, subject to certain conditions.Under the Finance Bill, 2012, capital goods being imported by the importer have been presently exempted from basic customs duty in order to boost the coal mining. Basic customs duty on capital goods and equipment imported for setting up or substantially expanding iron ore beneficiation or pellet plants and for surveying or prospecting mines have been reduced.Additionally, under Indian tax law, mining companies exporting minerals can avail of a deduction equivalent to the profits derived from such export in computation of their total income, subject to certain conditions.

Under the extent Foreign Trade Policy of India, mining is considered to be a manufacturing activity, and therefore, mining companies exporting ores and minerals can avail of any of the following schemes: (i) Advance Authorization schemes; (ii) Duty Free Import Authorization scheme; (iii) Duty Exemption Passbook scheme; and (iv) Duty Drawback scheme. Under the 3% Concessional EPCG scheme, capital goods imported for mining would qualify for concessional rates of customs duty @ 3 % subject to certain export obligations being fulfilled. Capital goods and equipment imported for the purposes of a specific mining project also attracts customs duty at a lower rate of 10 %, subject to certain conditions.Under the Finance Bill, 2012, capital goods being imported by the importer have been presently exempted from basic customs duty in order to boost the coal mining. Basic customs duty on capital goods and equipment imported for setting up or substantially expanding iron ore beneficiation or pellet plants and for surveying or prospecting mines have been reduced.Additionally, under Indian tax law, mining companies exporting minerals can avail of a deduction equivalent to the profits derived from such export in computation of their total income, subject to certain conditions.

The Finance Bill, 2012 has proposed to extend the transfer pricing regulations to the transactions entered into by domestic related parties (i.e. between related parties or other undertakings of the same entity), which exceed a monetary threshold of Rs. 5 crores (US$ 1 million approx.) in aggregate during the year.

The Finance Bill, 2012 has proposed to extend the transfer pricing regulations to the transactions entered into by domestic related parties (i.e. between related parties or other undertakings of the same entity), which exceed a monetary threshold of Rs. 5 crores (US$ 1 million approx.) in aggregate during the year.

Services would include services provided to any person "in relation to" mining of minerals. The present rate of service tax that is applicable has been increased to 12.36% on the gross amount of taxable service.

Services would include services provided to any person "in relation to" mining of minerals. The present rate of service tax that is applicable has been increased to 12.36% on the gross amount of taxable service.

Presently the Indian mining sector is going through a difficult time due to various political and regulatory uncertainties. On one hand, we are witnessing governments taking a pro-active role to develop the mining sector by liberalizing the foreign investment regime, bring in transparency in allotment of mines, enbling overseas borrowings and providing tax incentives, and on the other hand, proposing to enact the Bill which may render the Indian mining sector as one of the highest taxed in the world. As these costs will be passed on to domestic consumers, this could have a spiralling inflationary effect on the entire commodities sector and needs a rethink before their introduction.

Presently the Indian mining sector is going through a difficult time due to various political and regulatory uncertainties. On one hand, we are witnessing governments taking a pro-active role to develop the mining sector by liberalizing the foreign investment regime, bring in transparency in allotment of mines, enbling overseas borrowings and providing tax incentives, and on the other hand, proposing to enact the Bill which may render the Indian mining sector as one of the highest taxed in the world. As these costs will be passed on to domestic consumers, this could have a spiralling inflationary effect on the entire commodities sector and needs a rethink before their introduction.

recent developments in mining law - energy and natural resources - kenya

recent developments in mining law - energy and natural resources - kenya

On 12 October 2012, the Minister for Environment and Mineral Resources promulgated The Mining (Local Equity Participation) Regulations, 2012 under the Mining Act which essentially sought to introduce mandatory equity participation of Kenyan citizens in the mining sector.

The operative provision of the Regulations states that "It shall be a condition of every mining licence that the mineral right in respect of which the licence is issued shall have a component of local equity participation amounting to at least thirty five per cent (35%) of the mineral right." The Regulations define "local equity" as the share of interest in a mining right which should be held by a citizen of Kenya.

