Sand DryerBrief Description: Sand Dryeris widely used in construction materials, ore dressing, metallurgy, chemical industry, cement industry, etc. Sand Dryer are used for drying all kinds of sand such as river sand, yellow sand, silica sand, quartz sand, pomegranate sand, etc. Sand Dryer mainly consist of rotary drum, carrier roller, lifting boards, hot air furnace, electric control box, etc. Sand Dryer Features: New type rotary drum dryer, the flights structure in the cylinder of sand dryer is more advanced ; Inner temperature is 450-700, discharging temperature <= 60 , can send into storage room directly, and no need cool device; Made of wear resistant manganese plate, 3 to 4 times more hardwearing than ordinary steel plate ; 1/3 of the traditional drum dryer's coal consumption, electricity power saving 40%,standard coal consumption per tondried sand< 16 kg. Wet Sand Input Dried Sand Output Sand Dryer Workflow: Belt Conveyor or bucket elevator transports the wet sand into the hopper which is on the top of sand dryer. Hot air furnace supply the hot air for the sand dryer. Inside the sand dryer's cylinder, there are many flights, and these flights mix the wet sand and hot air sufficiently. The humidity in the wet sand is heated and evaporated into water vapour. At the end of the sand drying plant, there is one high pressure draft fan. Under the function of draft fan, the water vapour goes out of sand dryer in time. During the sand drying process, there is some dust mixed with the water vapour. In the cyclone separator, the dust is separated from the water vapour, and falls down. The dried sand goes out of the sand dryer machine from the outlet as product. Finally we can use one belt conveyor or bucket elevator to send the dry sand into silo or trucks. Fuel for Sand Dryer: Fuel for the heat source can be wood pellets, waste wood, coal, diesel, natural gas, biomass fuel, etc. The users can choose the most suitable fuel according the actual situation such as fuel available, fuel cost, local environment laws, etc. Partial Technical Data of Sand Dryer Machine: Model Processing Capacity Input Moisture Output Moisture MainMotor forSandDryer Coal CalorificValue Feedinlet Temperature 1.5X14M 10-12 17-23% <10% 15 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 1.8X14M 15-18 17-23% <10% 18.5 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 2.0X16M 20-25 17-23% <10% 18.5 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 2.2X18M 25-30 17-23% <10% 22 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 Notice: Any change ofSandDryertechnical data shall not be advised additionally. Sunco Machinerycan design and supply theSand Dryersystem according to the following information specially : 01. Initial moisture content %of wet sand ? 02. Final output moisture content (%) of dry sandneeded ? 03. Input Capacity (ton per hour ) needed ? 04. Prefered fuel such as coal, waste wood, diesel, or natural gas, etc ? 05. Other special requirements if have ? For detail and price of SandDryer, please refer to: Email:[email protected] Mobile / WhatsApp: Video:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRbrEjSZFaA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMF2nE7eAes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1dgBh-JktI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQ-4iNnxekw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RrghfR9PV4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OkF8nPLuoQ
Sand Dryer are used for drying all kinds of sand such as river sand, yellow sand, silica sand, quartz sand, pomegranate sand, etc. Sand Dryer mainly consist of rotary drum, carrier roller, lifting boards, hot air furnace, electric control box, etc.
Fuel for the heat source can be wood pellets, waste wood, coal, diesel, natural gas, biomass fuel, etc. The users can choose the most suitable fuel according the actual situation such as fuel available, fuel cost, local environment laws, etc.
Model Processing Capacity Input Moisture Output Moisture MainMotor forSandDryer Coal CalorificValue Feedinlet Temperature 1.5X14M 10-12 17-23% <10% 15 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 1.8X14M 15-18 17-23% <10% 18.5 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 2.0X16M 20-25 17-23% <10% 18.5 >5500KCAL/KG 70050 2.2X18M 25-30 17-23% <10% 22 >5500KCAL/KG 70050
Sand dryer, also known as sand drying machine, which is one of the practical industrial sand drying equipment, is mainly applied in the industries of beneficiation, building, metallurgy, chemical engineering and others.
