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global flame retardant market size, share report, 2020-2027

global flame retardant market size, share report, 2020-2027

The global flame retardant market size was valued at USD 7.0 billion in 2019 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.6% from 2020 to 2027. The market is driven by increasing demand for fire retardant material from various end-use industries, such as construction, textiles, electrical and electronics, and transportation.Growing awareness among consumers regarding crucial escape time during fire incidents, effectiveness of flame retardants, and their advantages are expected to drive the demand for fire-resistant material. Moreover, fire safety standards and regulations formulated across the globe are expected to have a positive impact on product demand.

Flame retardants cover a broad range of chemicals, which prevent the spread of fire and increase the escape time by delaying it. Increasing incidences of fire accidents have created the demand for material with flame-retarding properties. Fire safety standard improvement, specifically for aluminum composite panel cladding that is used in buildings, has created the product demand in construction.

The market growth is significantly restrained by the negative and harmful effects of the chemicals used in flame retardants. Consequently, certain products such as brominated compound - hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are banned in Canada, European Union, and Japan. This has driven the market towards the development of replacements of such products, with successful innovation of HBCD replacement by players, including The Dow Chemical Company, LANXESS AG, and Albemarle.

Furthermore, the spread of COVID-19 across countries, including the U.S., China, Iran, Italy, France, and the U.K., among some of the worst-hit economies has led to the supply chain disruptions, trade halts, and industrial shutdowns, along with the halt in sales of non-essentials. This is further expected to decline market growth in 2020. However, the decline is likely to stop once the economies and industries resume their operations after lockdowns.

In the halogenated product segment, brominated accounted for the largest revenue share of 37.2% in 2019. In the non-halogenated product segment, aluminum hydroxide accounted for a dominant share of 39.4% in 2019 in terms of volume. Increasing concerns over material health and safety in several industries, specifically in U.S. and mature economies of Western Europe, coupled with low-cost advantages involved in the manufacturing of aluminum hydroxide flame retardants, are expected to fuel the growth of the aluminum hydroxide segment over the forecast period.

Followed by aluminum hydroxide, halogenated flame retardants held a significant revenue share. These comprise chlorinated and brominated products that are commonly used together with the synergistic effect of antimony trioxide. Halogenated flame retardants, such as brominated, have been reported to be highly toxic and are also linked with human disorders/diseases, such as reduced fertility, advanced puberty, low IQ, delayed mental and physical development, memory and learning problems, and thyroid disruption. Some flame retardants can also result in fatal diseases, such as cancer.

Due to the environmentally disruptive nature of halogen compounds and growing concerns of bioaccumulation and environment contaminations, laws concerning environment have been formed. Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) restricts the usage of hazardous substances, such as halogenated flame retardants, in electronics and electrical equipment. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) is concerned with the waste electronic and electrical material, which discourages the use of halogenated flame retardants. Such initiatives in support of regional governments are likely to accelerate the growth of non-halogenated products in the near future.

The electrical and electronics industry held the largest revenue share of 40.5% in 2019 and is expected to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period. The usage of flame-retardants is widespread in this industry and its degree is dependent on product function, materials, and the fire resistance level needed to be achieved. Plastic components are highly used in this industry in components ranging from USB hubs to insulated cables. This extensive usage increases fire risks. To reduce the risks, flame retardant additives are used in the industry to meet the prescribed laws and regulations. Rising literacy rate, disposable income, and standard of living across the globe, especially in the developing regions, such as Asia Pacific, have boosted the growth of the electrical and electronics industry. This growth trend has benefitted the market in the recent past and is expected to continue to do so over the forecast period.

The construction and building industry emerged as one of the dominant end-use industries of the product. Growing population, coupled with rapid urbanization and increasing government initiatives in the emerging countries, has assisted the growth of the construction sector. In addition, large scale investment in infrastructure projects will be an added advantage for the growth in developing regions, such as Middle East and Africa.

Transportation comprising automotive as well as automotive spare parts is another prominent end-use segment of the product. As automotive space is constricted, smoke emitted by components is a cause of concern. To address these issues, the automotive industry has witnessed increased usage of flame retardants. Preference for flame retardant polymers is increasing due to their lightweight and effectiveness in curbing fire spread.

The epoxy resins segment held the largest revenue share of 24.1% in 2019. They find a number of applications in composite materials, coatings, and adhesives used in the building and construction industries. Building and construction, which comprises commercial, public, and housing buildings, is expected to one of the prominent applications for epoxy resins.

