safety precautions sand making machine and daily maintenance and important

sand casting safety notes - ganoksin jewelry making community

sand casting safety notes - ganoksin jewelry making community

Sand casting is used extensively for large-scale casting, such as engine blocks, and the grates that one sees around trees in cities on sidewalks, and sand casting used to be the primary method of casting in the jewelry field, and still, in some places, it remains important for larger components and parts, such as one finds on vessels, so sand casting is used in the silversmithing industry still.

One will occasionally find a jeweler who uses sand casting for everyday work, and recently there have been several companies that are selling kits for sand casting using garnets and other materials that supposedly make it easy for the jeweler to use. The primary reason that jewelers in the west dont use sand casting much anymore, is that sand casting relies upon gravity pour to get the metal into the mold; that is, one has to have a significant weight of metal to force the casting into the recesses and interstices of the mold, and this means that one may have to melt two to three or more times the weight of metal just for the sprue button than is necessary for the cast object itself.

When one melts this much metal, and repeatedly melts it, as one is likely to do once youve committed to such a large volume of material, then the likelihood of having oxygen, other gases and impurities build up within the cast material is high, and this will end up in the form of pits and porosity in the castings eventually. So, jewelers switched from this procedure to centrifugal casting, where, in addition a much smaller amount of commitment to metal for the button, theres also a little more control over surface texture. Sand casting in the old days, could produce surface textures as fine as centrifugal casting does today, but this requires a fair bit of time to set the mold up properly, and centrifugal beats out sand casting for certain kinds of production. Ganoksin is sponsored by

The advantage of sand casting is that the process of preparing the mold, melting the metal, pouring it in, is very quick, so that if you have a sand casting set up, you can go from needing a part, to having the part, in ten to fifteen minutes, whereas with centrifugal, its going to be much longer before you have the finished component. In sand casting, what occurs is that a metal model or hard model is made, and this means that you need to have a range of hard models on hand to use for sand casting, and this hard model cannot have any undercuts, or should not have undercuts, because if it does, then you cannot lift it out of the sand, leaving a space to pour the metal into, and this, too, is one of the advantages of centrifugal casting, that wax models can have plenty of undercuts and theres no trouble with that.

During sand casting, the metal model is placed into a frame, and sand is rammed about it until the frame is full and tightly packed. The sand used is moistened, often with a touch of oil or some type, perhaps glycerin, and this helps hold the sand together. The frame is then flipped the other way up, so that the model is exposed, imbedded in the sand; a second frame is then attached, and sand is rammed into the second frame, usually with a parted powder to separate the second lot of rammed sand from the first, and after everything is solid and tight, the two frames are pulled apart, the metal model is removed, channels are cut into the sand for the molten metal to reach the cavity where the model was, and channels are also cut to allow the air to escape from the model area when the metal is poured in. The frames are then reassembled, carefully; the metal is melted and it is poured into the pouring gate , down the sprues that were cut, into the cavity, thus reproducing the model around which the sand was rammed in the first place.

Procedure layout. gas handling because youre dealing with torches. If youre using electric equipment such as an induction melting crucible or a kiln to melt the metal, then issues of electrocution and electrical fire are present. The gas handling, of course, carries with it risks of explosion, fire, an oxygen tank knocked over, shooting about the room, and so on. Burns are a hazard, because one is dealing with hot materials. There are fume hazards from the metals, alloys and fluxes used to melt and pour into the sand. Ganoksin is sponsored by

The binders in the sand may be quite toxic, and when hot metal hits them, can generate toxic fumes, so good local ventilation is necessary when doing sand casting. In the past, some sand casting has been done using styrofoam models, where a styrofoam model is prepared, the sand is rammed about it from all directions, and the metal is poured down a casting gate. When the hot metal reaches the styrofoam model, it burns it and replaces it in the sand, thus producing a copy of whatever was made in styrofoam. The fumes from doing this are extremely toxic; this is no longer recommended as a procedure because of the poisonous fumes generated and the pollution hazard of these fumes, as well as the health problems related to them.