The Regulations are poorly drafted. For instance, it is not clear what the terms "mineral right" or "mining right" refer to as these have no specific meaning under Kenyan law. It is also not clear what is referred to in the Regulations as a "mining licence" as the Mining Act only provides for grant of prospecting rights, exclusive prospecting licences, registered locations and mining leases.

However, if these are to be construed as the "mining licences" referred to in the Regulations, there are inconsistencies with the provisions of the Mining Act that would impede the implementation of the Regulations from a legal perspective.

First, with regard to prospecting rights and exclusive prospecting licences - according to the Act - any minerals obtained pursuant to prospecting rights or exclusive prospecting licences would be the property of the Government and accordingly there would be no "mineral right" or "mining right" to which the Regulations could apply.

Secondly, with regard to registered locations or mining leases, the Act provides that holders of mining leases or registered locations will have exclusive rights to prospect/mine and therefore to the extent that the Regulations have the effect of depriving existing holders of registered locations or mining leases of such exclusivity, the Regulations would be inconsistent with its enabling legislation (the Mining Act) and in our view, void.

There has also been uncertainty on the possible retroactive effect of the Regulations with respect to "mining licences" issued before the Regulations came into force. Under Kenyan law, unless specifically stated, legislation in general is presumed not to have retroactive effect.

We understand that the Attorney General has recently confirmed this position in advice provided to Base Titanium Limited, one of the affected investors who have been seeking clarification on the application of the regulation to its existing Special Mining Licence.

We would add that there are Constitutional restraints on retroactive legislation, particularly where the retroactive application seeks to deprive a person of property rights and insofar as the Regulations have the effect of depriving existing holders of "mining licences" of their exclusive rights, we would consider the Regulations to be contrary to the Constitution and therefore void.

We are not aware of any steps taken to seek judicial guidance on the application of the Regulations. However, as the drafting of the Regulations is so poor, it is it difficult to say with any certainty how a Kenyan court would apply them in any particular circumstance.

for other reasons. Section 92(1)(ix) of the Mining Act which grants the Minister power to prescribe regulations only empowers the Minister to prescribe the applicable "working and any other conditions" of licences, locations and mining leases. Applying the usual rules of interpretation, we consider the power of the Minister in this regard to extend to only prescribing working conditions and other conditions of the same nature. We do not consider that equity participation is of the same nature as working conditions. Accordingly, it can be argued that the Regulations are also void on the grounds that they are beyond the powers of the Minister (ultra vires) under the Act.

At the same time, there have been consultations among stakeholders and the Government on a new Bill for the mining sector which is intended to replace the current Mining Act. However, the draft Bill was not presented for debate before expiry of the term of Parliament and it is expected that the Bill will be introduced in Parliament after the General Elections in March 2013.

We need this to enable us to match you with other users from the same organisation, it is also part of the information that we share to our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

recent developments in qubec mining royalties - energy and natural resources - canada

recent developments in qubec mining royalties - energy and natural resources - canada

In Qubec, as elsewhere in Canada, mining royalties are often granted, along with cash and/or share consideration, to sellers in property option transactions. Mining royalties are payments made to the holder by the owner of a mineral project. The most common types of mining royalties are the net smelter return (NSR) royalty which is based on proceeds of production from a mineral project less smelting, refining and transportation fees paid by a smelter or refiner to the owner and the net profit interest (NPI) or net proceeds (NPR) royalty, which are both based on profits after deducting costs relating to production.

Until recently, the established view in Qubec had been that a mining royalty did not create an ownership or property right, but rather a personal right. This is an important distinction because a royalty holder with a personal right only has a recourse against the grantor of the royalty. As a personal right, the royalty could effectively be worthless if the underlying mining claim is transferred to a third party and such new holder of the claim did not contractually assume the obligations of the grantor under the royalty agreement or if the grantor becomes insolvent. In order to protect against these risks, the best practice that has evolved in Qubec has been to secure the obligations under the royalty agreement with a hypothec and to include in it restrictive covenants with respect to transfers to third parties and registration.