Polyolefin is expected to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period. Polyolefins find widespread application in the construction and electrical and electronic industries. Polyolefins are flammable, but they are reported to have a high loading capacity of flame retardance. All these beneficial properties are expected to contribute to the growth of the segment over the forecast period.

R&D innovations and technological advancement driving the introduction of new products with enhanced performance and efficiency are likely to trigger the market growth in the near future. For instance, development of environment-friendly fire-resistance epoxy resins with high efficiency has driven the market towards sustainability. In the past few years, manufacturing industries have been moving out of Japan and consequently, the consumption of products for applications, including epoxy resins, polyurethane resins, and polyester resins, has decreased in Japan, unlike other Asian countries.

Asia Pacific held the largest revenue share of 50.7% in 2019 and is expected to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period. Asia Pacific is expected to gain higher revenues from China and India over the forecast period owing to significant growth in the consumption of resins across both the economies. Furthermore, in an attempt to match the safety standards of North America or Europe, the manufacturers in Asia Pacific are significantly focusing on production of environment-friendly flame retardant products as a significant share of the products are also exported to international countries.

Increase in transportation and industrial activities in Asia Pacific, coupled with other factors such as cheap raw materials and low labor costs, is fueling the regional market growth. Moreover, growing inclination of key mining players towards expansion due to large mineral resources of the region and utilization of flame retardants for producing uniforms of workers in mines are driving the demand in India, China, Japan, and Australia.

Consumption in Europe is expected to be primarily driven by fire safety regulations. According to the Flame Retardants Europe (FRE), technological advancements in Europe, coupled with expanding application scope of flame retardants, have pushed key manufactures to ensure fire safety. Several technical fire safety standards developed by various governments exist across Europe. The General Product Safety Directive (GPSD) establishes specific properties to products that are placed in the consumer market. However, fire safety regulations are monitored by individual states. The U.K. has the highest level of fire safety standards in the world. Consequently, the country has successfully reduced the number of fire deaths by over two-thirds in the past 25 years.

Flame retardant manufacturing is highly dependent on the availability and favorable costs of raw materials. In the market, successful commercialization of pioneering products, such as metal-based flame retardants, and investments in production capacity are some of the key factors for the market players. Companies are trying to provide sustainable and environmentally safe products by complying with directives, such as WEEE, REACH, and eco-labels. Halogen-free flame retardants qualify for usage according to these directives and thus are being significantly adopted by the end users.

Large multinational corporations such as Nabaltec AG are some of the major suppliers of nitrogen, phosphorus, and aluminum. The market value chain is moving toward higher degree of integration across the value chain to optimize supply chain efficiency and maximize profit returns. The manufacturers are also focused on establishing long-term supply contracts with distributors/suppliers to ensure continuous supply of their products. Manufacturers can sell their products either directly or through distribution channels. Some of the prominent players in the global flame retardant market are:

This report forecasts volume and revenue growth at the global, regional, and country levels and provides an analysis of the latest industry trends and opportunities in each of the sub-segments from 2016 to 2027. For the purpose of this study, Grand View Research has segmented the global flame retardant market report on the basis of product, application, end use, and region:

b. Some key players operating in the flame retardant market include Albemarle, BASF ICL, Chemtura, Clariant International Ltd., Italmatch Chemicals, Huber Engineered Materials, BASF, Thor Group Ltd., & DSM

b. Key factors that are driving the market growth include stringent regulations across regions that mandates the use of flame retardants across prominent end use industries including construction, electronics, textile, automotive.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has led to a sudden pause to manufacturing activities across the globe, affecting the demand for plastics and also production & processing of them. The most critically impacted end-use segments of the plastics industry include automotive & transportation, consumer goods, industrial equipment, construction, and electronics. The report will account for Covid19 as a key market contributor.

the co2 impact of the 2020s battery quality lithium hydroxide supply chain jade cove partners

the co2 impact of the 2020s battery quality lithium hydroxide supply chain jade cove partners

At the beginning of the 2010s, it was not yet clear that lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) were a good technology option for electrified road transportation. Electric vehicles (EVs) had low range, were historically unsexy, and there was no significant charging network built out anywhere in the world. At the beginning of the 2020s, the story is quite different. At time of writing, Tesla is the most valuable car company in American history, Benchmark Mineral Intelligence is tracking over 100 LIB megafactories, and European auto manufacturers have announced over 100 new EV models to enter the market in the next decade as the European Union is anticipated to phase out the sale of new internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. What a difference a decade makes!

