second hand grinding mill peru cost for coal in power house

mineral processing / metallurgy rules of thumb

mineral processing / metallurgy rules of thumb

Flotation Concentrates 5 to 12 sq. ft. per 24 hr. ton of solids Slimes (Cyanide Plant) 3 to 10 sq. ft. per 24 hr. ton of solids Easy Settling Ore 3 to 6 sq. ft. per 24 hr. ton of solids Difficult Settling Ore 10 to 40 sq . ft . per 24 hr. ton of solids

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						offers, industrial plants for sale, complete processing plant, used plants, buying selling industrial units, complete industrial plants for sale, running industrial unit, process plants for sale

buy and sell offers, industrial plants for sale, complete processing plant, used plants, buying selling industrial units, complete industrial plants for sale, running industrial unit, process plants for sale

Maruti Machinery Consultant provides platform for end user buyers and end user sellers. We offer various complete industrial plants with land, power, amenities, license, and takeover of industrial unit , also only complete processing lines without land in excellent condition. We assure you for providing hassle free, reliable, confidential and trustworthy deals for both buyer and seller. For your sale and buy of industrial plants contact us.

hammer mills in hyderabad, telangana | hammer mills price in hyderabad

hammer mills in hyderabad, telangana | hammer mills price in hyderabad

Erragadda, Hyderabad 8-4-375/2/A1, METER FACTORY ROAD ERRAGADDA HYDERABAD METER FACTORY ERRAGADDA RANGA REDDY, 500018 TELANGANA, Erragadda, Hyderabad - 500018, Dist. Hyderabad, Telangana

manufacturers of chipper grinder machines | ecostan india pvt ltd

manufacturers of chipper grinder machines | ecostan india pvt ltd

Process: Chipper Grinder is drum type chipper, the material is fed into chipper via help of in-feed belt conveyor, through which the material goes into chipper drum where it gets cut into smaller pieces with the help of moving chipper blades. The chipped material is screened out through perforated screen to ensure the appropriate output size of the material.

Use: Chipper Grinder is used for cutting and chopping of various types of Agro and Forest waste materials. It cuts the material into smaller size which helps to make the material portable and can be further used as a Biomass for heat generation or other purposes. The raw material output size can be adjusted up to some extent by changing the size of perforated screen used in Chipper Grinder.

In-put raw-materials: Any type of agricultural and forest waste such as pine needles, sugarcane trash, tree shrubs, tree leaves & branches, cotton stalks, paddy straw, wheat straw, arhar stalk, veneer waste, wood peeling, juliflora shrubs, bamboo tree waste, coconut, wild grass etc.

Vernacular Names: Chipper Grinder, Chipper Shredder, Chipper, Agri Waste Chipper, Paddy Straw Chipper, Hay bale Chipper, Biomass Grinder, Biomass Chipper, Chipper for Briquette Plant, Veneer Waste Chipper, Sugarcane Chipper etc.

lab mills and lab grinders | new and used lab mills | labx classifieds

lab mills and lab grinders | new and used lab mills | labx classifieds

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wet grid ball mill

wet grid ball mill

Grid ball mill is widely used in smashing all kinds of ores and other materials, ore dressing and national economic departments like building and chemical industries etc. The size of ore shall not exceed 65mm and the best feed size is under 6mm. The effect in this job is better than coarse grinding. Grid ball mill consists of the shell, feeding part, discharging part, main bearing, lubricating system, driving system and other parts. There is wearing a liner inside the shell, and both ends of the shell are provided with a flange. The end cover of the mill is connected with the flange plate. The feeding part consists of the head, trunnion and feeding device. The discharge part includes the grid plate, head, and discharge trunnion.

Wet Grid ball mill is mainly used for mixing and grinding materials in two types: dry grinding and wet grinding .It has advantages of fineness uniformity and power saving. The machine uses different types of liner to meet different customer needs. The grinding fineness of material can be controlled by grinding time. The electro-hydraulic machine is auto-coupled and decompressed to reduce the starting current, and its structure is divided into integral type and independent type.

Compared with similar products,Wet Grid ball mill has the characteristics of low investment, low energy consumption, novel structure, simple operation, stable and reliable performance. It is suitable for mixing and grinding ordinary and special materials. The users can choose the right type, liner and medium type by considering the specific gravity, hardness, yield and other factors. The grinding medium is Wet Grid ball.