Primarily decomposition products and fumes from the metals, the fluxes used to melt, and possibly from the binder used in the sand. Mexican goldsmiths, for instance, will make their own mixtures of casting sand, using Portland cement and motor oil as the binder. The fumes from motor oil would have the potential to be damaging as well. You will have to find out what the binder is in your particular sand, obtain the MSDS sheet for it in order to really know what has gone into it. Certain kinds of sand contain something called furam, which produces a hard, carvable sand once the sand is bound together, and hot metal hitting furam can produce some really quite toxic fumes. Furam, too, may cause damage by skin contact, and so, depending on what the binder is in your sand, you may consider using skin protection.

Tripping, fire safety, materials flying into the eyes by accident, moving about the room with molten metal in crucibles that can pour on you. Those types of hazards. Ganoksin is sponsored by

Electric equipment carries with it fire hazards. Gas equipment for melting metal also has significant fire hazards, and it is essential to maintain a proper maintenance schedule, to check all joints with soapy water, and to make sure there are no flammable materials anywhere near the melting area, and to follow other fire precautions. Fireproof clothing is a good thing to wear when doing a casting, and to avoid burns from molten metal falling onto the shoes, metal shoe covers can be a good idea, particularly if larger quantities of metal are being melted and dealt with.

Skin contact, both for any potential chemicals used as binders in the sand, and for burns and so on. Eyes its a good idea to wear eye protection, whenever around things that can fly through the air or accidentally be flung about. Inhalation of chemical fumes and metal fumes. Ganoksin is sponsored by

Careful layout of studio and procedure, fireproof clothing, eye protection, skin protection, if concerned about the binder used in the sand, eye protection from the radiation infrared radiation and ultraviolet radiation from melting good local ventilation for fumes from melting and from the binding material in the sand.

Other forms of casting, centrifugal and so on. These other forms of casting carry with them their own risks. Avoid furam-containing sand for casting, and choose the least unpleasant binder possible: glycerin, for instance, would not be too evil as a binding agent.

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5 manufacturing safety topics for a safer workplace - vector solutions

5 manufacturing safety topics for a safer workplace - vector solutions

No matter your occupation, workplace safety is vital. However, it is especially important in the manufacturing industry since you are dealing with heavy machinery. Therefore, taking safety precautions seriously and conducting safety training is extremely important for manufacturing jobs.

According to OSHA, companies that focus on workers safety have nearly 50 percent fewer lost workdays. To keep employees interested when conducting safety training and in safety meetings, make sure to show your concern about your employees being potentially injured. Also, praise employees who work safely and encourage reporting accidents and injuries.

The most prevalent cause of workplace injuries is misusing tools and machinery. Only use equipment for its intended purpose and make sure you use it properly. Furthermore, regularly cleaning and inspecting equipment lessens the likelihood of a fire, explosion, or other injuries. For instance, dust can cause an explosion if it catches on fire. To prevent dust accumulation, use industrial vacuums to clean machines where dust gathers.

Also, make sure that when tools are not being used, they are stored in their assigned location. When storing tools, make sure they are put in their proper place and shut down properly. If a piece of equipment is not functioning correctly, report it immediately, and do not use the machinery until it is repaired.

We make many courses that cover topics related to the above. One example is our 5S Methodology course, which stresses the importance of a clean, organized workplace and putting tools in their proper place.

To prevent employees from tripping or slipping, it is vital to ensure that aisles are clear and spills are immediately cleaned. Be sure to mark any areas where a spill occurred until it can be cleaned. If an area cannot be easily cleaned, especially if it is an area where your company often uses liquids, consider installing anti-slip flooring. Also, using drip pans and guards if you are using a liquid makes it less likely for spills to occur. Furthermore, consistently check your workplace floor for loose boards, holes, and protruding nails. If you find any of these damages, immediately replace the damaged flooring.

Always make sure your work space complies with fire safety codes by removing any items blocking doorways and walkways. Furthermore, if you are using combustible materials, only keep the amount you need for the job, and store the flammable material in a safe storage when it is not being used. Also, combustible waste should be stored in metal receptacles and thrown away daily.

We have quite a few courses related to fire prevention, including Fire Safety, Fire Extinguisher Safety, and our Flammable and Combustible Liquids course (weve included a sample of that last one below).

Use protections such as nets, toe boards, and toe rails to ensure that items do not fall. Also, place heavy objects on lower shelves and stack boxes straight up and down. Always make sure that stacked objects are not in aisles or work areas.