Battery and EV manufacturing has become so efficient that even with the current electricity grid relying on natural gas and coal, >70% of Americans can emit less CO2 by driving an EV than driving an ICE vehicle with 50 MPG fuel efficiency (highly efficient) according to the Union of Concerned Scientists. (1) As the grid moves away from fossil fuels and towards low carbon power sources like hydroelectric, solar, wind, nuclear, and geothermal, the CO2 emissions of making and driving an EV over its lifetime will become orders of magnitude less than driving the most efficient ICE vehicles available. These developments have led to a broad consensus that LIB-powered EVs are a feasible pathway to decarbonizing road transportation.

The fossil fuel industry and auto manufacturers, with decades of momentum and expertise in ICE technology, are incentivized to slow this transition so they can continue capitalizing on fossil fuel economy assets and have more time to catch up to Tesla and other advanced EV manufacturers. One theme that often gets discussed as a counter-argument to EVs is the concept of embodied emissions. Volkswagen estimates that they currently emit ~2.5x more CO2 to manufacture an EV compared to manufacturing an ICE vehicle because of the higher CO2 intensity of manufacturing LIBs and the raw battery materials that go into them. (2)

Those trying to discredit EVs use information like this to argue that they are dirtier than ICE vehicles, but thats veritable fake news since over the lifetime of the vehicle, EVs cause far lower CO2 emissions than ICE vehicles on most developed nations grids. An EV charged by higher CO2 intensity power sources will still have a smaller CO2 footprint compared to an ICE vehicle; it will just take more miles driven to reach carbon parity.

We can think of this similar to a cash flow model used in finance. For both EVs and ICE vehicles, CO2 is emitted in manufacturing (i.e. CO2 capital expense, or CAPEX) and through power consumption over the life of the vehicle (i.e. CO2 operating expense, or OPEX). This is one reason why Tesla is focused on a million-mile battery: the ratio of size of the red box to green boxes below is larger the longer the battery lasts, leading to deeper decarbonization.

When EVs use electricity derived from wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydro power plants built from decarbonized steel, (3) aluminum, (4) and concrete, (5) the carbon emissions from driving an EV become even lower. At that point, deeply decarbonized power (ultra-low CO2 OPEX for EVs) makes it so that the EVs entire CO2 footprint is in its embodied emissions (its CO2 CAPEX). Technological solutions to decarbonize the power grid are mature and major banks know how to finance solar and wind power plants because theyve already been doing it for decades. The lithium, nickel, cobalt, and other materials that make up the EVs battery all carry a carbon footprint for mining, processing, and cathode material manufacturing, and there are now people working on decarbonizing those supply chains. Decarbonizing the manufacturing of the battery and the production of the materials that make up the battery are the final frontier of deep decarbonization.

This challenge cannot be solved without being quantified. The CO2 impact of manufacturing LIBs has been studied since LIBs started becoming popular in the 2010s. Argonne National Laboratory published their first life cycle assessment (LCA) on the topic in 2012, and updated their results in 2019. Below is a breakdown of the environmental impacts of producing 1 kWh of an LIB, with CO2 intensity in a black box (figure on the left). (6)

Manufacturing NMC111 powder (the cathode material) is the single highest CO2 intense step in LIB cell manufacturing. Energy is used to make the cathode material from chemical precursors including Li2CO3, NiSO4, MnSO4, and CoSO4, all of which consume energy and materials during extraction/mining and refining. The Argonne team broke down the CO2 intensity of these inputs and their findings are below with CO2 intensity in a black box (figure on the right). Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) in this model represents around 10% of the CO2 emissions associated with making the cathode material. This puts CO2 emissions from Li2CO3 extraction/mining and refining at around 4% of the total CO2 emissions for the full battery cell in the Argonne model. It is often commented that the CO2 emissions associated with lithium in LIBs is small, and this has historically been true.