1.The ball mill is composed of a horizontal cylinder, a hollow shaft for feeding and discharging, and a grinding head. The main body is a long cylinder made of steel. The cylinder is provided with an abrasive body, and the steel lining plate is fixed to the cylinder body. The grinding body is generally a steel ball and is loaded into the cylinder according to different diameters and a certain proportion, and the grinding body can also be used with a steel section.

2.According to the particle size of the grinding material, the material is loaded into the cylinder by the hollow shaft of the wet grid ball mill feeding end. When the ball mill cylinder rotates, the grinding body acts on the cylinder liner due to the action of inertia and centrifugal force and friction. It is carried away by the cylinder. When it is brought to a certain height, it is thrown off due to its own gravity. The falling abrasive body crushes the material in the cylinder like a projectile.

3.The material is uniformly fed into the first chamber of the mill by the feeding device through the hollow shaft of the feeding material. The chamber has a step liner or a corrugated liner, and various steel balls are loaded therein. The rotation of the cylinder generates centrifugal force to bring the steel ball to a certain extent. The height drops and then hits and grinds the material. After the material reaches the rough grinding in the first bin, it enters the second bin through the single-layer partition plate. The bin is embedded with a flat liner with steel balls inside to further grind the material. The powder is discharged through the discharge raft to complete the grinding operation.

The main function of the steel ball in the ball mill is to impact crush the material and also play a certain grinding effect. Therefore, the purpose of grading steel balls is to meet the requirements of these two aspects. The quality of the crushing effect directly affects the grinding efficiency, and ultimately affects the output of the ball mill. Whether the crushing requirement can be achieved depends on whether the grading of the steel ball is reasonable, mainly including the size of the steel ball, the number of ball diameters, and the ball of various specifications. Proportion and so on.

The ball mill is composed of the main part such as a feeding part, a discharging part, a turning part, a transmission part (a reduction gear, a small transmission gear, a motor, and electric control). The hollow shaft is made of cast steel, the inner lining can be replaced, the rotary large gear is processed by casting hobbing, and the barrel is embedded with wear-resistant lining, which has good wear resistance. The machine runs smoothly and works reliably.

binq mining

binq mining

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mill charge - an overview | sciencedirect topics

mill charge - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Rod mill charges usually occupy about 45% of the internal volume of the mill. A closely packed charge of single sized rods will have a porosity of 9.3%. With a mixed charge of small and large diameter rods, the porosity of a static load could be reduced even further. However, close packing of the charge rarely occurs and an operating bed porosity of 40% is common. Overcharging results in poor grinding and losses due to abrasion of rods and liners. Undercharging also promotes more abrasion of the rods. The height (or depth) of charge is measured in the same manner as for ball mill. The size of feed particles to a rod mill is coarser than for a ball mill. The usual feed size ranges from 6 to 25mm.

For the efficient use of rods it is necessary that they operate parallel to the central axis and the body of the mill. This is not always possible as in practice, parallel alignment is usually hampered by the accumulation of ore at the feed end where the charge tends to swell. Abrasion of rods occurs more in this area resulting in rods becoming pointed at one end. With this continuous change in shape of the grinding charge, the grinding characteristics are impaired.

The bulk density of a new rod charge is about 6.25t/m3. With time due to wear the bulk density drops. The larger the mill diameter the greater is the lowering of the bulk density. For example, the bulk density of worn rods after a specific time of grinding would be 5.8t/m3 for a 0.91m diameter mill. Under the same conditions of operation, the bulk density would be 5.4t/m3 for a 4.6m diameter mill.

During normal operation the mill speed tends to vary with mill charge. According to available literature, the operating speeds of AG mills are much higher than conventional tumbling mills and are in the range of 8085% of the critical speed. SAG mills of comparable size but containing say 10% ball charge (in addition to the rocks), normally, operate between 70 and 75% of the critical speed. Dry Aerofall mills are run at about 85% of the critical speed.

The breakage of particles depends on the speed of rotation. Working with a 7.32m diameter and 3.66m long mill, Napier-Munn etal. [4] observed that the breakage rate for the finer size fractions of ore (say 0.1mm) at lower speeds (e.g., 55% of the critical speed) was higher than that observed at higher speeds (e.g., 70% of the critical speed). For larger sizes of ore (in excess of 10mm), the breakage rate was lower for mills rotating at 55% of the critical speed than for mills running at 70% of the critical speed. For a particular intermediate particle sizerange, indications are that the breakage rate was independent of speed. The breakage ratesize relation at two different speeds is reproduced in Figure9.7.