Furthermore, lifting objects properly is vital to avoid objects falling and to avoid injuring your back. When lifting an item, use your legs to lift and keep your back straight. Make sure to pick the object straight up and do not stoop or twist. When possible, use a machine to pick up the object such as a wheelbarrow or forklift.

Forklift safety is especially vital when considering falling objects. When using a forklift to pick up items, make sure that no one is located in a spot where the item could fall. Furthermore, make sure the load is centered on the fork. Be aware that the higher the fork is raised, the more unstable it becomes and the more likely the load or the forklift will fall over.

Wear the proper safety equipment (PPE) when using equipment or cleaning up messes. Proper safety equipment can include hard hats, goggles, gloves, and any other equipment necessary for performing the job safely.

The proper safety equipment is especially important when dealing with hazardous materials. When using dangerous chemicals, wear a mask and hazmat suit. If your workplace does not provide a hazmat suit or another type of garment to protect your clothing and skin, make sure to change out of the clothes you wore when using hazardous materials before you go home.

However, if you are interested in learning more about safety in the manufacturing industry, check out Convergence Trainings online safety and health courses. We also make learning management systems (LMSs) for safety training management, custom safety training for your workplace, and other safety compliance solutions.

Jeff Dalto, Senior Learning & Performance Improvement Manager Jeff is a learning designer and performance improvement specialist with more than 20 years in learning and development, 15+ of which have been spent working in manufacturing, industrial, and architecture, engineering & construction training. Jeff has worked side-by-side with more than 50 companies as they implemented online training. Jeff is an advocate for using evidence-based training practices and is currently completing a Masters degree in Organizational Performance and Workplace Learning from Boise State University. He writes the Vector Solutions | Convergence Training blog and invites you to connect with him on LinkedIn.

safety precautions in the workplace | legal beagle

safety precautions in the workplace | legal beagle

Workplace safety isn't just a nice idea; it's a legal requirement. The Occupational Safety and Health Act requires that employers take safety precautions to prevent on-the-job injuries and accidents. It applies to every employer except the self-employed, family farms and some government workers. OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Agency, oversees OSH Act enforcement.

Even though OSHA places the heaviest burden on employers, workers have responsibilities, too. If employers cover up work-related injury or illness cases, it's the employee's responsibility to notify OSHA. Employees have to assess workplace safety for themselves and decide whether it's necessary to notify OSHA about a lack of safety precautions. Beyond that, if employees don't follow the safety rules, the rules are useless.

Preventing accidents and injuries requires more than occasional safety tips. Maintaining a safe workplace requires education and training. The riskier the job, the more critical that training becomes. Employees designing a website can suffer injuries, but they don't face the same danger as someone working with raw sewage. A good training program gives workers the knowledge and skills to do their jobs safely and to spot and control hazards. If the work involves unique hazards, the workers need specialized training to deal with them.

A good training program has several components. One is that managers and workers all need to understand the program. When they know how it works, they can participate in implementing it and improving it. They should know the goals of the program, who to contact with questions, how to report hazards and what to do in an emergency. Employees have to know they have a right to report hazards.

The company must also train employees and supervisors on their roles in dealing with hazards and safety programs under the act, and responding to or investigating accidents, illness or injuries. If the company uses a computerized system for reporting problems, employees need enough computer literacy and computer access to use the system. It's also important to train workers in identifying and controlling hazards, both in their specific job and more general work-related risks.

If, say, a manufacturing process involves toxic chemicals, removing them or replacing them with something less dangerous would be the most effective safety step. Issuing workers personal protective equipment such as ventilators and protective gloves is much cheaper, but it's also less effective. That's partly because using safety equipment properly requires extra training and greater care by employees.

In construction, falls are a major cause of death. When employers plan construction projects, they need to think about how the job can be performed safely. What methods will workers use? What are the tasks involved? What safety equipment do they need? The cost of safety equipment and tools should be incorporated into the budget. For example, a roofing company should consider all the potential dangers such as skylights, edges and any holes in the roof. The company should then select fall-protection equipment that will minimize the danger. If, say, the employer provides roofers with a harness, the harness has to fit properly, and should be inspected regularly. Every roofer should be trained to use the harness.