LIB industry professionals will note the cathode chemistry assumed in the Argonne model. NMC111 is a low nickel cathode material made from Li2CO3. Yet, many market forecasts expect that higher nickel content cathode materials like NMC 811 or 9XXX will become more popular in EVs in the 2020s because they have higher energy density, which is important for extending the range of EVs. (7) This is a development which requires an updated model because this cathode material uses different proportions of metals, different quantities of energy, and notably does not use Li2CO3. Instead, lithium hydroxide (LiOHH2O) is used to make these materials. This is a different lithium chemical, made through different manufacturing processes. Moreover, lithium hydroxide is often made from different kinds of natural resources compared to how Li2CO3 is traditionally made.

How does LiOHH2O affect lithiums share of CO2 emissions in LIB manufacturing? How does the type of natural resource mined for producing LiOHH2O compared to conventional Li2CO3 sources affect the CO2 footprint? This is important to EV and LIB industries, not just for minimizing embodied emissions of manufacturing, but also for reducing costs (from fossil fuels). In addition, new LiOHH2O producers may struggle to sell into markets with mandates to reduce carbon footprints throughout the value chain (e.g. the EU). All this with the backdrop of potentially massive fines for auto manufacturers for high CO2 intensity vehicle fleets (which can be mitigated by selling electric vehicles). (8) Volkswagen is already taking this topic seriously, committing to their gotozero campaign for EVs. The CO2 intensity of the 2020s LiOHH2O supply chain has not been studied until now, which is different to what was considered in the Argonne LCA of supply chains in the 2010s.

From the 1990s to the 2010s, most lithium was extracted from brine resources in South America using evaporation, mainly producing Li2CO3, not LiOHH2O. That changed in the 2010s as the Chinese EV revolution kicked off and Tesla emerged with its compelling product offerings. Demand for EVs exploded in China in the last 10 years because of subsidies and air quality concerns in Chinese cities, and EVs are proving to be a compelling choice for consumers world-wide. This caused a 2010s Chinese-dominated lithium rush. Due to the complexities, and long, unpredictable lead-times of deploying evaporation pond brine projects and the (at the time) unavailability of new technologies to produce lithium from different kinds of brines, lithium companies and their customers were unable to source from South America fast enough to meet the countrys new demand.

Major lithium producers like Ganfeng, Albemarle, SQM, and Tianqi have turned to spodumene hard rock deposits in Australia, which are a fundamentally very different kind of lithium resource requiring very different extraction technology. Hard rock resources involve tried-and-true mechanical mining (ex. digging, explosions, crushing, etc.), high carbon intensity roasting steps, and a hydrometallurgical leaching process. Cheap coal, natural gas, and chemicals are available in China to make this process route economic in a high lithium price environment. The industry goal in the 2010s was to meet Chinese demand, not to have low CO2 intensity lithium supply. This lithium rush has moved the worlds lithium production center of gravity to China, where the hard rock resources predominantly come from Australia. This model is being replicated elsewhere alongside small streams of LiOHH2O production from brine producers made via Li2CO3. Quantifying the CO2 intensities of these LiOHH2O products made in China and elsewhere is important for pursuing the final frontier of deep decarbonization so we can understand which process routes emit the least CO2.

We developed an LCA model and data structure tailored specially for the lithium industry in collaboration with Robert Pell at Minviro. Using Alex and Davids knowledge of lithium extraction processes and markets, and Roberts deep background in LCA calculations, we developed a model that can calculate the CO2 impact of any lithium product using any extraction or refining process, operating or proposed. The quality of any LCA is dependent on the quality of the input data used like fossil fuel consumption, reagent consumption, water consumption, and other inputs, so efforts were made to collect the most dependable data available from across the lithium industry, cross-checking with impact data published by lithium companies.

The Minviro Lithium LCA uses well-established procedures and methods governed by specific rules and standards, most notably those developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ReCiPe Midpoint Hierarchist method was applied in this LCA to translate emissions and resource extractions into a limited number of environmental impact scores.

LiOHH2O is produced in different ways by different companies from different natural resources, meaning there is no single LiOHH2O CO2 intensity of production, but a range for different LiOHH2O products offered by different companies from different operations. Further, LiOHH2O products vary in quality (impurity content for example, which can be very battery-manufacturer specific) in a way that was not as important on a massive scale before the 2010s when it was mostly used in grease & glass. All of these things impact the CO2 intensity of production.

We chose the following LiOHH2O products to model as part of this LCA to compare the CO2 intensities of each. The majority of this information originates from published data, linked to real resources, operators, and proposed projects. In the minority of cases where there was no public data, 1st principles models were used to calculate impacts associated with mining and chemical processes.

