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The aim of this study is to estimate the fatigue life of the screw blades in the screw sand washing machine under the extreme load (i.e., the load caused by the full load condition). Firstly, the extreme load is taken into consideration in the fatigue life assessment of screw blades by means of the finite element analysis (FEA). Next, the P-S-N curve is fitted by the fully reversed rotating bending testing on standard specimens and theory deduction. Then, s are generated according to the maximum and minimum stresses of the root of screw blades under different thicknesses. Finally, the service life of screw blades is assessed based on the P-S-N curve, s, and Soderberg mean stress correction method. In particular, the effects of the surface finish factor, fatigue notch factor, and residual stress on the fatigue life of screw blades are considered. The results show that the stress concentration is at the root of screw blades; the screw blades with the thickness of 10 mm, whose service life is around 35 years, are the optimum in terms of the screw sand washing machine proposed in this study; the safety factor of screw blades should be 2, considering the influence of the fatigue load.
In recent years, with the excessive consumption of land-based sand sources and the swift increase of environmental pressure, marine sand is widely utilized for the fine aggregates of construction industries in an attempt to substitute land-based sand worldwide . Nowadays, marine sand mining has already become the second most important marine mining source after oil source . However, marine sand contains a great number of chloride ions, which will cause premature corrosion in steel bars embedded in concrete . In architectural industries, the chloride ion content in the fine aggregate should be restricted strictly. Therefore, various mechanical wash-sand systems are used to get rid of chloride ions from marine sand in many countries, achieving the qualified marine sand used for the aggregates of construction industries . Because of the excellent performance of desalting marine sand, the screw sand washing machine is the core element of different categories of mechanical wash-sand systems in the marine sand desalination field . Consequently, this study takes the screw sand washing machine as the research object.
The sand washing process of the screw sand washing machine is shown in Fig. 1. To begin with, marine sand is conveyed into the screw sand washing machine via the belt conveyor or the rotating wheel sand washing machine [3, 4]. Secondly, with the help of the motor and reducer, the screw structure has the ability to run at a constant rotational speed. More importantly, the functions of the screw structure are to agitate marine sand and water and transport marine sand. In most mechanical sand washing systems, ozone water is employed to eliminate chloride ions from marine sand . In fact, ozone water is produced by a kind of special equipment, and then ozone water is poured into the screw sand washing machine via shower nozzles. Eventually, with the continuous operation of the screw sand washing machine, desalted marine sand is acquired.
Engineering practices have proven that the fatigue failure of screw blades is the main failure mode of the screw sand washing machine. To ensure the of the screw sand washing machine and verify the of screw blades, the research on the fatigue life prediction of screw blades is executed in this study. In practice, the fatigue life estimation of screw blades could be beneficial to accurately control the fatigue strength of screw blades on the basis of actual engineering requirements. Additionally, it could provide a variety of theoretical guidance for determining the reasonable maintenance period of the screw sand washing machine. In conclusion, the investigation reported in this paper has certain theoretical and engineering values.
A marine sand sector in a pitch used for calculating the axial forces acting on an individual screw blade surface is illustrated in Figure 2 . In Figure 2, is the radius of the screw structure in meters; is the radius of the screw axis in meters; is the radius of the screw blade in meters; is the pitch length in meters; is the polar coordinate. To simplify the theoretical model, the following assumptions are made .
(2) The trough is full of marine sand, and the distribution of marine sand is uniform in the trough. In addition, the mutual compression of marine sand is not considered. Actually, for different installation angles, the material filling factors of the screw sand washing machine are distinctly different . For safety reasons, the influences of the extreme load on the fatigue life of screw blades are investigated in this study.
When the screw sand washing machine desalts marine sand, the force condition of a screw blade is illustrated in Figure 3 [5, 7]. In Figure 3, is the resultant force acting on a screw blade in newtons; is the force on the trailing side of a screw blade in newtons; is the force on the driving side of a screw blade in newtons; is the component force of in the normal direction of a screw blade in newtons; is the component force of in the tangential direction of a screw blade in newtons; is the screw blade helix angle at radius in degrees; is the wall friction angle of marine sand on the screw blade surface in degrees; is the rotational speed of the screw axis in radians per minute.
where is the axial force acting on the driving side of a screw blade in newtons, is the axial resisting force acting on the trailing side of a screw blade in newtons, and is the wall friction coefficient between marine sand and screw blades.
where is the equivalent friction coefficient of marine sand, is the screw blade helix angle at radius in degrees, is the screw blade helix angle at radius in degrees, is the wall coefficient between marine sand and confining surface, is the stress ratio of marine sand sliding on the surface, and is the stress exerted by marine sand in the hopper in pascals.
