rotary kiln question and answer

some questions and answers of cement rotary kiln

some questions and answers of cement rotary kiln

The maximum recommended rotary kiln shell temperature varies by plant, by country and by rotary kiln manufacturer, despite the fact that most rotary kiln shells are made of low alloy carbon steel. Age of the rotary kiln shell, distance between the tires, and structure of the shell are some important points should be considered before deciding what the maximum allowable temperature for a rotary kiln is. Let us explain these points briefly:

2. Distance between tires: The longer the rotary kiln shell span, the less it will resist high temperatures without sagging. Therefore, longer spans have more tendencies to develop permanent deformation than shorter spans.

3. Kiln shell structure: Kiln shells are made with structural rolled steel plate, such as A.S.T.M. A36. The tensile strength of this type of steel at room temperature is 50,000 to 80,000 psi. As stated before shell strength is measured at a room temperature. Figure-1 is showing how shell strength drops considerably as its temperature is raised. It is interesting to notice that there is a gain in strength between room temperature and 200 C, followed by a sharp loss in strength as the temperature goes up. At 430 C the ultimate strength of the steel drops from 75,000 psi to 50,000 psi (a hefty 33%) loss. Some investigators report a 50% strength loss for the same temperature range.

Hot spot is isolated area on the rotary kiln shell with abnormally high temperature. It is quickly detected by a shell scanner or with a portable infra-red pyrometer. It cant be seen during the day, and can hardly be seen at night (figure-2). Therefore, based on the visible radiation spectrum for hot surfaces, their maximum temperature must be below 550C.

The short answer is 550C if the spot is permanent and persistent. This is a short answer, but when we talk about red spot, damaging of shell, long kiln stoppage, and losing millions of Riyals or Dollars; this answer cannot be

1. Proximity of the red spot to the tires or gear: Red spots near tires and bull gears require immediate action. These spots almost invariably force the kiln down. Shutdown procedure must start immediately to avoid damaging the kiln shell.

2. Extension of the red spot: The longer the circumferential extension of the red spot, the greater the risk of shell permanent deformation or collapse. If there is any persistent red spot covering more than 10% of the kiln circumference (figure-4); Kiln should stop immediately.

3. Kiln alignment conditions: Misaligned kilns induce localized stresses along the kiln length. If the red spot coincides with an area of stress concentration, the shell sometimes elongates or twists beyond recovery.

4. Whether the red spot is exposed or under roof: If the kiln shell is directly exposed to the elements and a heavy rainstorm hits the red spot, the shell may develop cracks under sudden quenching. Sometimes the brick results severely crushed in the red spot area.

It is an oxygen injection system connects to kiln burner or precalciner burner to enhance the combustion of the fuel. In general, the use of oxygen enriched combustion air in the clinker burning process allows an increase of the energy efficiency, production capacity or substitution of fossil fuels by low calorific value or (secondary) fuels and that way the specific CO2 emissions can be reduced.

By the use of additional oxygen the nitrogen fraction of the combustion gas is decreased, which has to be heated up in the case of combustion with ambient air. Therefore the adiabatic flame temperature rises and the flame becomes shorter and brighter. The measure is limited by increasing damages of the rotary kiln refractory and higher NOX emissions due to increasing thermal NOX formation in the sintering zone. In practice the application of the oxygen enrichment is still at an early stage, meaning that the technology contains potential for further optimization with respect to NOx emission reduction. Due to reduced secondary air flow the heat recuperation in the clinker cooler might be affected for example with a higher secondary air temperature as well.

The oxygen enrichment technology is established in some cement plants in order to improve production capacity. An increase of 25% to 50% (short term experiments) rotary kiln capacity by oxygen enrichment to 30-35 vol.% in the combustion air has been reported. Oxygen enrichment has not been applied to reduce CO2 emissions so far. But the use of enriched combustion air may result in fuel savings and thereby avoids CO2 production. The decision for a dedicated oxygen supply system (on-site/off-site) depends on the specific need of the cement plant. Oxygen production itself leads to comparatively high additional power consumption.

Surely; there are a number of plants using oxygen enrichment technique but still not commercially due to its high cost. If market demand exists with good prices for cement then oxygen enrichment can be a good option. Table-1 shows a number of rotary kilns in the USA using oxygen enrichment of either the main burner or the precalciner.

cement rotary kiln questions & answers

cement rotary kiln questions & answers

The short answer is 550C if the spot is permanent and persistent. This is a short answer, but when we talk about red spot, damaging of shell, long kiln stoppage, and losing millions of Riyals or Dollars; this answer cannot be acceptable. A number of factors are absolutely necessary to be considered in any red spot before taking the decision of kiln stoppage:

1. Proximity of the red spot to the tires or gear: Red spots near tires and bull gears require immediate action. These spots almost invariably force the kiln down. Shutdown procedure must start immediately to avoid damaging the kiln shell.