The functional unit of the LCA is the reference for comparison between the projects. For the Minviro Lithium LCA, the functional unit is 1 tonne of LiOHH2O FOB Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands (highlighting the importance of carbon intensity to the European LIB/EV market). The simplified extraction and refining flowsheets showing some of the main material and energy inputs in the model are shown below.

The Argonne LCA on NMC111 cathode material assumed a carbon intensity for Li2CO3 of around 2.5 tCO2/tLi2CO3 derived from SQM process data. SQM often claims that theirs is some of the most environmentally responsible lithium product available. Given that 95% of the energy that Atacama operators consume is free solar energy to concentrate their extremely high-grade brine in their evaporation ponds, they are not wrong. (9)

This is for Li2CO3 though. LiOHH2O is a different product requiring extra processing steps, namely causticization and crystallization, and is processed differently from spodumene resources. The Argonne team recognized in their 2019 LCA update that the type of lithium product common for future batteries was in flux, but kept SQMs numbers in their model because there was no other industrial data available on LiOHH2O products until now. Below are our estimated impacts of producing battery quality LiOHH2O products from different resources using different processes developed in our LCA study:

LiOHH2O products made from spodumene resources are almost 7x higher CO2 intense to produce compared to historically available numbers because of the need for energy in mining, roasting of the spodumene concentrate, and chemical conversion. Whether the mining is in Australia or Portugal, the CO2 intensity is significant.

The CO2 intensity of processing spodumene concentrate in China is the highest in the world, making LiOHH2O products from China the most CO2 intense LiOHH2O products available on the bulk market. Different electricity grids will have different CO2 intensities, and the only way to be able to know for sure if a spodumene mining operation has a lower CO2 intensity is to model it using ISO-compliant LCA.

Technical grade LiOHH2O made from the Chilean brine operation is ~2x more CO2 intense to make than SQMs historical Li2CO3 products because of the causticization and energy intense crystallization steps involved in making LiOHH2O. It would take even more energy to double crystallize the LiOHH2O, increasing the CO2 intensity of a battery quality LiOHH2O product derived from that operators resource even more.

LiOHH2O product derived from the brine operation in Argentina is more CO2 intense to make than the Chilean technical grade product because of the large quantity of natural gas used for heating the brine in their direct lithium extraction (DLE) process. Their DLE process was designed decades ago and alternative DLE technologies are in development which may not require this large quantity of heat.

All of this means that the industry shift towards the use of LiOHH2O in cathode materials and the production of LiOHH2O from spodumene concentrate in China is increasing the CO2 intensity of lithium in the LIB by a significant factor, making lithium a much higher CO2 intensity ingredient of the LIB of the 2020s. If the European market and industry professionals would like to see the industry move towards the final frontier of deep decarbonization, then this is bad news.

To be clear, EVs containing LIBs made from high CO2 intensity LiOHH2O hopefully save significantly on CO2 emissions over the life of an EV compared to ICEs. However, just because the Australian spodumene-Chinese conversion LiOHH2O supply chain was developed to meet demand in a 2010s lithium rush, doesnt mean that such high CO2 intensity (and high cost) approaches should be deployed further as the lithium market grows.

Unless new low CO2 intensity LiOHH2O products become available, lithiums share of CO2 embodied emissions in LIBs will increase from a small 4% to a much more significant 20-30% (all else assumed equal, though other metal contents and their production methods are changing too). If the average CO2 intensity for producing lithium products is 15 tCO2/t LiOHH2O, and there is 500,000 tLiOHH2O/year of supply in 2030 at this CO2 intensity. That would be equivalent to bringing on new CO2 emissions equivalent to the 2017 CO2 emissions of the entire country of Jamaica. (10)

We believe it is important to work on decarbonizing the lithium supply chain the same way that steel, aluminum, and cement have all recently been the focus of decarbonization. This will require new technologies for lithium extraction and new ways of thinking in the lithium industry.

Combined geothermal-lithium projects that use advanced direct lithium extraction (DLE) technologies paired with low CO2 intense power/heat from geothermal energy production. With no mining and no necessary fossil fuel inputs, these projects could actually have negative CO2 intensities when offsets of low CO2 intense power sold to the grid displace coal-fired generation. There are projects in the USA and Germany both looking to do this and they are making rapid progress.