Even employees who keep both feet on the ground are at risk for tripping and falling. In the restaurant industry, where wait staff and kitchen crews are constantly crisscrossing the floors, falling is a serious hazard. OSHA has multiple examples of what employers can do to minimize the risk:

The OSH Act has been in place since 1970, though it's seen many changes since then. That gives employers, OSHA and safety training companies plenty of experience on what principles work when spreading your safety message:

Fraser Sherman has written about bankruptcy law, real estate law, tax law, business law and several other categories. He lives in Durham NC with his awesome wife and two wonderful dogs. His website is

safety rules for automotive repair shops

safety rules for automotive repair shops

Working on vehicles can be a fun, exciting, and rewarding career. However, repair shop owners and their staff need to ensure the proper safety precautions and rules are implemented and followed at all times. Safety measures help protect employees from accidental injuries to themselves, their co-workers, customers, and the vehicles they are repairing. The following is a list of general safety tips every repair shop should use to keep everyone safe.

In addition to the above safety tips, there are government requirements for specific types of repairs, which are the responsibility of shop owners to review and educate their employees about on a regular basis. For all of your shops uniform needs, including rentals, leases, and purchases, contact the uniform experts at Prudential Overall Supply at (800) 767-5536 now.

Four experts talk effective training methods CHICAGO David Griggs, general manager of Superior Linen Services Healthcare Division in Muskogee, Oklahoma, says two common issues that most laundries face are employee turnover and...

Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are the basic rules enforced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure the safety and quality of products intended for human consumption or use. The authority...

Since 1932, Prudential Overall Supply has provided best-in-class solutions for businesses with our uniform and textile programs. We provide our customers with the best possible products and service at a fair price, today and into the future.

machine safety checklist : top aspects to consider

machine safety checklist : top aspects to consider

Safety should always be the top priority in a facility with production machinery. Proper safety measures help to ensure that your workers are safer, and its simply a smart business practice. Shutting down a machine, factory or jobsite to address a safety incident can be expensive in terms of lost work time, lost revenue, as well as possible insurance issues. Safety incidents can also cause additional obstacles in terms of reports, audits, or legal issues. A step towards a safer work environment starts with creating a culture that puts safety first, beginning with the management and supervisors setting the right example. Management can demonstrate that they take safety seriously. For example, if the company president visits the shop floor, he or she should always put on the safety goggles, boots, or whatever is also required of the staff. If he or she chooses to ignore safety procedures, it will show that staff can also cut corners.

Having a safety checklist on hand can help the workers to verify that a worksite is safe. There are many topics related to machine safety that should be considered in any safety plan. These include: Mechanical hazards Electrical hazards Other hazards Protective equipment Maintenance and repair Safeguards Training Most of the safety practices in all of these areas are common sense. The challenge on any factory floor or jobsite is to get in the habit of checking everything every time you use a machine. Often the operation of a machine becomes second nature to a worker, they may not consider what could go wrong or that they are not following the best practices for their own safety.

Heres a machine safety checklist with questions that can be reviewed regularly. This covers both safety equipment and components, such as limit switches on the machines, but equally important are practices and policies so the workers take the additional steps necessary to avoid putting themselves in jeopardy. This should be filled out and carefully. Note that the right answer (indicating a safe situation) isnt always yes or no. This encourages everyone to pay attention when they review the questions below. Potential Safety Hazards Yes No Don't Know Mechanical Hazards Are there safeguards at the point of operation? Are there any exposed moving parts (chains, belts, gears, fly-wheels, etc.)? Are there any other exposed mechanical parts that might be sharp or otherwise hazardous (screws, bolts, edges, etc.)? Is the machine properly anchored to the ground or other structures as needed? Are the right limit switches installed to stop operation when a limit is exceeded? Electrical Hazards Was the machine set-up according to applicable codes and standards? Is the machine grounded properly? Does the power supply have suitable fuses and protection? Are all electrical connections tight? Are there any shock hazards from open connections? Are any hazardous wires or other electrical components suitably labeled? Is the floor free of any cords where workers need to move? Other Hazards Are workers protected against noise from the machine? Is the environment conducive to safe worker functioning (temperature, humidity, radiation, etc.)? Is lighting enough to operate the machine safely? Is the floor dry and safer for worker motion? Are required ergonomic features in place (arm rests, keyboard height, display height and angle)? Protective Equipment Has the proper protective equipment been provided? What additional equipment is needed... Have the workers been trained in proper use of the protective equipment? Are workers dressed properly to operate the machinery safely (no jewelry, no loose clothing, proper footwear, hair tied back, etc.)? Maintenance and Repair Is there a maintenance log present at the machine? Is the maintenance log up to date? Are workers trained in how to review maintenance information to ensure that the machine is ready to use? Are maintenance workers trained in safe procedures such as disconnecting the machine from power sources? Safeguards Is there a master cut-off switch to stop functioning of the machinery? Are starting and stopping controls in place and reachable? Have starting and stopping controls been tested? Are there safeguards against any hazardous materials (lubricants, chemicals, scrap materials, etc.)? Are the safeguards suitable for workers of all sizes? Is appropriate emergency response equipment available? What additional equipment is needed... Is there a first aid kit (including an eyewash station) available? Training Have all workers present been trained to use the machine properly? Have all workers present been trained on the safety features of the machine (safeguards, start/stop controls, etc.)? Have all workers present been trained in the proper response for safety issues that might arise? Is the machines operating manual and other documentation present and current? Are operating procedures documented at the machine location? Are the electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic diagrams for the machine available and up to date? Are all operating manuals and documentation in the languages understood by the workers?