2. Extension of the red spot: The longer the circumferential extension of the red spot, the greater the risk of shell permanent deformation or collapse. If there is any persistent red spot covering more than 10% of the kiln circumference (figure-4); Kiln should stop immediately.

3. Kiln alignment conditions: Misaligned kilns induce localized stresses along the kiln length. If the red spot coincides with an area of stress concentration, the shell sometimes elongates or twists beyond recovery.

4. Whether the red spot is exposed or under roof: If the kiln shell is directly exposed to the elements and a heavy rainstorm hits the red spot, the shell may develop cracks under sudden quenching. Sometimes the brick results severely crushed in the red spot area.

the charge to a portland cement rotary kiln contains

the charge to a portland cement rotary kiln contains

The charge to a Portland cement rotary kiln contains 33.50 % CO2, 42.50 % CaO, 13.00 % SiO2, 8.00 % Fe2O3,3.0 % MgO. The coke used is hydrogen free and dry and contains 8 % ash. The clinkers contains 63.42% CaO, 28% MgO, (11.42% Fe2O3, Al2O3) and 21.88% SiO2. The flue gas contains 31.3 % CO2, 1.8 % O2 and the balance is nitrogen. Calculate per 100 kg of clinker

rotary kiln incinerator - design and manufacture

rotary kiln incinerator - design and manufacture

The rotary kiln incinerator is manufactured with a rotating combustion chamber that keeps waste moving, thereby allowing it to vaporize for easier burning. Types of waste treated in a rotary kiln incinerator

The picture"photo 1"gives a schematic overvieuw of the systemmanufactured totreat the waste in a rotating drum, we use a counter current rotary kiln. There are 2 different types of rotary kiln, co-current rotary kilns and counter current rotary kilns. Read here more about the different types of rotary kiln.

Energy recovery is always an individual design, and very attractive is electricity. But electricity is also the most complicated and less economical profitable for small installations ( the min. capacity is 3 ton/h of waste). If heat can be used in another process on site, for example in a dryer. It has to be taken into consideration that a connection between incinerator and the production process (dryer) can be the most efficient solution. The disadvantage can be if there is a production stop of the incinerator, the process (dryer) can not always stop at the same time.

For example : We produce steam as energy recovery, also for electricity production. The post combustion is strictly vertical and the boiler also has a vertical design for evacuation of dust. Our design is made for continuous operation of a steam boiler. The next drawing gives a possible set up of the installation. This is our set-up, created by people with operation experience with incinerators, and it results in this lay-out.

Depending on the amount of Chlorine, S, N or other chemicals in the waste stream there is a wet or/and dry scrubbing system available for the flue gas treatment. Flue gas treatment systems are standard systems, and normal chemical reaction. So, for correct flue gas treatment we need to take care for:

rotary kilns

rotary kilns

FEECO is a leading manufacturer of highly engineered, custom rotary kilns for processing solids. Our high temperature kilns have earned a reputation for their durability, efficiency, and longevity. We offer both direct- and indirect-fired units.

Rotary kilns work by processing material in a rotating drum at high temperatures for a specified retention time to cause a physical change or chemical reaction in the material being processed. The kiln is set at a slight slope to assist in moving material through the drum.

Direct-fired kilns utilize direct contact between the material and process gas to efficiently process the material. Combustion can occur in a combustion chamber to avoid direct flame radiation, or the flame can be directed down the length of the kiln.

All FEECO equipment and process systems can be outfitted with the latest in automation controls from Rockwell Automation. The unique combination of proprietary Rockwell Automation controls and software, combined with our extensive experience in process design and enhancements with hundreds of materials provides an unparalleled experience for customers seeking innovative process solutions and equipment.

Indirect-fired kilns are used for various processing applications, such as when processing must occur in an inert environment, when working with finely divided solids, or when the processing environment must be tightly controlled.

Calcination refers to the process of heating a material to a temperature that will cause chemical dissociation (chemical separation). This process is used frequently in the creation of inorganic materials, for example, the dissociation of calcium carbonate to create calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.

Thermal desorption is also a separation process. This process uses heat to drive off a volatile component, such as a pesticide, from an inorganic mineral, such as sand. The component is vaporized at the increased temperature, causing a separation without combustion. In some cases, an indirect rotary kiln would be best for this application, because the volatile chemicals may be combustible. The indirect kiln will supply the heat for desorption, without the material coming into direct contact with the flame.

Organic combustion refers to the treatment of organic wastes with the intent of reducing mass and volume. Organic waste is treated in the kiln, leaving behind an ash with considerably less mass and volume. This allows for more efficient and effective deposit of waste materials into landfills.