Lithium projects that extract lithium from unconventional resources like sedimentary materials which do not require roasting, but do require H2SO4. Sulfur can be burned on site to produce H2SO4 and low CO2 intense power/heat produced to facilitate energy-intense lithium processing similar to the geothermal-lithium case.

Use of low CO2 intense power like wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric in both mining and chemical conversion operations. In some places it may be possible to buy and use this power directly.

Only ISO-certified LCAs should be used when communicating the environmental footprint of lithium products. We encourage the Argonne team and other academic groups to conduct similar studies and to help refine these results. We will publish more on the topic in the future, and invite interested parties to reach out to discuss this study.

We are excited for the future of the lithium industry because of its potential to help decarbonize transportation and mitigate catastrophic climate change. However, we have observed some aspiring spodumene mining projects have claimed to have green lithium products. This marketing is deceptive for three reasons:

3.Conventional approaches for LiOHH2O production from spodumene are unable to produce low CO2 intense LiOHH2O because of the intrinsic nature of the lithium resource, and the required use of fossil fuels as energy input. Alternative approaches, and CO2-free energy inputs are needed to decarbonize production.

We encourage aspiring lithium projects to avoid greenwashing tactics, and instead work toward deploying low-CO2, low-cost routes to market. Thankfully there is a way to determine if LiOHH2O products are green or not. All aspiring and producing lithium extraction projects should procure an ISO-compliant LCA, and benchmark themselves transparently on quantifiable measures of being green. Based on our review of the industry, we believe that a truly green LiOHH2O product should have a quantified CO2 intensity of less than 5 tCO2/tLiOHH2O. Some of the other impact categories analyzed in LCA studies include:

Wed like to thank Vulcan Energy Resources Ltd. and EnergySource Minerals LLC for co-sponsoring this study. Both sponsoring companies had no influence on the process or results of the LCA analysis. Thank you to Erik Emilsson of the Swedish Environmental Research Institute for reviewing this report. Thank you to Pedro Mauricio Torres of Beyond Lithium Consultores for helpful information on South American brine operations.

This study follows the standards as described by ISO14040:2006 Principles and frameworks of LCA, and ISO14044:2016: Requirements and guidelines for LCA standards. The LCA study modeled Scope 3 emissions.

sayona mining ltd (sya.ax) novonix test authier potential for lithium hydroxide battery

sayona mining ltd (sya.ax) novonix test authier potential for lithium hydroxide battery

Brisbane, Australia, Mar 31, 2021 - (ABN Newswire) - Emerging lithium miner Sayona Mining Limited (ASX:SYA) (HAM:DML) (OTCMKTS:DMNXF) plans to conduct product trials with leading battery researcher Novonix Limited, focused on delivering a clean and green 99.97% lithium hydroxide battery suitable for North American EV makers. Highlights - Leading battery researcher Novonix Limited to test Authier Lithium Project samples for potential to deliver minimum 99.97% purity lithium hydroxide for batteries for EV makers - Australian clean tech hydroxide provider, ICS Lithium to support trials by providing product to Novonix, based on sustainable and economical closed loop process - Testing at Novonix's battery lab in Canada to commence in May 2021, with full testing to include the development of a battery cell based on Authier lithium product - Trials to reinforce Sayona Quebec's potential to deliver environmentally friendly, cost-competitive and high-quality lithium hydroxide product suitable for fast-growing North American battery market. Under an agreement with Novonix and Australian clean tech hydroxide technology provider ICS Lithium, spodumene samples from Sayona Quebec's flagship Authier Lithium Project will initially be processed into lithium hydroxide using the ICS closed loop refining system. The samples will then be sent to Novonix's independent battery testing facilities in Nova Scotia, Canada, to evaluate their conformity with lithium-ion battery standards and enable performance comparisons in commercial cells suitable for potential offtake partners. The aim of the tests is to highlight the Authier Project's ability to deliver a minimum 99.97% lithium hydroxide product suitable for leading battery cathode makers in North America. Sayona's Managing Director, Brett Lynch, said the tests would demonstrate Sayona Quebec's ability to deliver an environmentally friendly and competitive product to the fast-growing North American industry. "We are rapidly developing a blueprint for moving towards downstream processing in Quebec, benefitting from its environmental and economic advantages including low-cost, renewable hydropower, an established mining services industry and proximity to the North American battery market," Mr Lynch said. "These tests will underpin our ability to produce a clean and green, cost-effective and high-quality product perfect for the world's top EV makers." Novonix is developing 'million mile' battery technologies with revolutionary anode and cathode materials. It has designed and manufactured high precision battery testing equipment for Tier 1 battery makers andOEMs in 15 countries, including Bosch, Dyson, Honda, Panasonic, LG Chem and SK Innovation. Reinforcing its capabilities, the company recently appointed leading lithium-ion battery researcher Prof. Jeff Dahn as its Chief Scientific Advisor. Prof. Dahn and the Dalhousie University research team in Nova Scotia currently work alongside U.S. EV maker Tesla. In January 2021, Tesla extended its battery research contract with Prof. Dahn's team for a second five-year term, highlighting its prominence in battery research. Concerning ICS Lithium, Sayona formed a collaboration last year with the Australian company, which has developed a closed loop process for the refining of spodumene into battery-grade lithium hydroxide, as preferred by leading automakers. Compared with sulfuric acid-based processes, scoping studies undertaken on the ICS process foreshadow lower capital and operating costs, together with game-changing environmental benefits. The process also allows sulfuric acid-based hydroxide plants to be refurbished into clean ICS hydroxide plants at low cost (refer ASX release 28 October 2020). Testing at Novonix's research facilities is due to commence in May, with initial results expected by June. Testing is planned to continue for up to three months and Sayona will update the market as results become available. About ICS Lithium Since 2014, ICS Lithium has been developing an improved process for the refining of lithium-rich minerals such as spodumene. Over this period, the process has been proven and its operations are currently being optimised at small pilot-plant scale. The ICS process is closed insofar as the chemicals required are internally recycled, essentially eliminating the need for their purchase, and the need to dispose of by-product chemicals generated from their use. Scoping studies by a leading EPCM firm foreshadow that compared with sulfuric acid-based processes, the ICS process offers the potential for lower capital costs and the halving of operating costs for the conversion of spodumene concentrates to lithium hydroxide monohydrate, plus game-changing environmental benefits.