Sand dryer is mainly used for drying particle materials with certain humidity, such as all kinds of sand in foundry industry and dry-mixed mortar industry, clay with small particle size in building materials and cement industry, small particle size materials with no chemical changes, and heat and dust resistance materials in the chemical industry.
The drum body is the main part of the sand drying machine. And it is equipped with the feed and discharge cases and sealing gaskets to prevent the heat from escaping.
The spiral plates are welded in the feed port, the lifting blades are equipped in the drum body, and the blocking ring is welded in the discharge port (to keep wet materials from discharging).
The thermal cotton is made of basalt, dolomite and binder by high-temperature melting. On the basis of insulation, the galvanized thermal plate can prevent rain, corrosion, and is suitable for rainy countries.
The drying line is composed of feeder, conveyor, ID fan (induced draft fan), air heating furnace and cyclone dust collector. By the way, the air heating furnace can be built to save certain costs.
In addition, gas generators, combustion chambers or supporting elevator, belt conveyors, dosing feeding machine, cyclone dust collectors, and induced draft fans can be designed according to users' needs.
The main wear parts of the dryers are the drum body and the lifting plates. All of them are made of wear-resisting manganese plates, which is 3 to 4 times as the wear resistance of ordinary steel plate.
Stainless steel gaskets are used for sealing at both ports, which can efficiently prevent heat from escaping and improve the utilization of the hot gas generated by the heat source and increase the drying efficiency.
The initial moisture content of the material is 15%, and the final moisture is guaranteed to be 0.5-1% or less. It is the first-choice product for various drying projects such as river sand, cement slag powder and dry mortar production line.
The heat source of the sand dryers comes from the air heating furnace (it can be solid fuel, liquid fuel, gas fuel, heat carrier and electric energy), and the sand dryer adopts the downstream or countercurrent heating mode.
The material is repeatedly lifted by the lifting plate, carried to the top of the barrel and then continuously spread down, and fully contacts with the hot airflow. Then the moisture contained is gradually dried to achieve the purpose of drying.
Under certain conditions, if it contains too much water and is in a fluid state, there can be a filter press equipped in front of the dryers, which can remove a lot of water and improve the working efficiency of the later process.
In January 2019, a customer from India contacted the customer service staff of Fote Heavy Machinery, hoping that we could provide him with a set of river sand dryer equipment. According to the data and information provided by the customer, Fote technicians advised him with a suitable dryer equipment.
Since its establishment, Fote Heavy Machinery has been adhering to the principle of customer first, paying much more attention to product quality and focusing on cultivating outstanding talents. It has grown into a leading mining machinery manufacturer at home and abroad.
The company has modern management mechanism, processing equipment, perfect testing methods, high-quality scientific research personnel with high-quality tracking service, and provides customers with advanced and economical technical services with a high degree of professionalism.
As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.
Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.