The blending of different ore types is a common practice to provide a consistent feed to a process in terms of uniform hardness or assay. When several different ore deposits of varying grindabilities are blended prior to closed circuit grinding, the work index of the ore is not an average or even a weighted average of the work indices of the components. The reason for this is that the circulating load will consist predominantly of the harder component and if the circulating load is high then the mill charge will also consist of mostly the harder components. Thus, the work index of the blend will be weighted towards the harder components [39]. Figure3.16 shows the Bond work index of a blend of hard and soft ores as a function of the volume fraction of the softer ore in the blend. The dotted line between the two extremes indicates the weighted average work index based on volume fraction. The work index values of the Magdalinovic method agree with this average Bond work index because the method does not simulate the recycling of harder components into the mill charge. On the other hand, the work index obtained using the standard Bond test shows the weighting of the work index towards the harder component as a result of the circulating load.

Yan and Eaton [39] also measured the breakage rates and breakage distribution functions of the different ore blends in order to predict the work index of the blend by simulation of the Bond batch grinding test. Qualitative analysis of the breakage properties suggests that there is an interaction between the components of the blend that affect their individual breakage rates. The breakage properties of the harder material appear to have a greater influence on the overall breakage properties and the Bond work index of the blend than the softer material.

Whereas most of the ball-milled systems usually prepared with using ball-to-powder weight ratio (Wb:Wp) in the range between 10:1 and 20:1, the effect Wb:Wp on the amorphization reaction of Al50Ta50 alloy powders in a low-energy ball mill was investigated in 1991 by El-Eskandarany etal.[42] They have used 90, 30, 20, 10, and 3g of powders to obtain Wb:Wp ratios of 12:1, 36:1, 54:1, 108:1, and 324:1, respectively.

The XRD patterns of mechanically alloyed Al50Ta50 powders as ball-milled for 1440ks (400h) as a function of the Wb:Wp ratio is presented in Fig.4.32. Single phase of amorphous alloys is obtained when ratios 36:1 and 108:1 were used. The Bragg peaks of elemental Al and Ta crystals still appear when the Wb:Wp ratio is 12:1, indicating that the amorphization reaction is not completed. In contrast, when the Wb:Wp ratio is 324:1, the amorphous phase coexists with the crystalline phases of AlTa, AlTa2, and AlTaFe.

Based on their results,[42] it is concluded that the rate of amorphization depends strongly on the kinetic energy of the ball mill charge and this depends on the number of opportunities for the powder particles to be reacted and interdiffused. Increasing the Wb:Wp ratio accelerates the rate of amorphization, which is explained by the increase in the kinetic energy of the ball mill charge per unit mass of powders. It has been shown in this study that the volume fraction of the amorphous phase in the mechanically alloyed ball-milled powders increases during the early stage of milling, 86173ks (48h) with increasing Wb:Wp ratio. It is noted that further increasing this weight ratio leads to the formation of crystalline phases and this might be related to the high kinetic energy of the ball mill charge which is transformed into heat. When the Wb:Wp ratio was reduced to 12:1, however, the amorphization reaction was not completed. This indicates that the kinetic energy of the mill charge is insufficient for complete transition from the crystalline to the amorphous phase.

It is worth noting that powder particles reached the minimum of extreme fineness when using a high Wb:Wp ratio. One disadvantage of using such a high weight ratio is being the high concentration of iron contamination which is introduced to the milled powders during the MA process, as presented in Fig.4.33.

Romankova etal.[43] have applied the vibration ball milling for coating of stainless steel balls during milling of TiAl powders. They examined metallographically the development of the TiAl coating structure after milling for 60min as a function of the ball-to-powder weight ratio for 6mm balls (Fig.4.34).

The results showed that the milling energy increased with increasing the number of balls. When the weight ratio was 3:1, the substrate could be covered with a thin Al layer (Fig.4.34A). For this case, only small Ti particles were embedded into the Al matrix. It should be noted that the substrate underwent plastic deformation under the ball impacts and its surface became slightly bent. When the weight ratio was increased to 4:1, the energy was sufficient to embed larger Ti particles in the Al layer than at ratio 3:1 (Fig.4.34B). Al bound these Ti particles to the substrate. They notified that, at the 4:1 ratio, the growth for the TiAl coating across the substrate was clustered; this resulted in a hillock-like morphology and increased the surface roughness. Upon further increasing the ball-to-powder weight ratio from 6:1 to 14:1, the coating roughness gradually decreased. They also reported that the lamellar structure was refined when the ball-to-powder weight ratio was 14:1, as presented in Fig.4.34E.