Sayona Mining Limited (ASX:SYA) (OTCMKTS:DMNXF) is an Australian, ASX-listed (SYA) company focused on sourcing and developing the raw materials required to construct lithium-ion batteries for use in the rapidly growing new and green technology sectors. The Company has lithium projects in Quebec, Canada and in Western Australia. Please visit us as at www.sayonamining.com.au

NOVONIX Limited (ASX:NVX) (FRA:GC3) (OTCMKTS:NVNXF) is an integrated developer and supplier of high-performance materials, equipment and services for the global lithium-ion battery industry with operations in the USA and Canada and sales in more than 14 countries. NOVONIX's mission is to support the global deployment of lithium-ion battery technologies for a cleaner energy future. Contact:Brett LynchManaging DirectorPhone: +61 (7) 3369 7058Email: [email protected] Source: Sayona Mining Ltd NOVONIX Ltd Copyright (C) 2021 ABN Newswire. All rights reserved.

NEW YORK, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Pomerantz LLP announces that a class action lawsuit has been filed against DraftKings Inc. f/k/a Diamond Eagle Acquisition Corp. (DEAC, DraftKings, or the Company) (NASDAQ: DKNG) and certain of its officers. The class action, filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and docketed under 21-cv-05739, is on behalf of a class consisting of all persons and entities other than Defendants that purchased or otherwis

NEW YORK, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Pomerantz LLP is investigating claims on behalf of investors of. Athira Pharma, Inc. (Athira or the Company) (NASDAQ: ATHA). Such investors are advised to contact Robert S. Willoughby at [email protected] or 888-476-6529, ext. 7980. The investigation concerns whether Athira and certain of its officers and/or directors have engaged in securities fraud or other unlawful business practices. [Click here for information about joining the class action

NEW YORK, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Pomerantz LLP is investigating claims on behalf of investors of Tarena International, Inc. (Tarena or the Company) (NASDAQ: TEDU). Such investors are advised to contact Robert S. Willoughby at [email protected] or 888-476-6529, ext. 7980. The investigation concerns whether Tarena and certain of its officers and/or directors have engaged in securities fraud or other unlawful business practices. [Click here for information about joining the class

NEW YORK, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Pomerantz LLP is investigating claims on behalf of investors of PureCycle Technologies, Inc. (PureCycle or the Company) (NASDAQ: PCT). Such investors are advised to contact Robert S. Willoughby at [email protected] or 888-476-6529, ext. 7980. The investigation concerns whether PureCycle and certain of its officers and/or directors have engaged in securities fraud or other unlawful business practices. [Click here for information about joining the

A bulk carrier which was blocked from docking in Western Australia has departed for Indonesia, days after a crew member tested positive to coronavirus.Federal authorities have cleared the MV Emerald Indah to leave after the ship's master provided a medical assessment declaring the crew were fit and ready for voyage.