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To reach gas that was previously thought to be unreachable, pressure is used to fracture rock formations deep underground to allow a better flow of gas through a well. When the pressure is removed, the fracture collapses, which dramatically diminishes its effectiveness. A special type of refined sand is used as a "proppant" to keep the well linings propped open after water-based slurry has been injected into the casing. Hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking," is a mining technique that greatly enhances oil and gas well productivity and is being aggressively deployed around the world, and North America in particular. The sand remains in the fracture when the pressure is removed, keeping the fracture propped open and allowing the gas to continue to flow through the well. Thanks to the Marcellus Shale Formation, the Northeast region has experienced a recent economic boom. This turnabout came after technological advancements were made in horizontal drilling and fracking. Although fracking was used by the oil industry in the 1860s with liquid nitroglycerin in shallow wells, it wasnt until the modern version of this old technique was developed, in which the extraction of deeper pockets of natural gas became a reality. Frac sand is a high-purity quartz sand with very durable, round grains, and is a crush-resistant material produced for use by the petroleum industry. The U.S. is the largest consumer and producer of frac sand, and according to Wall Street Daily, about 25-30 million metric tons of it are used to supply the 1.1 million active gas and oil wells in the U.S. The American Petroleum Institute (API) determines frac sand specifications that include grain size, sphericity, crush resistance, and solubility. Mining companies are therefore eager to sell only frac sand that meets these API specifications to their well operator customers. To ensure an acceptable quality of sand, mining companies wash and dry it to remove all possible impurities. Two types of industrial dryers are ideally engineered to meet the stringent requirements that sand mining companies must adhere to, in order to consistently provide the highest quality sand to their energy producing customers. These dryers are fluid bed and rotary. On the surface, a fluid bed dryer is similar to many other types of drying equipment. It processes granular, free-flowing material at product temperatures ranging from 140 to 300F, and suitable materials include sand, minerals, clays, organic salts, coal, and specialty chemicals. But the similarities end there. In a fluid bed, the material being dried is suspended and completely surrounded by the drying air or gas, causing that material to behave like a fluid. Besides keeping the material in a seemingly liquid state, the gas stream is the media for heat and mass exchange. As a result of the intimate gas-to-solids contact, very high rates of heat transfer are accomplished while the sand grains are gently handled. The bedplate allows the uniform distribution of the gas stream during operation, and supports the bed of material during shutdown. A fluid bed dryer provides lower capital equipment costs at installation and lower operating costs over the life of the machine, including reduced baghouse and scrubber costs, while also increasing productivity. Because there are no moving parts inside the fluid bed, maintenance costs are greatly reduced compared to other systems. In contrast, rotary dryers handle a much broader range of materials, regardless of their conveying and handling characteristics. Whether the process requires the drying of fine and dusty powders, lumpy solids, sticky semi-plastics, sludges, pellets, agglomerates, or even a mixture of all of the above, a rotary dryer will successfully accomplish its task. A rotary dryer is a rotating cylinder, or shell, that is slightly inclined to the horizontal, and its length can be four to ten times its diameter. Material is fed into one end of the cylinder and, by virtue of its rotation and slope as well as the head effect of the material, and it exits continuously from the opposite end. The interior of the shell is equipped with specially designed flights that advance the feed material into the shells active zone and efficiently expose the material to the heat source. An important determination is the usage of direct or indirect heat in the drying process. Rotary dryers use either direct convection heat transfer or indirect heat transfer, which depends upon hot surfaces within the dryer to provide heat by conduction and radiation. The determination of direct versus indirect heat is contingent upon the properties of the material to be dried, the process conditions and the desired end product. The optimal method of drying frac sand is with direct heat, with hot air entering the rotating shell at one end, passing through it and exiting at the other end. Flights welded to the internal shell walls lift and shower the wet sand, bringing it into direct contact with the hot air. The configuration of the flights depends on the characteristics of the material being processed, and the length and diameter of the shell depends on the drying capacity. Indirect heat drying is most frequently used for products with small particle sizes that could result in excessive dust generation. The frac sand industry utilizes both types of dryers. Rotary dryers are the more expensive of the two, but they are more forgiving and allow greater process turndown capability. Fluid bed dryers cost less, are more thermally efficient and have minimal maintenance due to fewer moving parts. When taking into account certain frac sand drying requirements that must remain consistent throughout the process, such as throughput, particle size and moisture content, then fluid bed drying is the optimal method. However, rotary dryers provide greater versatility, which allows the frac sand market to better adjust to the needs of its industry. David Phillips is marketing & communications manager, Heyl & Patterson Inc., Carnegie, PA. Founded in 1887 in Pittsburgh, Heyl & Patterson is an industry leader in the design and construction of bulk transfer and thermal processing equipment for customers in a wide range of industries, including chemical, steel, biomass, energy, ports, and mining & minerals. For more information, visit www.heylpatterson.com.