Sintering is the process of heating a raw material to the point just before melting. This increases the strength of the material, and is commonly used in the proppant industry, where sand or ceramic materials are made stronger.

Heat setting involves bonding a heat resistant core mineral with another, less heat resistant coating material. Unlike an unheated coating process, here, a rotary kiln heats the coating material to just below liquefaction point, allowing it to coat the heat resistant core more evenly and more securely. This process is commonly seen in the manufacture of roofing granules, where a mineral such as granite is coated with a colored pigment, producing a product that is both durable and aesthetically pleasing.

Reduction roasting is the removal of oxygen from a component of an ore usually by using carbon monoxide (CO). The CO is typically supplied by mixing a carbonaceous material such as coal or coke with the ore or by feeding it separately. Examples are the reduction roasting of a hematite containing material to produce magnetite that can be magnetically separated. In the Waelz process, zinc oxide in steel mill wastes is reduced to metallic zinc and volatilized for recovery in the off-gas system.

Thermal Desorption for Spent CatalystsRotary Kiln3D Indirect Kiln for Activated CarbonPyrolysis Kiln Seal3D FEECO Pyrolysis KilnPyrolysis KilnWorn Rotary Kiln RefractoryKiln Alignment SoftwareBatch Rotary Kiln TestingProcessing Challenges When Working with Rotary KilnsFEECO Batch Kiln BrochureIndustry Focus COVID-19 Demands Medical Waste Incineration CapacityIndirect Fired Rotary Kiln ReplacementRotary Kiln IncineratorsResource of the Week: Thermal Testing with Kilns3D Model of a FEECO Carbon Activation KilnRotary Kiln Testing ThumbnailRotary Kiln TestingIndirect Batch Rotary Kiln Testing, Batch Calciner Testing, Thermal Process DevelopmentKnowing When its Time to Replace Your Rotary Drum Seal, Leaf SealRotary Drum Drive ComponentsRotary Drum BreechingReplacement Rotary Drum BearingsBoomin Catalyst Market Drives Demand for Rotary Kiln Repair Services, Rotary KilnsReplacement Dryer (Drier) and Kiln BurnersCombustion ChambersReplacement Rotary Drum ShellRotary Drum Laser Alignment Process, Rotary Drum AlignmentWhy Post Maintenance Alignment is Critical to Rotary DrumsCauses of Tire (Tyre) and Trunnion Wear, Rotary Drum TireFEECO Tire (Tyre) Grinding Machine, Tire and Trunnion Grinding in ProgressRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Pattern from Excessive Wheel Skewing, Rotary Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Pattern from Poor Housekeeping Practices, Rotary Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Pattern from Misalignment, Rotary Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Pattern from Using Improper Tire Lubricant, Rotary Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingTire (Tyre) and Trunnion Wheel GrindingTire (Tyre) and Trunnion GrindingIndirect Rotary Kiln (Calciner) for Plastics PyrolysisPlastic to Fuel Conversion via Pyrolysis Replacement Rotary Drum PartsRotary Drum Thrust RollersRotary Drum Trunnion Wheels (Rollers)Rotary Drum Riding Ring (Tire/Tyre)Resource of the Week: Girth Gears PageRotary Kiln System Optimization, Rotary Kiln Process AuditSpring-Mounted Replacement Rotary Drum Girth GearRotary Kiln Gains Traction as E-Waste Crisis Looms, Metal Recovery from E-WasteIndirect Batch Rotary Kiln Testing, Batch Calciner Testing, Thermal Process Development, Metal RecoveryDirect-Fired Rotary KilnRotary Kiln Chain and Sprocket Drive AssemblyRotary Kiln Gear and Pinion Drive AssemblyRotary Kiln Friction Drive AssemblyRotary Kiln Direct Drive AssemblyRotary Kiln Trunnion BaseRotary kiln end dam for increasing loading, retention time, and bed depthResource of the Week: Rotary Kiln Customization Slideshare PresentationKaolin Clay CalcinationLithium-ion Battery Recycling OpportunitiesRotary Kilns in Expanded Clay Aggregate ProductionBatch Kiln for Testing Expanded Clay AggregatesRotary Kiln Refractory Failure Illustration, Rotary Kiln Shell Hot SpotRotary Kiln Refractory InspectionDirect-Fired Rotary Kiln for SpodumeneCalciner (Indirect Kiln) for Lithium Recovery from SpodumeneRotary Kiln Complete SystemFEECO Batch Kiln for Testing CalcinationRotary Drum Drive BaseRotary Kilns for Advanced Thermal Processing in SustainabilityResource of the Week: Project Profile on a Rotary Kiln (Calciner) Resource Recovery SystemResource of the Week: Tire Grinding BrochureResource of the Week: Slideshare Presentation on Rotary Kiln Sizing and DesignResource of the Week: Unitized Drive Base BrochureDiagram Showing a Rotary Kiln with Co-current AirflowDiagram Showing a Rotary Kiln with Counter Current AirflowDiagram Showing Co-current Airflow View All >