The simulation model of screw blades is essential for the finite element analysis. To establish a high-quality simulation model, NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) surface modeling theory and 3-dimensional surface reverse technology are utilized. The full sized model of screw blades is shown in Figure 4.
In general, the fine mesh can ensure the result precision of the numerical simulation, but a great variety of computing time and the memory space will be required [8, 9]. As a result, the selection of the mesh size should be based on the proper balance between the computational cost and the result precision. Considering the computational cost and the result precision synthetically, let the mesh size be 8 mm. The finite element model of screw blades is shown in Figure 5. The check function of the element quality in ANSYS Workbench is adopted to evaluate the finite element model shown in Figure 5, and assessment results show that the mesh quality of screw blades is excellent.
The material parameters of screw blades are listed in Table 1. Normally, the thicknesses of screw blades are in the range from 5 to 20 mm. To investigate the impacts of blade thicknesses on the fatigue life of screw blades under the extreme load, the finite element analysis of the screw blades with different thicknesses (7 levels of the blade thicknesses of 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 mm) is carried out. Practically, the selection of these 7 levels is on the basis of the actual manufacturing level of screw blades.
Through substituting Eqs. (2) to (16) into Eq. (1), it is obtained that the value of the extreme load is 214090 N, and the angle between the normal direction of screw blades and the extreme load is approximately 34.4. In ANSYS Workbench, the extreme load of 214090 N is applied on screw blades as the uniform loading, and fixed supports are applied at the two ends of the screw axis. Through the finite element simulation, the equivalent stress distributions of screw blades under different blade thicknesses are obtained, as shown in Figure 6. According to Figure 6, the maximum stresses of screw blades with different blade thicknesses are at the root of screw blades. Therefore, the root of screw blades is the position easy to generate fatigue failure. Particularly, it can be seen from Figure 6 (a) that when the blade thickness is 5 mm, the maximum equivalent stress of screw blades is 512.01 MPa, which is definitely more than the yield stress of 240 MPa. That is, the screw blades with the thickness of 5 mm cannot meet the demand of the static strength.
As screw blades perform the periodically rotational motion, the stresses obtained by the static analysis are able to describe the dynamic change process of the stresses of a specific point on screw blades within a rotation period. Accordingly, the maximum and minimum stresses of the root of screw blades under different thicknesses can be employed to generate s. The maximum and minimum stresses of the root of screw blades are shown in Figure 7. As indicated in Figure 7, the maximum and minimum stresses of the root of screw blades decline swiftly with growing blade thicknesses. On top of this, as the screw blades with the thickness of 5 mm have already produced static failure, this sort of screw blades will not be taken into consideration in the fatigue life assessment.
A large amount of S-N data has been historically generated on the basis of fully reversed rotating bending testing on standard specimens . The S-N curve derived on the standard specimens under fully reversed bending loads can be constructed as a piecewise-continuous curve consisting of three distinct linear regions when plotted on log-log coordinates, as shown in Figure 8 . In Figure 8, is the ultimate tensile strength in megapascals, is the slope of the S-N curve in the high-cycle fatigue region, is the transition life, is the numerical fatigue cutoff life, is the value of the stress at 1000 cycles in megapascals, and is the value of the stress at the transition life in megapascals.
P-S-N curves are the expressions of fatigue life curves with given survivability . Virtually, P-S-N curves are utilized to describe the randomness of fatigue property under different stress levels. In this study, the given survivability of 97.7% is selected according to ASTM standards.
In fatigue analysis, Soderberg, Goodman, Smith, and Gerber mean stress correction methods are the most common correction methods. Given that Soderberg mean stress correction method is more conservative than the other three mean stress correction methods, Soderberg mean stress correction method is used in this study .