Along with this white paper and safety questionnaire, encourage responsible safety practices (from management to employees) that are specific to your facility. For example, a workshop with saws, drills, lathes, and other tools designed to cut materials should have procedures in place that pertain to their environment and type of machines. Limit switches should be in place on all such equipment to help protect workers. A chemical facility where machinery involves handling dangerous chemicals should also have specialized safety practices. This includes obvious precautions like splash guards and protective clothing, but there could also be additional ventilation requirements for certain chemical processing equipment. Plastic injection molding equipment should have machine guards on all moving parts to protect workers from injury. Safety switches also need to be installed to halt operation of the machine in the event a guard is inadvertently removed.

Creating and maintaining a safe workplace is a lot of work. However, you could start by evaluating any risks to your business environment. Are there any safety risks with your current machines or equipment that need addressing with repairs, enhancements, or new equipment? Is any additional safety gear needed for the work staff? Then implement a machine safety checklist and host a training session to explain the checklist and its advantages. Once safety becomes part of your daily routine by: leading by example, utilizing machine safety checklists, and creating procedures and other sound practices for workers, it will become part of how you do businessa safer business.

safety considerations for sandblasting | osha safety manuals

safety considerations for sandblasting | osha safety manuals

Sandblasting operations can be overlooked when preparing safety plans because they are generally a small part of a larger project such as cleaning and refinishing or painting. As a result, many workers are exposed to the hazards of sandblasting without adequate protection. Even if all sandblasting equipment is properly designed and regularly inspected, users must always be alert to the hazards of these operations and take precautions against harmful exposures.

Airborne dust: This is one of the most serious hazards associated with blasting operations. When evaluating this hazard, its important to consider the concentration of dust and the size of particles. Larger particles, considered nuisance dust, are normally filtered out in the nose and throat. Smaller particles (10 microns or smaller) can bypass the lungs filtering system and penetrate deep into the respiratory system, where they may cause serious damage. Safeguards are needed when smaller particles are present in the working environment.

Metal dust, in addition to the abrasive being used, contributes to the generation of airborne dust. Metals such as lead, cadmium, and manganese, can be extremely toxic when inhaled. Many existing paints have a lead base. Regulations require special handling, trained personnel, and medical monitoring when lead is present. If in doubt, check it out. Dont guess.

Silica sand: This product is a potentially serious health hazard and should not be used as an abrasive. If silica containing (quartz) materials are selected for any reason, workers must wear a positive pressure or pressure demand respirator with an assigned protection factor (APF) of either 1000 or 2000. Silica must be contained and disposed of properly. Even if a wet blasting method is selected, silica that is allowed to migrate by either wind or water will eventually become an airborne contaminant.

Air supply: Air-supplied respirators must be used (1) when working inside of blast cleaning rooms, (2) when using portable units in areas without an enclosure, and (3) under any circumstances where the operator is not physically separated from the abrasive material by an exhausted enclosure. If airline respirators and compressors are used, make sure the intake hose is placed in an area that provides clean air. An attendant should be in the area at all times, monitoring breathing air and assuring the blasters safety.