In a notable recent development, however, the Qubec Court of Appeal held in Anglo Pacific Group PLC v. Ernst & Young Inc. ("Anglo Pacific") that it was possible for the holder of a mining claim to grant a property right, not only in the mining claim itself, but also in the minerals underlying the claim that the holder becomes entitled to extract upon the issuance of a mining lease with respect to the claim. In other words, it is possible for the holder of a Qubec mining claim to grant a royalty in minerals that is a property right, though the right would be subject to the issuance of a mining lease and would only become effective or "attach" to the minerals at the earliest when the mining lease is issued and, more likely, when the minerals have been extracted.

All things being equal, a royalty holder would prefer to have a royalty that gives rise to a property right rather than a personal right largely because the right is enforceable directly against the property, it is not affected by any subsequent security granted by the owner to third parties (including its lenders) and it is not subject to loss if the underlying mining claim is transferred to a third party or if the grantor becomes insolvent.

One of the main practical difficulties with trying to create royalties contemplated by Anglo-Pacific that constitute property rights may be that the royalty holder must be granted a direct right in one or more of the ownership attributes of the property (the right to use, enjoy the products from or dispose of the property) and these rights must be capable of being exercised directly over the property. While this is clear enough in principle, in practice royalty agreements are rarely drafted with a view to providing a royalty holder with property rights that are this broad. There is also the question of whether the grant of property rights may require the holder to assume certain obligations or liabilities of an owner, such as environmental liabilities, which would evidently be problematic from the royalty holders' perspective.

Unfortunately, while Anglo Pacific establishes that it is theoretically possible to create a royalty that gives rise to property rights, the decision contains very little information as to how this should be done in practice. Accordingly, one of the biggest challenges in drafting a royalty that creates property rights may be that, although it will likely be more complicated and costly than a typical royalty agreement, there is no certainty the parties will have "met the threshold" of creating a property right unless it is contested and a court ultimately makes that determination.

The main advantage of drafting royalty agreements to create personal rights is that it provides a predictable level of comfort with respect to enforceability. The disadvantage is that the royalty holder is always dependent on the agreement with the owner to enforce its rights. If the covenants in the agreement are breached, the royalty holder may not be made whole and even the hypothec securing the obligations may not provide protection if other secured debt has a preferential ranking. In theory, a royalty holder with leverage may be able to negotiate with the owner to ensure that its hypothec is not subordinated to the hypothec(s) securing project financing though, in practice, this is rarely an option.

Surprisingly, even though it has long been generally accepted that mining royalties in Qubec create personal rights, many people incorrectly assume that royalty agreements create real rights and fail to request the necessary contractual protections (such as obtaining from the grantor of the royalty a hypothec to secure those rights). While there are a number of important provisions to consider from a royalty holder's perspective in drafting a good agreement, the inclusion of the following are particularly important:

It is also important from the perspective of a royalty holder in this context to obtain a hypothec from the owner to secure the obligations under the royalty agreement. Hypothecs entered into to secure royalty rights should, amongst other things:

The decision in Anglo-Pacific means that there are now more possibilities than ever in drafting Qubec royalty agreements. Regardless of which road parties choose to go down, it is important that agreements be drafted correctly and take into account the peculiarities of Qubec's civil law, in order for the parties to obtain the benefits of their bargains.

We need this to enable us to match you with other users from the same organisation, it is also part of the information that we share to our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

recent developments in web usage mining research | springerlink

recent developments in web usage mining research | springerlink

Web Usage Mining is that area of Web Mining which deals with the extraction of interesting knowledge from logging information produced by web servers. In this paper, we present a survey of the recent developments in this area that is receiving increasing attention from the Data Mining community.

Related Equipments