More recently, Waje etal.[44] have studied the effect of the ball-to-powder weight ratio (BPR) on the crystallite size of ball-milled CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, using XRD (Fig.4.35). From their results it can be seen that the particle size decreases linearly from 15.3 to 11.4nm when used BPR of 8:1 and 30:1, respectively.

The mass-size balance models as written above are in the time-domain. To be more practical they need to be converted to the energy-domain. One way is by arguing that the specific rate of breakage parameter is proportional to the net specific power input to the mill charge (Herbst and Fuerstenau, 1980; King, 2012). For a batch mill this becomes:

where SiE is the energy-specific rate of breakage parameter, P the net power drawn by the mill, and M the mass of charge in the mill excluding grinding media (i.e., just the ore). The energy-specific breakage rate is commonly given in t kWh1. For a continuous mill, the relationship is:

where is the mean retention time, and F the solids mass flow rate through the mill. Assuming plug flow, Eq. (5.17) can be substituted into Eq. (5.15) to apply to a grinding mill in closed circuit (where t=).

The distinctive feature of tumbling mills is the use of loose crushing bodies, which are large, hard, and heavy in relation to the ore particles, but small in relation to the volume of the mill, and which occupy (including voids) slightly less than half the volume of the mill.

Due to the rotation and friction of the mill shell, the grinding medium is lifted along the rising side of the mill until a position of dynamic equilibrium is reached (the shoulder), when the bodies cascade and cataract down the free surface of the other bodies, about a dead zone where little movement occurs, down to the toe of the mill charge (Figure 7.3).

The driving force of the mill is transmitted via the liner to the charge. The speed at which a mill is run and the liner design governs the motion and thus nature of the product and the amount of wear on the shell liners. For instance, a practical knowledge of the trajectories followed by the steel balls in a mill determines the speed at which it must be run in order that the descending balls shall fall on to the toe of the charge, and not on to the liner, which could lead to liner damage. Simulation of charge motion can be used to identify such potential problems (Powell et al., 2011), and acoustic monitoring can give indication of where ball impact is occurring (Pax, 2012).

At relatively low speeds, or with smooth liners, the medium tends to roll down to the toe of the mill and essentially abrasive comminution occurs. This cascading leads to finer grinding and increased liner wear. At higher speeds the medium is projected clear of the charge to describe a series of parabolas before landing on the toe of the charge. This cataracting leads to comminution by impact and a coarser end product with reduced liner wear. At the critical speed of the mill centrifuging occurs and the medium is carried around in an essentially fixed position against the shell.

In traveling around inside the mill, the medium (and the large ore pieces) follows a path which has two parts: the lifting section near to the shell liners, which is circular, and the drop back to the toe of the mill charge, which is parabolic (Figure 7.4(a)).

Consider a ball (or rod) of radius r meters, which is lifted up the shell of a mill of radius R meters, revolving at N rev min1. The ball abandons its circular path for a parabolic path at point P (Figure 7.4(b)), when the weight of the ball is just balanced by the centrifugal force, that is when:

Mills are driven, in practice, at speeds of 5090% of critical speed. The speed of rotation of the mill influences the power draw through two effects: the value of N and the shift in the center of gravity with speed. The center of gravity first starts to shift away from the center of the mill (to the right in Figure 7.4(a)) as the speed of rotation increases, causing the torque exerted by the charge to increase and draw more power (see Section 7.2.2). But, as critical speed is reached, the center of gravity moves toward the center of the mill as more and more of the material is held against the shell throughout the cycle, causing power draw to decrease. Since grinding effort is related to grinding energy, there is little increase in efficiency (i.e., delivered kWh t1) above about 4050% of the critical speed. It is also essential that the cataracting medium should fall well inside the mill charge and not directly onto the liner, thus excessively increasing steel consumption.

At the toe of the load the descending liner continuously underruns the churning mass, and moves some of it into the main mill charge. The medium and ore particles in contact with the liners are held with more firmness than the rest of the charge due to the extra weight bearing down on them. The larger the ore particle, rod, or ball, the less likely it is to be carried to the breakaway point by the liners. The cataracting effect should thus be applied in terms of the medium of largest diameter.