Additional personal protective equipment: Blasting operations create high noise levels, so hearing protection is a mustfor both the operator and nearby workers! Operators should also use heavy canvas or leather gloves, aprons, or leggings when appropriate, as well as safety shoes.

Handling and storing abrasives: Dust is nearly always created at any point where abrasives are transferred, whether by hand or shovel. Therefore, all points of transfer must be properly exhausted and workers who handle abrasives manually should wear particulate filter respirators.

safe work procedure for
heavy earth moving machinery for construction site

safe work procedure for heavy earth moving machinery for construction site

Heavy Earth Moving Machinery includes any excavator, grader, loader, bulldozer, compactor, dumper, locomotive, truck and any mobile machine which is used for the handling of any material on a construction site. All equipment needs to be properly inspected and maintained as per OEM recommendation, statutory requirements and condition.

Employer, owners, contractors, site management personnel, mechanics and operators in the construction industry has to work in coordinated way for improving the safety standard in connection with the use of heavy earth moving machinery.

We need to understand and follow original equipment manufacturer recommendation for safe system work procedure for handling a specific machine to ensure the safety of the operators and the site personnel working in the vicinity.

A safe system work procedure of work should be established prior to any heavy earth moving operation and this system should be followed. The SWP should be prepared and endorsed by all relevant personnel by way of written and verbal instructions. The SWP should be provided to the machine operator and site personnel before starting of the earth moving operation.

The task should include identification and description of earth moving locations, scale and duration of the operation, use of access road and possible route of on site travelling, the width and gradients of the slope, access road or inclined surface should be properly surveyed before mobilization of machine.

If the machine has to enter and work in confined areas such as the basement of a building or other enclosed areas, a permit-to-work system should be developed to check and monitor the level of oxygen and any other gases from unknown sources or the engine exhaust.

Factors such as whether a new or used machine, its size and model, whether rubber or track mounting, country of original, availability of local agent, maintenance support to meet the working condition and environment etc. should be taken into consideration in the selecting process.

Equipment should be in good condition and fitted with all necessary safety devices, protection system and correct tread fittings. The safety and protection system should include roll over protection structure, safety belt, dead-man control, reverse warning device and flashing lights etc;

On site, the operator and mechanic should walk around the machine; check it carefully according to the check list of the machine. The parts serving particular attention vary with the type of machine, the work it is doing, and the service history. The following parts of the machine are often required particular attention and frequent inspections:

If it has tyres, it need to be checked for correct pattern and direction of the tread, cuts, tears, worn tread and proper pressure. The, tyre suitability need to be as per the ground conditions in accordance with the OEM recommendation.

Track tension can be checked only if the machine is reasonably clean, and was moving forward when stopped for parking. There should be slight sag on each side of the carrier roller. Too tight a track will wear rapidly, while if too loose it will also wear rapidly and may come off.

The bucket, blade, edge, tooth or other part that is forced through soil or rock during earth moving is subject to breakage, wear and tear due to abrasion and impact action. Excessive wear and a break in the working tool usually because the metal part or structure behind them some tears and bends which make rebuilding difficult.

Each hinge is a point where lubrication is probably required, and where a pin might loosen and come out. Check for slackness in the steering and lever controls and worn brake pedals and rectify and replace as necessary.

Surfaces of the machine, and the ground under it, should be inspected for evidence of leakage of lubricating or hydraulic oil, or coolant. Leakage for fuel oil and air system should also be inspected. Any evidence of leak should be investigated and rectified immediately.

The fluid levels should be checked at the beginning of each shift. For engine with auxiliary container for coolant, the level of the coolant should be maintained within the upper and lower levels as indicated or in accordance with the OEM recommendation. The filler cap of the radiator should not be loosen until the engine is cooled down.

Almost any piece of equipment has one or more fluid reservoirs whose level is checked by a dip stick. Engine oil level should be checked by dipstick, usually while the engine is shut off. The tank for hydraulic system should be checked either by a sight gauge, a dip stick or a look through the filler cap opening. The operator should add oil if necessary, before starting. Air reservoirs (or air-vessels) should be regularly drained to remove the condensation water to maintain their efficiency.