Actually, screw blades may fail at stress level below the static strength under alternating stresses. Provided that the loads do not trigger macroscopic cyclic plastic deformation, the failure mechanism is called stress-life or high cycle fatigue . Undoubtedly, the fatigue loading is the precondition of the fatigue life assessment and fatigue test. The fatigue loading used to calculate the fatigue life of screw blades is shown in Figure 9. In Figure 9, is the maximum stress of the root of screw blades in Figure 7, is the minimum stress in Figure 7, and is the mean stress.
Evidently, the fatigue loading used in this study is the constant amplitude fatigue load. Although the constant amplitude fatigue load is uncommon in actual engineering, the fatigue behavior achieved under the constant amplitude fatigue load is the foundation of investigating the fatigue behaviors under various categories of fatigue loads [13, 14, 15]. That is, using the constant amplitude fatigue load has certain universality. In terms of most studies, the constant amplitude fatigue load is frequently utilized to predict the fatigue life of a wide range of products [13, 14, 15]. More importantly, the sand washing process is extremely sophisticated, so it is difficult to obtain the fatigue load acting on screw blades.
In particular, according to the rotational speed of the screw axis (8.5 r min-1), the rotation period of screw blades, the reciprocal of the rotational speed of the screw axis, can be readily acquired.
Virtually, there are three main factors affecting the fatigue life of screw blades: the surface finish factor, fatigue notch factor, and residual stress [8, 12]. In fact, the screw axis and screw blades are welded together. In terms of the current manufacturing level of this sort of screw blades, the fatigue notch factor is generally 1.5, considering the influence of welding; the surface finish factor is usually 0.8; the residual stress is in the range between 64 and 140 MPa. Particularly, tensile residual stress can have damaging effects on the fatigue resistance, whereas compressive residual stress can dramatically improve the fatigue behavior . For safety reasons, let the residual stress of screw blades be 140 MPa.
The service life of the screw blades with different blade thicknesses is predicted on the basis of the P-S-N curve, s, and Soderberg mean stress correction method. Particularly, the effects of the surface finish factor, fatigue notch factor, and residual stress on the fatigue life of screw blades are taken into consideration. When the working time of the screw sand washing machine is 18 hours per day, the fatigue life of screw blades under different thicknesses is shown in Figure 10. Turning to Fig. 10, the fatigue life of screw blades is overwhelmingly sensitive to blade thicknesses. Contrary to the maximum and minimum stresses of the root of screw blades, the fatigue life of screw blades rockets with the rise in the blade thickness, ranging from 0.0153 to 1.9878109 years between 7.5 and 20 mm. When the blade thickness is 10 mm, the fatigue life of screw blades under the extreme load is approximately 35 years, which meets the demand of the service life of at least 25 years in actual engineering.
As reported in , the thickness of optimized screw blades is 11 mm. If the blade thickness is 11 mm, the fatigue life of screw blades under the extreme load is around 1.1306103 years. There is no doubt that the screw blades with the thickness of 11 mm can definitely meet the demand of the fatigue strength, showing the reasonableness of the optimized results in . However, the screw blades with the thickness of 11 mm have excessive residual strength. Virtually, it is tough to define the fatigue strength of screw blades as the constraint condition in the optimization design of the screw sand washing machine, primarily because most of the design parameters are uncertain . Unlike the diameters of the screw structure and screw axis, the blade thickness is not the sensitive factor in the optimization design, so the change of the blade thickness has far more slight effects on the optimization results obtained in . In reality, it is better to determine the optimal blade thickness according to the fatigue life prediction rather than solely relying on optimization results.
Depending on the analysis above, the blade thickness of 10 mm is the most reasonable option for the screw sand washing machine reported in this study. In addition to that, it must be admitted that the fatigue life of screw blades achieved in this paper is relatively conservative.
Furthermore, when the blade thickness is 10 mm, the corresponding maximum stress in Fig. 7 is about 117 MPa, 1/2 of the yield stress 240 MPa. In other words, considering the influence of the fatigue load, a safety factor of 2 of common sense is justified in this study, which will absolutely provide valuable guidance for the engineers and designers of the screw sand washing machine.