The advantages to a FEECO rotary kiln are that it is built to the highest quality standards and is backed by over 60 years of process design experience. The FEECO Innovation Center offers batch and pilot scale kilns that can simulate conditions in continuous commercial rotary kilns, allowing our customers to test small samples of material under various process conditions, as well as part of a continuous process. With options in both co-current and counter-current flow, and direct or indirect configurations, the FEECO test kilns offer a variety of options to suit your thermal testing needs. We also offer support equipment such as a combustion chamber, afterburner, baghouse, and wet scrubber for testing.

rotary kilns: frequently asked questions (faqs)

rotary kilns: frequently asked questions (faqs)

As a cornerstone technique in engineering the raw materials and products our constantly evolving society depends on, the advanced thermal processing carried out in rotary kilns is an integral component of modern industrial processing.

The diverse nature of rotary kilns makes them a vessel for accomplishing just about any objective associated with thermal processing. Most commonly, rotary kilns are used to carry out the following reactions:

Its important to note that each process listed above is a broad thermal processing technique, covering an array of applications. These specific applications often have their own name within the industry, or may facilitate a subset of reactions. For example, in the extraction of lithium ore from spodumene, calcination is used to cause decrepitation, or the shattering of the crystal structure, in order to convert alpha spodumene to beta spodumene.

More specifically, rotary kilns process material at a predetermined temperature for a predetermined amount of time (referred to as residence or retention time) based on the unique temperature profile of the material to be processed. By controlling temperature and retention time, rotary kilns can initiate and carry out chemical reactions or phase changes in a controlled setting.

Rotary kilns are a large, rotating drum that can be either of the direct or indirect configuration. In the direct configuration, the kiln can be designed for either co-current (parallel) or counter-current air flow. As solids pass through the drum, the heating medium increases their temperature. The constant rotation of the drum creates a tumbling action that redistributes the bed of material for even heat transfer throughout the bed. Tumbling flights and other internals can be added to further optimize processing.

In a direct-fired kiln, the material is in direct contact with the products of combustion, with the heat passing through the kilns interior. Conversely, in an indirect-fired rotary kiln, the processing environment is sealed off, and the rotating drum is externally heated in order to prevent contact between the material and any products of combustion. Instead, the material is heated through contact with the drum shell.

As a result, there are some differences in design between these two types of rotary kilns, such as the use of a heating shroud/furnace (for indirect), refractory (in the direct kiln), and the materials of construction, among other things. Indirect kilns are also commonly referred to as calciners, though the term is not always technically correct.

Rotary kiln design is a complex undertaking, as advanced thermal processing techniques and chemical engineering principles come into play. This is especially true considering that many kiln applications are new, and must be developed from scratch.

The design process may differ depending on how much is known about the material and its physical and chemical behavior under heat. Most often, the design process begins with a thermal and chemical analysis of the material, followed by batch rotary kiln testing.

Material is tested in either a batch indirect or direct kiln to gather initial process data points. Testing continues, advancing to a pilot-scale test kiln to scale up the process and refine process and material variables to produce a product with the desired characteristics.

Rotary kilns can be designed for handling a broad range of capacities, from small, batch-scale units processing anywhere from 50 to 200 lb/hr, to commercial-scale units processing material in the range of 200 lb/hr to 20 TPH.

While there is some overlap between rotary drum dryers and kilns, the key difference lies in the intent: is the processing intended to simply dry the material, or is some sort of chemical reaction or phase change required?

Selection of the proper material is based on the material characteristics (i.e., abrasiveness and corrosiveness), as well as the temperatures employed and whether the unit will be of the direct or indirect design. Since direct kilns employ refractory, they are typically constructed of carbon steel. Indirect kilns, however, which cannot use refractory as it would add another layer for heat to pass through, do not use refractory and therefore must be able to withstand greater temperatures and hence, are constructed from a more heat-resistant alloy.

The temperature(s) at which a rotary kiln operates is specific to the reaction requirements of the material being processed and therefore differs in every setting. In general, however, rotary kilns can process material at temperatures ranging from 800 to 3000F (430 to 1650C).

Programmable logic controllers (PLCs), motor control centers (MCCs), and data collection systems can all be integrated into the rotary kiln system for improved data collection, process control, and advanced reporting.

Residence time, also known as retention time, is the amount of time in which the material is processed in the kiln. As with temperature, the residence time is determined solely on the requirements of the intended reaction.

The rotary kiln is an essential thermal processing device. As its use continues to spread to an increasing number of applications and industries, questions around everything from the rotary kilns capabilities to its operation arise. As the leading provider of custom rotary kilns, FEECO can answer all of your rotary kiln questions.