It is important to note that all routine inspections and maintenance work should be done with all attachments and working tools being completely lowered on ground surface or otherwise firmly supported by safety bars.

The following safe precautions summarize essential requirements to use and operate earth moving machinery. If required, operator, mechanic, service engineer, site safety personnel should make reference to the safety notes in the operation and maintenance manual provided by OEM to get a complete picture of the machine before it is put into service.

Before beginning operation, thoroughly check the area of earth moving operation, its gradients, the condition of access road, nearby trenches, light poles, tiles, overhead or underground cables, drop-off or overhead obstacles. Other site activities in the vicinity should be checked as well.

When the machine is intended to operate on steep slopes or move on inclined road, the machine must be installed with roll over protection structure and seat belt to reduce the hazard to the operating personnel.

After starting the engine, check gauges, instruments and warning lights, all controls and all warning and safety devices and indicators. Particular attention should be focused on abnormal noise, undue vibration and smell.

During operating a machine, always stay in the operator's station and fasten the seat belt if so provided. Never mount or dismount a machine unless it is stationary. If the machine is equipped with a cabin, ensure that the cabin door is securely closed.

If equipment is operating in a building or other enclosed area, be sure that there is sufficient ventilation at that area for effective dispersion of the engine exhaust. If your machine is equipped with an enclosed cabin, be certain there is adequate ventilation.

When climbing or descending steep slopes, always select the proper gear before proceeding to the slope to assure adequate power or engine braking. If your machine has a gear shift, select a low gear. If your machine has a hydrostatic drive, the speed control should be in the slow travel position, close to neutral.

Park on level ground, with the parking brake firmly applied and blocked by suitable wedges, where appropriate. For wheeled machine, the wheels should be chocked by suitable wedges and never chock the wheels with rocks. Avoid parking near edges of slopes and excavations.

The owner of the machine should ensure that the machine is of good mechanical construction and free from patent defects before the machine is used for earth moving operation. He should ensure that the machine is maintained to its efficient state by his service engineer and mechanic in accordance with the OEM's specification and statutory requirement.

Tests for service and parking brakes, steering alignment, check for pump efficiency, travel speed test, test for hydraulic pressure of the power system, should be conducted in the workshop within the maintenance intervals and also after repair in accordance with the OEM's instructions. A systematic recording of all tests and servicing data and periods should be kept and available for reference.

A safe system work procedure of work should be documented by the contractor management and site personnel to ensure the safety of the earth moving operation. It should be distributed to all relevant personnel within the site.

The awareness programme, such as briefing, tool box talks and coaching, should be taken to ensure that the safe system work procedure is fully understood by all relevant personnel. The site personnel should exercise control over the following areas:

Park in an off the road area, out of traffic. If the machine has to be parked in a traffic lane, use the appropriate barriers, lights and warning signal to warn the approaching traffic, the parking area should be of level ground whenever possible. Ensure that the machine is safely blocked and the parking brake is firmly applied.

The mechanic for inspection and maintenance of earth moving machinery should receive the necessary training both in safety knowledge and precautions. He should be fully familiar with the following aspects of knowledge and skill:

The mechanic should be able to conduct simple tests on site according to the manufacturer's specification, including service and parking brakes, steering mechanism, and safety switches and interlocks. He should keep a record of service of the machine and make available for inspection by site personnel. He should be capable of preparing simple technical reports outlining the main findings and the cause of the accident.

The operator should receive both basic training and advanced training for specialized groups of machines. Throughout the training it must continually be emphasized that one of the most important aspects of machine operation and servicing is safety.

ensure all safety devices are always intact and fully operational, including, for example, emergency brakes and steering, reverse alarms, headlights, and roll over protection structure and seat belt;

Operator, mechanic and site personnel working in connection with earth moving work should be reminded of the context of 'SAFETY' from time to time to ensure the safety of their own and the safety of other personnel working within the vicinity.

The frequency of accidents is increasing due to operation of Heavy Earth Moving Machinery in construction sites. The major reasons of these accidents are: 1. Absence of a safe system work procedure; 2. Inappropriate selection on the use of the equipment; 3. Operators not properly trained or incompetent; 4. Poor maintenance of the equipment, and 5. Failure in observing the necessary safety precautions.

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