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Rotary drum dryers have long been the preferred industrial dryer for processing sand in a variety of applications. Tolerant of variation in feedstock, highly reliable, and rugged, rotary dryers offer high-capacity sand drying at its finest for a variety of applications, including:
Resource of the Week: Slideshare Presentation on Rotary Dryers (Driers) for Frac SandResource of the Week: Frac Sand Dryers (Driers) Project ProfileNorth Dakota Frac SandFrac Sand: Diagram of Hydraulic Fracturing ProcessFrac SandArgentina Looks for Frac Sand to Reduce Shale Drilling CostsHydraulic fracturing advances increase recovery while reducing environmental impact - refrackingFrac Sand Dryers (Driers): Rotary vs. Fluid BedFrac Sand Dryer (Drier) Burner and Combustion ChamberFrac Sand Dryer (Drier) FlightsRotary Dryers (Driers) for Frac SandResource of the Week: Frac Sand Drying InfographicFrac Sand Dryer (Drier)Rotary Dryers (Driers) for Frac Sand InfographicFrac Sand Dryer (Drier) InfographicPhoto: Bill Cunningham, USGS, public domain [Public domain], via Wikimedia CommonsIn-basin Frac Sand TrendThe Ongoing Battle Between US Frac Sand Supply and DemandNorth America Shale Basins and Plays MapFrac Sand Dryers (Driers)Frac Sand Dryer (Drier) BrochureResource of the Week: Frac Sand Dryer (Drier) Project ProfileFrac Sand Dryer (Drier) Project ProfileDemand for Frac Sand Expands into CanadaFrac Sand Bucket ElevatorFrac Sand Dryer (Drier) Advancing FlightsFrac Sand Dryer (Drier) Combustion Chamber 3D ModelEvolution of the Frac Sand Dryer (Drier)Frac Sand Rotary Dryer (Drier)Frac Sand ConferenceTexas Frac Sand Market Finds Competitive AdvantageFrac Sand Market Could See Best Year YetFrac Sand Dryer (Drier)Rotary Dryer (Drier) for Frac SandFrac Sand Dryer (Drier)Frac Sand Dryer (Drier)Frac Sand Conveyor SystemRotary Dryer (Drier) ManufacturingRotary Dryer (Dried) FlightsFEECO Rotary Dryer (Drier) in fieldFrac sand bucket elevatorFrac Sand Conveyor SystemFrac Sand Bucket ElevatorsFrac Sand Boom ContinuesFracking Diagram View All >
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Wet sand, whether for a sandbox or your pet's terrarium, can be a pain. For one thing, it can breed germs that put your loved ones at risk. Drying out sand typically requires a heat source and time. You can use the sun, your oven, or if you're using sand for industrial purposes, a cement mixer and a torch. Either of the first 2 methods will also work for drying out sand you bring home from the beach and want to use for crafting purposes.
Adjustment and control of moisture levels in solid materials through drying is a critical process in the manufacture of many types of chemical products. As a unit operation, drying solid materials is one of the most common and important in the chemical process industries (CPI), since it is used in practically every plant and facility that manufactures or handles solid materials, in the form of powders and granules.
The effectiveness of drying processes can have a large impact on product quality and process efficiency in the CPI. For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, where drying normally occurs as a batch process, drying is a key manufacturing step. The drying process can impact subsequent manufacturing steps, including tableting or encapsulation and can influence critical quality attributes of the final dosage form.
Apart from the obvious requirement of drying solids for a subsequent operation, drying may also be carried out to improve handling characteristics, as in bulk powder filling and other operations involving powder flow; and to stabilize moisture-sensitive materials, such as pharmaceuticals.
Drying may be defined as the vaporization and removal of water or other liquids from a solution, suspension, or other solid-liquid mixture to form a dry solid. It is a complicated process that involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer, accompanied by physicochemical transformations. Drying occurs as a result of the vaporization of liquid by supplying heat to wet feedstock, granules, filter cakes and so on. Based on the mechanism of heat transfer that is employed, drying is categorized into direct (convection), indirect or contact (conduction), radiant (radiation) and dielectric or microwave (radio frequency) drying.