FEECO rotary kilns are robust and engineered around their precise application for optimal processing. Batch and pilot kiln testing is available in our Innovation Center to assist in commercial-scale kiln design and process scale-up, and we also offer a comprehensive line of parts and service support to keep your kiln running reliably for years to come. For more information on our rotary kilns, contact us today!

rotary kilns | sciencedirect

rotary kilns | sciencedirect

Rotary Kilnsrotating industrial drying ovensare used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. This new edition contains an updated CFD section with inclusion of recent case studies and in line with recent developments covers pyrolysis processes, torrefaction of biomass, application of rotary kilns in C02 capture and information on using rotary kilns as incinerators for hydrocarbons.

Rotary Kilnsrotating industrial drying ovensare used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns.

This new edition contains an updated CFD section with inclusion of recent case studies and in line with recent developments covers pyrolysis processes, torrefaction of biomass, application of rotary kilns in C02 capture and information on using rotary kilns as incinerators for hydrocarbons.

Rotary Kilnsrotating industrial drying ovensare used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. This new edition contains an updated CFD section with inclusion of recent case studies and in line with recent developments covers pyrolysis processes, torrefaction of biomass, application of rotary kilns in C02 capture and information on using rotary kilns as incinerators for hydrocarbons.

Rotary Kilnsrotating industrial drying ovensare used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns.

This new edition contains an updated CFD section with inclusion of recent case studies and in line with recent developments covers pyrolysis processes, torrefaction of biomass, application of rotary kilns in C02 capture and information on using rotary kilns as incinerators for hydrocarbons.

top 250+ electrician interview questions and answers 08 july 2021 - electrician interview questions | wisdom jobs india

top 250+ electrician interview questions and answers 08 july 2021 - electrician interview questions | wisdom jobs india

Do you completed your graduation? Looking for job? Then electrician job is a good choice for you. Searching for low stress ways to get succeed for electrician job interviews? An electrician is a tradesman specializing in electrical things. Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical infrastructure. Electricians may also specialize in wiring ships and airplanes. There are many electrician jobs available in wisdom jobs such as ITI electrician, AV technician, BMS operator and HVAC operator etc.Electrician job role involves Assemble, install, test, and maintain electrical or electronic wiring, equipment, appliances, apparatus, and fixtures, using hand tools and power tools. Please have a look at our electrician job interview question and answers page to crack in your interview.

Answer :The rotary kiln in the application area, the numbers to be most cement industry. The whole process of cement production line summarized as 'two ground a burn,' with 'a burning,' is made by grinding good raw material, in the high temperature of kiln under the action of the process of burning become clinker. The equipment is also widely used in metallurgical, chemical, building, refractory material, environmental protection, and other industries. The rotary kiln under high temperature overloaded alternating slow operation, and its annex equipment maintenance and thermal rail system related to the level of control of the rotary kiln working safety and efficiency. Therefore, rotary kiln cement produces the host, commonly known as the cement factory 'heart'.Rotary kiln cement industry forged in the main equipment burn the cement clinker. The stand or fall of sealing device directly affects the thermal rail system and run the rotary kiln capital. Strengthen rotary kiln daily maintenance data analysis of the pack; be helpful for equipment management work. Cement kiln is used for making of cement clinker and there are dry and wet methods to make cement. Metallurgy chemical kiln is used in metallurgy industry and ironworks for lean iron ore, chromium ore and ferronickel ore calcimine. Rotary kiln is used for calcimine of high aluminum vandal ochre in refractory material industry; for calcimine of calotte and aluminum hydroxide in aluminum manufacturer; for claiming of chrome sand ore and chrome powder ore in chemical plant.Lime kiln is used for baking active lime and dolomite in the steel factory and ferroalloy factory. Rotary kiln is the main equipment for calcining cement clinker and it can be used widely for cement industry ,metallurgy industry ,chemical industry , etc.Which can be divided into cement kiln ,metallurgy chemical kiln and lime kiln according to different materials.

The rotary kiln in the application area, the numbers to be most cement industry. The whole process of cement production line summarized as 'two ground a burn,' with 'a burning,' is made by grinding good raw material, in the high temperature of kiln under the action of the process of burning become clinker. The equipment is also widely used in metallurgical, chemical, building, refractory material, environmental protection, and other industries.

The rotary kiln under high temperature overloaded alternating slow operation, and its annex equipment maintenance and thermal rail system related to the level of control of the rotary kiln working safety and efficiency. Therefore, rotary kiln cement produces the host, commonly known as the cement factory 'heart'.Rotary kiln cement industry forged in the main equipment burn the cement clinker. The stand or fall of sealing device directly affects the thermal rail system and run the rotary kiln capital. Strengthen rotary kiln daily maintenance data analysis of the pack; be helpful for equipment management work.