West Coast coach Adam Simpson says there's not enough evidence to suggest his game plan is outdated before revealing the club is bracing itself for another big lump of injuries.The Eagles were heavily criticised this week after their 55-point home loss to the Bulldogs was followed by an embarrassing 92-point defeat to Sydney at GMHBA Stadium.

Singapore Airlines Ltd (SIA), flush with $16 billion raised since the start of the pandemic thanks to help from a state investor, is in a position of dominance among its Southeast Asian rivals as they downsize and restructure. The crisis threatened the survival of hub carriers that lack domestic markets such as SIA, Hong Kong's Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd and Dubai's Emirates. Indeed, Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong last year said the government would "spare no effort" to ensure SIA made it through the pandemic.

NEW YORK, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Pomerantz LLP is investigating claims on behalf of investors of Ocugen, Inc. (Ocugen or the Company) (NASDAQ: OCGN). Such investors are advised to contact Robert S. Willoughby at [email protected] or 888-476-6529, ext. 7980. The investigation concerns whether Ocugen and certain of its officers and/or directors have engaged in securities fraud or other unlawful business practices. [Click here for information about joining the class action] On May

Asian stocks have fallen to a six-week low as an extended sell-off in tech shares in Hong Kong and rising virus cases added to a broad risk-averse mood, pressuring oil prices and lending support to bonds and the US dollar.A surprise dovish turn from Chinese policymakers also sparked a rally in sovereign Chinese debt and sent 10-year yields to a 10-month low.

Teachers desperately scrambling to prepare for online classes next week have been dealt another blow, with a cyber attack on the NSW Department of Education leaving them unable to access vital materials and tools.The department confirmed on Thursday it had been the victim of a cyber attack.

A gambling addict exploited an elderly man suffering dementia through multiple marriages and isolation to secure his Sydney property, a judge has found.While Justice Geoff Lindsay did not find that Lisa Tsui Pen Chiang was "gold-digging" her way through two prior marriages, he nullified her third wedlock to Lo Sing Ip, referring to ample evidence of his deteriorating mental state.

NEW YORK, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- (GLOBENEWSWIRE) Pomerantz LLP is investigating claims on behalf of investors of RLX Technology Inc. (RLX or the Company) (NYSE: RLX). Such investors are advised to contact Robert S. Willoughby at [email protected] or 888-476-6529, ext. 7980. The investigation concerns whether RLX and certain of its officers and/or directors have engaged in securities fraud or other unlawful business practices. [Click here for information about joining the class

PUNE, India, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Global GaN Epitaxial Wafers Market Share, Trends, Analysis and Forecasts, 2020-2030 provides insights on key developments, business strategies, research & development activities, supply chain analysis, competitive landscape, and market composition analysis. GaN epitaxial wafers are composite (Al,In,Ga)N multi-layer formations developed through process of epitaxy by metallic integrated chemical substance vapor accumulation (MOCVD) either on silic

Australia's climate ructions are having a chilling effect on investment, the country's largest superannuation funds have told a parliamentary hearing.Prime Minister Scott Morrison has said he would prefer Australia to achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2050, in line with commitments by many large economies.

NEW YORK, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Pomerantz LLP is investigating claims on behalf of investors of Churchill Capital Corporation IV (Churchill or the Company) (NYSE: CCIV). Such investors are advised to contact Robert S. Willoughby at [email protected] or 888-476-6529, ext. 7980. The investigation concerns whether Churchill and certain of its officers and/or directors have engaged in securities fraud or other unlawful business practices. [Click here for information about joining

DENVER, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Vista Gold Corp. (NYSE American and TSX: VGZ) (Vista or the Company) is pleased to announce that, due to demand, the underwriters have agreed to increase the size of the previously announced public offering and purchase on a firm commitment basis 12,272,730 units of the Company (the Units) at a public offering price of US$1.10 per Unit, less underwriting discounts and commissions, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately US$13,500,000 (the Of

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