Heat transfer and mass transfer are critical aspects in drying processes. Heat is transferred to the product to evaporate liquid, and mass is transferred as a vapor into the surrounding gas. The drying rate is determined by the set of factors that affect heat and mass transfer. Solids drying is generally understood to follow two distinct drying zones, known as the constant-rate period and the falling-rate period. The two zones are demarcated by a break point called the critical moisture content.
In a typical graph of moisture content versus drying rate and moisture content versus time (Figure 1), section AB represents the constant-rate period. In that zone, moisture is considered to be evaporating from a saturated surface at a rate governed by diffusion from the surface through the stationary air film that is in contact with it. This period depends on the air temperature, humidity and speed of moisture to the surface, which in turn determine the temperature of the saturated surface. During the constant rate period, liquid must be transported to the surface at a rate sufficient to maintain saturation.
At the end of the constant rate period, (point B, Figure 1), a break in the drying curve occurs. This point is called the critical moisture content, and a linear fall in the drying rate occurs with further drying. This section, segment BC, is called the first falling-rate period. As drying proceeds, moisture reaches the surface at a decreasing rate and the mechanism that controls its transfer will influence the rate of drying. Since the surface is no longer saturated, it will tend to rise above the wet bulb temperature. This section, represented by segment CD in Figure 1 is called the second falling-rate period, and is controlled by vapor diffusion. Movement of liquid may occur by diffusion under the concentration gradient created by the depletion of water at the surface. The gradient can be caused by evaporation, or as a result of capillary forces, or through a cycle of vaporization and condensation, or by osmotic effects.
The capacity of the air (gas) stream to absorb and carry away moisture determines the drying rate and establishes the duration of the drying cycle. The two elements essential to this process are inlet air temperature and air flowrate. The higher the temperature of the drying air, the greater its vapor holding capacity. Since the temperature of the wet granules in a hot gas depends on the rate of evaporation, the key to analyzing the drying process is psychrometry, defined as the study of the relationships between the material and energy balances of water vapor and air mixture.
There are a number of approaches to determine the end of the drying process. The most common one is to construct a drying curve by taking samples during different stages of drying cycle against the drying time and establish a drying curve. When the drying is complete, the product temperature will start to increase, indicating the completion of drying at a specific, desired product-moisture content. Karl Fischer titration and loss on drying (LOD) moisture analyzers are also routinely used in batch processes. The water vapor sorption isotherms are measured using a gravimetric moisture-sorption apparatus with vacuum-drying capability.
For measuring moisture content in grain, wood, food, textiles, pulp, paper, chemicals, mortar, soil, coffee, jute, tobacco, rice and concrete, electrical-resistance-type meters are used. This type of instrument operates on the principle of electrical resistance, which varies minutely in accordance with the moisture content of the item measured. Dielectric moisture meters are also used. They rely on surface contact with a flat plate electrode that does not penetrate the product.
For measuring moisture content in paper rolls or stacks of paper, advanced methods include the use of the radio frequency (RF) capacitance method. This type of instrument measures the loss, or change, in RF dielectric constant, which is affected by the presence or absence of moisture.
Adiabatic dryers are the type where the solids are dried by direct contact with gases, usually forced air. With these dryers, moisture is on the surface of the solid. Non-adiabatic dryers involve situations where a dryer does not use heated air or other gases to provide the energy required for the drying process
Non-adiabatic dryers (contact dryers) involve an indirect method of removal of a liquid phase from the solid material through the application of heat, such that the heat-transfer medium is separated from the product to be dried by a metal wall. Heat transfer to the product is predominantly by conduction through the metal wall and the impeller. Therefore, these units are also called conductive dryers.
Although more than 85% of the industrial dryers are of the convective type, contact dryers offer higher thermal efficiency and have economic and environmental advantages over convective dryers. Table 1 compares direct and indirect dryers, while Table 2 shows the classification of dryers based on various criteria.