Cement kiln is used for making of cement clinker and there are dry and wet methods to make cement. Metallurgy chemical kiln is used in metallurgy industry and ironworks for lean iron ore, chromium ore and ferronickel ore calcimine. Rotary kiln is used for calcimine of high aluminum vandal ochre in refractory material industry; for calcimine of calotte and aluminum hydroxide in aluminum manufacturer; for claiming of chrome sand ore and chrome powder ore in chemical plant.Lime kiln is used for baking active lime and dolomite in the steel factory and ferroalloy factory.

Rotary kiln is the main equipment for calcining cement clinker and it can be used widely for cement industry ,metallurgy industry ,chemical industry , etc.Which can be divided into cement kiln ,metallurgy chemical kiln and lime kiln according to different materials.

Answer :Fuse: A fuse has a wire that melts with the heat of a short circuit or high current and interrupts the circuit. Once melted, you have to replace it. Circuit Breaker: A circuit breaker interrupts the current without melting ( a pair of metal sheets with different thermal expansion coefficient, for example) and can be reset.

Answer :We provide the following: Residential electrical work, central heating, cooling and air filtration Convenient, secure online self-scheduling for all your electrical needs Extended hours of operation: 7am -7pm Discounted member rates on labor and services A Home Electrical Safety Survey of all electrical systems for members.

Answer :This is used to describe the size and quantity of conductors in a cable. The first number specifies the gauge. The second the number of current carrying conductors in the wire - but remember there's usually an extra ground wire. "14-2" means 14 gauge, two insulated current carrying wires, plus bare ground. 2 wire usually has a black, white and bare ground wire. Sometimes the white is red instead for 220V circuits without neutral. In the latter case, the sheath is usually red too. 3 wire usually has a black, red, white and bare ground wire. Usually carrying 220V with neutral.

This is used to describe the size and quantity of conductors in a cable. The first number specifies the gauge. The second the number of current carrying conductors in the wire - but remember there's usually an extra ground wire. "14-2" means 14 gauge, two insulated current carrying wires, plus bare ground.

Answer :Statistics show that fuse panels have a significantly higher risk of causing a fire than breaker panels. This is usually due to the fuse being loosely screwed in, or the contacts corroding and heating up over time, or the wrong size fuse being installed, or the proverbial "replace the fuse with a penny" trick. Since breakers are more permanently installed, and have better connection mechanisms, the risk of fire is considerably less. Fuses are prone to explode under extremely high overload. When a fuse explodes, the metallic vapor cloud becomes a conducting path. Result? From complete meltdown of the electrical panel, melted service wiring, through fires in the electrical distribution transformer and having your house burn down.Breakers won't do this.

Statistics show that fuse panels have a significantly higher risk of causing a fire than breaker panels. This is usually due to the fuse being loosely screwed in, or the contacts corroding and heating up over time, or the wrong size fuse being installed, or the proverbial "replace the fuse with a penny" trick.

Fuses are prone to explode under extremely high overload. When a fuse explodes, the metallic vapor cloud becomes a conducting path. Result? From complete meltdown of the electrical panel, melted service wiring, through fires in the electrical distribution transformer and having your house burn down.Breakers won't do this.

Answer :Fuses and circuit breakers are designed to interrupt the power to a circuit when the current flow exceeds safe levels. For example, if your toaster shorts out, a fuse or breaker should "trip", protecting the wiring in the walls from melting. As such, fuses and breakers are primarily intended to protect the wiring -- UL or CSA approval supposedly indicates that the equipment itself won't cause a fire. Fuses contain a narrow strip of metal which is designed to melt (safely) when the current exceeds the rated value, there by interrupting the power to the circuit. Fuses trip relatively fast. Which can sometimes be a problem with motors which have large startup current surges. For motor circuits, you can use a "time-delay" fuse (one brand is "fusetron") which will avoid tripping on momentary overloads. A fusetron looks like a spring-loaded fuse. A fuse can only trip once, then it must be replaced.

Fuses and circuit breakers are designed to interrupt the power to a circuit when the current flow exceeds safe levels. For example, if your toaster shorts out, a fuse or breaker should "trip", protecting the wiring in the walls from melting. As such, fuses and breakers are primarily intended to protect the wiring -- UL or CSA approval supposedly indicates that the equipment itself won't cause a fire.

Fuses contain a narrow strip of metal which is designed to melt (safely) when the current exceeds the rated value, there by interrupting the power to the circuit. Fuses trip relatively fast. Which can sometimes be a problem with motors which have large startup current surges. For motor circuits, you can use a "time-delay" fuse (one brand is "fusetron") which will avoid tripping on momentary overloads. A fusetron looks like a spring-loaded fuse. A fuse can only trip once, then it must be replaced.