(5) As a result of the complicated operation conditions of screw blades, a number of factors could not be fully taken into account, so a range of experiments will be carried out, and the simulation model will be revised based on experimental data in an attempt to achieve more precise simulation results in the future.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Financial Support by the Foundation of Science and Technology Competitive Allocation of Zhanjiang (Project no. 2014A02010), the Funds for Innovation Introduced and Integration Project of Hainan Province (Project no. KJHZ2014-10), and the Fundamental Research Funds for Rubber Research Institute, CATAS (Project no. 19).
Fu, Y.F., Gong, J., Yang, Z.M., Li, P.W., Li, S.D. and Lv, M.Z., Reliability analysis of mechanical sand washing system, in 2015 International Conference on Advances in Energy, Environment and Chemical Engineering, Atlantis Press, 533-536.
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Molding sand is at the heart of the sand casting process. It must hold a shape well and capture the fine details of a casting, yet be permeable enough to allow gases to escape. Under the strain of having the molding pattern removed from it, or while it is filled, it cannot crumble or sink on itself. When it is turned upside down it must not lose its form: the parts of a mold have to stay true while clamped together.
In most cases, green sand is enough to evidence these properties. Green sand is not called that because of its colorthese materials can be a wide range of colors depending on composition and use. Instead, it gets its name because it is damp, like green wood.
Mechanical aspects of the sand are measured before being used on the foundry floor. Technicians or foundry engineers pack cylinders of sand and perform tests. Increasingly, these tests are done with computerized devices capable of many points of precision.
Sand permeability is the venting power of the materialhow much gas it will allow to escape the mold. Green compressive strength captures how much compression the sand can handle before it begins to crumble. Green shear strength measures the strength against structural failure under shear stress: this is a force that produces sliding failure parallel to its direction. Sands are also tested for their dry strength, for they will generally lose moisture in the process of filling. Hot strength (behavior at elevated temperatures) is also checked. Will the high heat of casting cause the mold to crumble?
Several auxiliary tests are often made, including moisture content, clay content, and examination of grain-size. A foundry engineer will be trusted with the control of the sand properties and might make several adjustments over the life of the sand to keep it in good working condition.
The special mix that creates foundry sand provides the needed behavior. The main ingredient is a mineral sand with a consistent grain size. The size of the sands grain will affect the finish of the casting, but also sometimes the permeability and porousness of the mold. This ingredient alone is not enough: a bonding material, usually clay, is added, and the blend is moistened with water.
Naturally bonded sands are mixtures of silica and clay as taken from the earth, although often with some tweaking of the proportions in order get the right sand properties. Naturally bonded sands are used in gray iron, ductile iron, malleable iron, and nonferrous foundries (except magnesium). Synthetically bonded sands are produced by combining clay-free sand with precise amounts of clay or bentonite. They are more uniform than naturally bonded sands but require more careful mixing and control. Steel foundries, gray iron and malleable iron foundries, and magnesium foundries use this type of sand. For cores, or other sands that must harden enough to be an object that can be lifted or moved around, synthetic bonding is usually necessary.
The mixture at foundries is usually 75-85% sand, with the rest being clay, water, and other additives. The sand can be found naturally, usually from a lake, or can be created after mining and standardizing clay free minerals.
Traditionally, an olivine sand was used for metal casting in both ferrous and non-ferrous foundries. This sand could produce a fine finish by cooling the metal rapidly, and it made for a very low dust environment that is not dangerous to breathe. It was considered a forgiving foundry sand, taking patterns well and not expanding when hot, but its tensile strength is not very high. Silica sands have always been preferred for cores. Some olivine sands would have a very light green tinge, but that is a coincidencelike everything else, it can come either dry or green.
Ferrous foundries (those dealing with iron and steel) usually use silica sand, sometimes known as quartz sand. Silica sand has long been used in core making, so switching to using the same aggregate throughout the casting process has made the process of managing foundry supplies easier.
Foundries using this product take some additional minor precautions against silicosis, which is a disease that can form in the lungs of those who have breathed in a lot of silica particles. Sometimes respirators or filtration masks are used.
Green sand is usually 10% bentonite clay. On a molecular level, this clay contains an absorbent mixture of silica and aluminum, and commonly also has potassium, sodium, or calcium. Calcium bentonite is the most commonly used clay in the green casting process.