Tray dryers. This dryer type operates by passing hot air over the surface of a wet solid that is spread over trays arranged in racks. Tray dryers are the simplest and least-expensive dryer type. This type is most widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The chief advantage of tray dryers, apart from their low initial cost, is their versatility. With the exception of dusty solids, materials of almost any other physical form may be dried. Drying times are typically long (usually 12 to 48 h).
Vacuum dryers. Vacuum dryers offer low-temperature drying of thermolabile materials or the recovery of solvents from a bed. Heat is usually supplied by passing steam or hot water through hollow shelves. Drying temperatures can be carefully controlled and, for the major part of the drying cycle, the solid material remains at the boiling point of the wetting substance. Drying times are typically long (usually 12 to 48 h).
Fluidized-bed dryers. A gas-fluidized bed may have the appearance of a boiling liquid. It has bubbles, which rise and appear to burst. The bubbles result in vigorous mixing. A preheated stream of air enters from the bottom of the product container holding the product to be dried and fluidizes it. The resultant mixture of solids and gas behave like a liquid, and thus the solids are said to be fluidized. The solid particles are continually caught up in eddies and fall back in a random boiling motion so that each fluidized particle is surrounded by the gas stream for efficient drying, granulation or coating purposes. In the process of fluidization, intense mixing occurs between the solids and air, resulting in uniform conditions of temperature, composition and particle size distribution throughout the bed.
Freeze dryers. Freeze-drying is an extreme form of vacuum drying in which the water or other solvent is frozen and drying takes place by subliming the solid phase. Freeze-drying is extensively used in two situations: (1) when high rates of decomposition occur during normal drying; and (2) with substances that can be dried at higher temperatures, and that are thereby changed in some way.
Microwave vacuum dryers. High-frequency radio waves with frequencies from 300 to 30,000 MHz are utilized in microwave drying (2,450 MHz is used in batch microwave processes). Combined microwave-convective drying has been used for a range of applications at both laboratory and industrial scales. The bulk heating effect of microwave radiation causes the solvent to vaporize in the pores of the material. Mass transfer is predominantly due to a pressure gradient established within the sample. The temperature of the solvent component is elevated above the air temperature by the microwave heat input, but at a low level, such that convective and evaporative cooling effects keep the equilibrium temperature below saturation. Such a drying regime is of particular interest for drying temperature-sensitive materials. Microwave-convective processing typically facilitates a 50% reduction in drying time, compared to vacuum drying.
Continuous dryers are mainly used in chemical and food industries, due to the large volume of product that needs to be processed. Most common are continuous fluid-bed dryers and spray dryers. There are other dryers, depending on the product, that can be used in certain industries for example, rotary dryers, drum dryers, kiln dryers, flash dryers, tunnel dryers and so on. Spray dryers are the most widely used in chemical, dairy, agrochemical, ceramic and pharmaceutical industries.
Spray dryer. The spray-drying process can be divided into four sections: atomization of the fluid, mixing of the droplets, drying, and, removal and collection of the dry particles (Figure 2). Atomization may be achieved by means of single-fluid or two-fluid nozzles, or by spinning-disk atomizers. The flow of the drying gas may be concurrent or countercurrent with respect to the movement of droplets. Good mixing of droplets and gas occurs, and the heat- and mass-transfer rates are high. In conjunction with the large interfacial area conferred by atomization, these factors give rise to very high evaporation rates. The residence time of a droplet in the dryer is only a few seconds (530 s). Since the material is at wet-bulb temperature for much of this time, high gas temperatures of 1,508 to 2,008C may be used, even with thermolabile materials. For these reasons, it is possible to dry complex vegetable extracts, such as coffee or digitalis, milk products, and other labile materials without significant loss of potency or flavor. The capital and running costs of spray dryers are high, but if the scale is sufficiently large, they may provide the cheapest method.