Answer :Inside the panel, connections are made to the incoming wires. These connections are then used to supply power to selected portions of the home. There are three different combinations: one hot, one neutral, and ground: 110V circuit. two hots, no neutral, and ground: 220V circuit. two hots, neutral, and ground: 220V circuit + neutral, and/or two 110V circuits with a common neutral.

Answer :In general, there is no requirement to upgrade older dwellings, though there are some exceptions (ie: smoke detectors in some cases). However, any new work must be done according to the latest electrical code. Also, if you do ``major'' work, you may be required to upgrade certain existing portions or all of your system. Check with your local electrical inspector.

In general, there is no requirement to upgrade older dwellings, though there are some exceptions (ie: smoke detectors in some cases). However, any new work must be done according to the latest electrical code. Also, if you do ``major'' work, you may be required to upgrade certain existing portions or all of your system. Check with your local electrical inspector.

Answer :Every electrical device or component must be certified by the Canadian Standards Association (or recognized equivalent) before it can be sold in Canada. Implicit in this is that all wiring must be done with CSA-approved materials. They perform testing similar to the UL (a bit more stringent), except that CSA (or recognized equivalent) approval is required by law. Again, like the UL, if a fire was caused by non-CSA-approved equipment, your insurance company may not have to pay the claim. Note: strictly speaking, there usually is a legal way around the lack of a CSA sticker. In some cases (eg: Ontario), a local hydro inspection prior to purchase, or prior to use, is acceptable. The hydro inspector will affix a "hydro sticker" to the unit, which is as good as CSA approval. But it costs money - last I knew, $75 per unit inspected.

Every electrical device or component must be certified by the Canadian Standards Association (or recognized equivalent) before it can be sold in Canada. Implicit in this is that all wiring must be done with CSA-approved materials. They perform testing similar to the UL (a bit more stringent), except that CSA (or recognized equivalent) approval is required by law.

Note: strictly speaking, there usually is a legal way around the lack of a CSA sticker. In some cases (eg: Ontario), a local hydro inspection prior to purchase, or prior to use, is acceptable. The hydro inspector will affix a "hydro sticker" to the unit, which is as good as CSA approval. But it costs money - last I knew, $75 per unit inspected.

Answer :The UL stands for "Underwriters Laboratory". It used to be an Insurance Industry organization, but now it is independent and non-profit. It tests electrical components and equipment for potential hazards. When something is UL-listed, that means that the UL has tested the device, and it meets their requirements for safety - ie: fire or shock hazard. It doesn't necessarily mean that the device actually does what it's supposed to, just that it probably won't kill you. The UL does not have power of law in the U.S. -- you are permitted to buy and install non-UL-listed devices. However, insurance policies sometimes have clauses in them that will limit their liability in case of a claim made in response to the failure of a non-UL-listed device. Furthermore, in many situations the NEC will require that a wiring component used for a specific purpose is UL-listed for that purpose. Indirectly, this means that certain parts of your wiring must be UL-listed before an inspector will approve it and/or occupancy permits issued.

The UL stands for "Underwriters Laboratory". It used to be an Insurance Industry organization, but now it is independent and non-profit. It tests electrical components and equipment for potential hazards. When something is UL-listed, that means that the UL has tested the device, and it meets their requirements for safety - ie: fire or shock hazard. It doesn't necessarily mean that the device actually does what it's supposed to, just that it probably won't kill you.

The UL does not have power of law in the U.S. -- you are permitted to buy and install non-UL-listed devices. However, insurance policies sometimes have clauses in them that will limit their liability in case of a claim made in response to the failure of a non-UL-listed device. Furthermore, in many situations the NEC will require that a wiring component used for a specific purpose is UL-listed for that purpose. Indirectly, this means that certain parts of your wiring must be UL-listed before an inspector will approve it and/or occupancy permits issued.

Answer :The NEC is a model electrical code devised and published by the National Fire Protection Association, an insurance industry group. It's revised every three years. The 1993 version has been released. You can buy a copy at a decent bookstore, or by calling them directly at 800-344-3555. The code exists in several versions. There's the full text, which is fairly incomprehensible. There's an abridged edition, which has only the sections likely to apply to most houses. And there's the NEC Handbook, which contains the ``authorized commentary'' on the code, as well as the full text. That's the recommended version. Unfortunately, there's no handbook for the abridged edition. And the full handbook is expensive --US$65 plus shipping and handling.

The NEC is a model electrical code devised and published by the National Fire Protection Association, an insurance industry group. It's revised every three years. The 1993 version has been released. You can buy a copy at a decent bookstore, or by calling them directly at 800-344-3555. The code exists in several versions. There's the full text, which is fairly incomprehensible. There's an abridged edition, which has only the sections likely to apply to most houses. And there's the NEC Handbook, which contains the ``authorized commentary'' on the code, as well as the full text. That's the recommended version. Unfortunately, there's no handbook for the abridged edition. And the full handbook is expensive --US$65 plus shipping and handling.