Bentonite clay is mined and cleaned before being used in a variety of applications. Although it has many manufacturing and building uses, the most common consumer uses of bentonite are in kitty litter and cosmetic products like face masks, where it is used for its absorbent properties.
Moisture is an important component in all green sand casting. Water is generally added at 2-5% of the weight of the mixture. The hydrostatic bonds between water molecules strengthen the sand: it is these bonds that build sandcastles from wet sand on the beach, and the same forces are at work in the foundry. It is the water that increases the green sands capacity to handle shear stress and compression.
Special additives may be used in addition to the basic sand, clay, and water. These include cereals, ground pitch, sea coal, gilsonite, fuel oil, wood flour, silica flour, iron oxide, pearlite, molasses, dextrin, and proprietary materials. These all serve the purpose of altering specific properties of the sand to give desired results.
Facing sands, for giving better surface to the casting, are used for gray iron, malleable iron, steel, and magnesium castings. The iron sands usually contain sea coal, a finely ground coal which keeps the sand from adhering to the casting by generating a gas film when in contact with hot metal. For foundries using sea coal in all their sands, the mixture runs about 5% coal dust. Gilsonite serves the same purpose, in that it produces gasses to prevent sand sticking or nitrogen related pinholes.
Steel facings may contain silica flour or other very fine highly refractory material to form a dense surface which the metal cannot readily penetrate. Olivine sand was also used for castings with manganese steel, as the combination of olivine sand and manganese provided a good finish.
Mold washes are coatings applied to the mold or core surface to improve the finish of the casting. They are applied either wet or dry. The usual practice is to brush or spray the wet mold washes and to brush or rub on the dry ones. Graphite or silica flour mixed with clay and molasses water is frequently used. The washes are usually mixed with water-base or alcohol-base solvent solutions. Alcohol-based solutions might be lit with a flame, igniting the alcohol and instantly curing the mold. Water-based solutions require oven drying time, during which the wash sets and the excess moisture is removed.
Sand is prepared in mullers, which combine the sand, bonding agent, and water. These mullers dont just stir the different elements of the foundry sand. Instead, pressure is needed to coat each grain of sand evenly with the clay or other bonding material. Aerators are then used to loosen the sand again to make it more amenable to molding.
During the process of casting, the sand is formed into molds that may be placed on the floor or delivered by conveyors to a pouring station. After pouring, the castings are shaken out of the sand. The used sand, in turn, is returned to the storage bins by belt conveyor or other means.
Foundry sand can be used many times before it becomes spent and cannot be rehabilitated. This sand used to go into landfill, however the reuse and recycling of it has become a point of interest. The EPA suggests thatused foundry sandthat has come from the molding process can safely be used in soils, both potting soil and manufactured topsoil. It can also be used as used as foundation layer for roads, or as the aggregate used incement manufacturing.
To green sand at home, all that is needed is sand, clay, and water. Clumping clay kitty litter is a cheap source of bentonite but will need fine grinding before adding: finely ground bentonite is a costlier source sold as a beauty product. Fine ground silica sand is available at most hardware stores. 9 parts silica to 1 part bentonite, plus water just to make it damp, is an easy home ratio to remember. Mixing should be very thorough and include a lot of squeezing, pressing, and smearing, to coat each grain of sand with a layer of clay.
Doing a load of laundry in the washing machine should be no-brainer, but there are a surprising number of caveats that come with cleaning clothes. Sure, doing the laundry might seem as simple as just throwing soiled garments in, adding some detergent, and pressing a button, but make one wrong move and you could damage your favorite sequin dressor even your entire washing machinebeyond repair. Whether you're a seasoned laundress or are just beginning to wash your own clothing, you'll want to parse through this lengthy laundry list of what not to put in the washing machine, ever, so as to avoid a laundry room fiasco.
Though knit hats get soiled and stinky from sitting on sweaty heads all day, their delicate fabric and shape just cannot withstand a spin cycle. When it does come time to wash your hat, doing so by hand with a mild detergent will ensure that it maintains its structure and softness.
Unless otherwise stated on the label, memory foam pillows are not machine washable. When these pillows go through the wash, they turn into soggy messes with no evident structureand some don't even make it out of the spin cycle alive.