With increasing concern about environmental degradation, it is desirable to decrease energy consumption in all sectors. Drying has been reported to account for anywhere from 12 to 20% of the energy consumption in the industrial sector. Drying processes are one of the most energy-intensive unit operations in the CPI.
One measure of efficiency is the ratio of the minimum quantity of heat that will remove the required water to the energy actually provided for the process. Sensible heat can also be added to the minimum, as this added heat in the material often cannot be economically recovered. Other newer technologies have been developed, such as sonic drying, superheated steam, heat-pump-assisted drying and others.
Drying is an essential unit operation used in various process industries. The mechanism of drying is well understood as a two-stage process and depends on the drying medium and the moisture content of the product being dried.
Batch dryers are common in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, while continuous dryers are routinely used where large production is required. Since the cost of drying is a significant portion of the cost of manufacturing a product, improving efficiency or finding alternative drying routes is essential.
1. Sverine, Thrse, Mortier, F.C., De Beer, Thomas, Gernaey, Krist V., Vercruysse, Jurgen, et al. Mechanistic modelling of the drying behavior of single pharmaceutical granules, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 80, pp. 682689, 2012.
6. Raghavan, G.S.V., Rennie, T.J., Sunjka, P.S., Orsat, V., Phaphuangwittayakul, W. and Terdtoon, P., Overview of new techniques for drying biological materials, with emphasis on energy aspects, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 22(2), pp. 195201, 2005.
Dilip M. Parikh is president of the pharmaceutical technology development and consulting group DPharma Group Inc. (Ellicott City, MD 21042; Email: [email protected]). As an industrial pharmacist, Parikh has more than 35 years of experience in product development, manufacturing, plant operations and process engineering at various major pharmaceutical companies in Canada and the U.S. Prior to staring DPharma Group, he held the position of vice president of operations and technology at Synthon Pharmaceuticals in North Carolina and vice president and general manager at Atlantic Pharmaceuticals Services in Maryland. He is the editor of Handbook of Pharmaceutical Granulation 3rd ed. He has authored several book chapters and articles on various pharmaceutical technologies, including quality by design, process assessment and contract manufacturing. He has been an invited speaker at scientific conferences worldwide on solid-dosage technologies development and manufacturing.
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The Vulcan Drying Systems Frac Sand Drying System is custom-designed and manufactured to suit a customer's individual project needs. Most customers have sand ranging from 5-8% in moisture content. These drying systems consist of a rotary drum dryer and a burner mounted on a breeching plate. Vulcan Drying Systems Frac Sand Drying Systems are designed specifically to dry frac sands, making the material easy to transport, separate and handle.
Frac sand is fed into the rotary dryer. After passing through the dryer, the dried product is discharged to a transfer conveyor for further sorting and separation. The vapor from the process is pulled through a baghouse which removes fine particulates from the vapor stream.
Looking for a complete system to process your material? Vulcan Drying Systems designs and manufactures cost-effective solutions for any possible process. Our experienced team will create a system that will produce your desired result.
For years now, specialized sands known asfrac sands have been utilized to augment the production ofnatural gas and oil from wells. The mining and processing of sand for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has grown into a booming industry in the Midwest.
Frac sand is used in the fracking process to create fractures in the rock to allow the free flow of oil, natural gas or natural gas liquids. The demand for frac sand is incredibly high, as a single well can use several thousand tons of the material.
The hydraulic fracturing process begins with the drilling of a well into a rock formation. A high-pressure fracking fluid is injected into the well. This fluid, made up of water mixed with frac sand and a blend of chemicals, acts as a propping agent, or proppant. The proppant prevents the fracture from closing and permits gas to flow through the well.
To ensure that the quality of sand is acceptable, mining companies wash and dry the frac sand to rid it of all possible impurities. Rotary dryers are the most proven and preferred method to dry frac sand. Dryers can be utilized at both the beginning and the end of the fracking process. Prior to its transportation to and use at a job site, frac sand must be dried and treated. Vulcan Drying Systems can supply a full range of equipment to dry, sort and move frac sand.