Answer :It's OK to visit the hardware shop and buy the switch you like the look of. But you need a licensed electrician to complete the work. A licensed electrician will issue a certificate to show the work complies with building standards. That way your property won't be devalued or insurance issues crop up in the event of a problem.

It's OK to visit the hardware shop and buy the switch you like the look of. But you need a licensed electrician to complete the work. A licensed electrician will issue a certificate to show the work complies with building standards. That way your property won't be devalued or insurance issues crop up in the event of a problem.

Answer :An electrical contractor can install solar panels to your property. Excess energy collected by your solar panels is fed into the electrical grid. You receive credit for power generated on your electricity bill.

An electrical contractor can install solar panels to your property. Excess energy collected by your solar panels is fed into the electrical grid. You receive credit for power generated on your electricity bill.

Answer :Electrician is a trade qualification and electrical contractors are licensed in each state. Many electricians also choose to belong to professional associations like NECA (National Electrical & Communications Association).

Electrician is a trade qualification and electrical contractors are licensed in each state. Many electricians also choose to belong to professional associations like NECA (National Electrical & Communications Association).

Answer :Be sure to hire a licensed professional electrician. There a several reasons for this: you'll get a better job work will comply with the building code you won't have an insurance problems if something goes wrong.

Answer :One of the best ways to save money on electrician costs is to do some research. Find out how much electrician companies and individual electricians charge for their services. Compare quotes between different electrician service providers and determine which one is best for your budget. You can learn more tips from our Work and Costs section.

One of the best ways to save money on electrician costs is to do some research. Find out how much electrician companies and individual electricians charge for their services. Compare quotes between different electrician service providers and determine which one is best for your budget. You can learn more tips from our Work and Costs section.

Answer :Absolutely. A valid professional license is the ultimate proof of your electrician's qualifications. Without one, your electrician can't assure you that he has gone through the requisite training and tests that would enable him to perform at a high standard and in accordance with the NEC. Never hire an unlicensed electrician if you're after quality service. (Refer to our Electrician Licensing page for more on this.)

Absolutely. A valid professional license is the ultimate proof of your electrician's qualifications. Without one, your electrician can't assure you that he has gone through the requisite training and tests that would enable him to perform at a high standard and in accordance with the NEC. Never hire an unlicensed electrician if you're after quality service. (Refer to our Electrician Licensing page for more on this.)

Answer :His years of studying, training, and gaining relevant experience. An electrician needs to complete school and spend years (or the equivalent of several thousand working hours) as an apprentice before he even becomes eligible for a license. Add the skill and experience he developed after acquiring his license, and you should be confident that he can serve you well.

His years of studying, training, and gaining relevant experience. An electrician needs to complete school and spend years (or the equivalent of several thousand working hours) as an apprentice before he even becomes eligible for a license. Add the skill and experience he developed after acquiring his license, and you should be confident that he can serve you well.

Answer :Electricians have varying levels of experience and qualifications. There are apprentices, Journeyman electricians, and Master electricians. An apprentice is still required to work under the supervision of a Journeyman and Master electrician. A Journeyman electrician has extensive knowledge of various electrical fields and can work unsupervised, but he is still not sufficiently qualified to take on electrical projects of utmost complexity. A master electrician is fully qualified to handle any electrical project. Your electrician's experience should at least be directly proportional to the difficulty of the job you need to have done.

An apprentice is still required to work under the supervision of a Journeyman and Master electrician. A Journeyman electrician has extensive knowledge of various electrical fields and can work unsupervised, but he is still not sufficiently qualified to take on electrical projects of utmost complexity. A master electrician is fully qualified to handle any electrical project. Your electrician's experience should at least be directly proportional to the difficulty of the job you need to have done.

Answer :When dealing with an electrical problem, it's best to contact a licensed professional at once. If you try to solve the problem on your own, you could jeopardize your safety as well as that of your electrical system and equipment. And though it's not as urgent, electrical installation of any kind also merits expert assistance. It's likely that you don't want to hire an electrician because of the expense, but that plan could easily backfire. Any mistakes you make may lead to damages that will only cost you more in the long run.

When dealing with an electrical problem, it's best to contact a licensed professional at once. If you try to solve the problem on your own, you could jeopardize your safety as well as that of your electrical system and equipment. And though it's not as urgent, electrical installation of any kind also merits expert assistance.

It's likely that you don't want to hire an electrician because of the expense, but that plan could easily backfire. Any mistakes you make may lead to damages that will only cost you more in the long run.

Related Equipments