Most people wouldn't put loose change in the wash on purpose, but even doing so by accident can cause some seriously expensive damage should they break the machine. Before you put your jeans and pants through a wash cycle, check the pockets for any coins that might've slipped through the cracks.
Embellished items don't belong in the washing machine, seeing as anything with sewn- or glued-on details is far too delicate to make it through a wash cycle unscathed. To keep these articles of clothing intact, either hand-wash them or take them to the dry cleaner for a professional touch.
Yes, the washing machine's entire purpose is to get rid of stains, but there are some that just aren't compatible with the appliance. Things like gasoline, cooking oil, and alcohol are all highly flammable, and putting clothes covered in them in the washing machine can start a house fire. If you do accidentally soil your garments with something flammable, simply spot-treat the stain with a solvent-based stain removerlike Seventh Generation Natural Stain Remover Spray ($4)and then hand-wash the item.
Throwing regular sneakers in the washing machine is totally finein fact, it's a good trick for keeping white shoes in pristine conditionbut running shoes are a different story. Most athletic sneakers that go through a spin cycle come out smaller than before, so be careful to only wash your sneakers if they're approved for the appliance.
Some amateur fashion bloggers might recommend throwing a dirty leather or suede purse in the laundry, but these expensive items should never, ever set foot in the machine. Not only will the washer severely harm the bag's shape and material, but it will also mess up the zipper and any embellishments on the exterior.
Think about this for a second: If your raincoat is waterproof, then how is it going to soak up the water of the washing machine for a deep cleanse? Exactly. Instead, every time a raincoat gets washed, it traps the water like a balloon until it eventually explodes (and makes a huge mess).
Things with zippers can certainly go in the wash, so long as they are closed. Open zippers swirling around in the washing machine, however, can get caught on other items, potentially causing disastrous damage to precious articles of clothing.
As is the case for embellished garbs, anything made of lace is far too fine to be thrown into the washing machine. If you need to wash your lace, laundry care company The Laundress recommends hand-washing the item in cold water and then laying it in its natural shape to air dry.
Ties tend to be made with fine fabrics like silk and wool, and so throwing them in the washing machine will lead to shrinkage, damage, and/or color loss. Your best course of action when it comes to tidying up your ties is to just take them to a dry cleaner, where they can be properly handled by a professional.
A king-size comforter is simply too big for a typical washing machine, and trying to wash one will both break the machine and leave the comforter just as dirty as it was before. However, most most laundromats and dry cleaners house industrial-sized machines large enough to wash almost anything. Head to one to both clean your comforter and keep your machine intact.
Sure, a piece of clothing covered in pet hair might come out of the wash clean, but all that fur is going to linger in your machine until it either leaves via other articles of clothing or clogs the drainand neither option is fun to deal with. Instead, lint roll your pet-hair-coated clothing before tossing it in the wash.
Always check your coat's pockets before putting them in the hamper. Should a pen accidentally sneak into a load of laundry, it could explode in the wash and get ink stains on everything in the machine, putting you back at square one.
When something partially made of rubber ends up in the wash, the heat from the machine destroys the adhesive holding it together, causing the rubber to either come apart or straight-up melt. And while some rubber-backed itemslike bath mats and rugscan withstand a delicate wash cycle, under no circumstances should any ever go in the dryer.
Nobody purposefully washes their car keys, but all too often they end up in a load of laundry anyway, resulting in some serious scratches to the washing machine's interior. Also, these days, most car keys are electric, and washing them in watercan render them unusable.
Douse your laundry with too much detergent and your clothes will come out of the washing machine with residue all over them, requiring yet another rinse cycle. What's more, overdoing it on the soap can cause a build-up of mold in your machine, meaning that both your washer and your clothes will require additional cleaning.
Stuffed animals are perfectly safe in the washing machine, and for the most part, throwing them in with your laundry isn't a problem. However, if your child has a favorite stuffed bear that they just can't live without, then you're better off just cleaning it by hand. There's always the chance that the washing machine will pop off an eye or a buttonand with something that precious, you just can't take that kind of risk.
It's tempting to just throw all of your laundry into one load and call it a day, but doing so can damage your machine and result in an ineffective wash cycle. To keep your washer safe and to ensure that your clothes are getting properly cleaned, opt for laundry loads that don't take up the entire machine.