As already discussed, this control loop is provided to maintain the PA header pressure before the mixing of hot and cold PA duly controlled for temperature. FigureVIII/4-2 is also applicable for this type of mill when the PA is common to all the mills. The control loop is of course different for individual PA fan systems, as the above is applicable for the common PA system only. For control loop description, see Section 4.3.2.3 of this chapter. Common PA fans are provided with suction normally from the atmosphere or it may be from the FD discharge header. Header pressure control is performed through various types of final control elements.

As the fuel/load control is solely done by position adjustments to the PA damper near the mill, this control loop assists smooth and bumpless control of the fuel flow transported by the PA flow to the mill as the upstream PA header pressure control takes responsibility for providing an adequate quantity of air at any environmental condition without sacrificing the required downstream pressure,

FigureVIII/5.3-3 later in the chapter depicts the simple control loop. Any of the mill DP transmitters or level (sound-detector) transmitters is selected and the selected signal is connected to the controller as the process or measured variables against a fixed-level set point. Sufficient redundancy in measurement may vary according to the plants operating philosophy. The controller output is utilized for adjustment of feeder speed with the help of a VFD or SCR control for the gravimetric feeder/feeder speed variator.

At the higher load the charge level inside the drum decreases and the feeder speed should increase accordingly to replenish the material. For a decreasing load, the reverse action takes place. To take care of the sudden load change, the deviation between characterized PA flow and DP acrossthe mill is used to modify the controller output to achieve the desired mill charge level.

Mill load or fuel flow control follows the fuel demand from the boiler master demand control signal and is achieved by regulating the quantity of PA that is transporting agent only. Figures VIII/5.2-4 and VIII/5.2-4 depict the functioning of the control loop, which is similar to that of other mill types. For other mills the fuel demand signal from the boiler master demand is first taken care of by the mill-wise PA flow control system if the demand is less than the prevailing air flow control system. The characterized PA flow is then construed as the feeder speed demand. The ball-and-tube mill control system, on the other hand, uses feeder speed control for maintaining mill level control only and so the fuel flow control is achieved through control of the feeder-wise PA flow to mill itself.

However, the feeder-wise PA flow as measured after redundant transmitters voting selection and density compensated through temperature correction is again determined to get equivalent fuel flow. The total fuel flow is then computed by summing all the fuel (PF) flow of the running feeders and the supporting fuel (oil or gas) if any are being utilized at that time with proper weightage, taking consideration of their thermal or calorific value. The higher selection of this total equivalent fuel flow signal and the air flow demand signal from the boiler master demand (FigureVIII/2.1) is then taken as actual air demand just as in other type of mills.

As already discussed in Section 5.2.1, there is another feeder-wise control system associated with fuel flow control known as a bypass damper control. This feeder-wise damper is provided for each mill end for preheating the raw feed, which is an essential requirement during startup. No process measurement signal is utilized in this subloop. The same fuel demand from the boiler master demand (FigureVIII/ 2-1) is taken as the set point for the position demand of the bypass damper after due characterization, as shown (refer to Figures VIII/5.2-4 and VIII/5.2-5) in the control strategy and the graphical representation of approximate positions of the two final control elements. The previously mentioned two-position demands operate in opposite directions. After being in a fully open position for a certain load, ensuring elimination of initial moisture, this bypass damper begins to close gradually as the load increases.

There are two main types of fuel flow controls achieved through the proportionate PA flow only: (1) common PA fans with individual PA dampers and (2) individual PA fans with vane or speed control. There is also one known as a mill-wise PA flow control that is common to both sides.

FigureVIII/5.2-4 may be referred to for this type of control along with FigureVIII/5.2-2. Here the mill PA flow and bypass PA flows are combined to form the total mill-wise PA flow to the furnace. The boiler master demand acts as a set point here, where the mill-wise PA flow is the measured value as this air flow is only responsible for transporting the fuel to the furnace. The controller output is the demand signal for the individual PA damper. For bypass dampers, the boiler master demand generates the set point while the actual position of this damper acts as the measured value for the controller output, which is the demand signal for the bypass damper.

For any load change, the two flows readjust their positions to deliver the required PA flow. For higher load the bypass damper tends to close to allow less flow for preheating of raw feed and the PA damper to the mill opens more to take care of the load demand.

FigureVIII/5.2-5 may be referred to for this type of control along with FigureVIII/5.2-2(a). Here bypass PA flows need to be subtracted from the total mill-wise PA flow for the fuel flow control, and the total mill-wise PA flow to the furnace is required for air flow control. The reason for this is that the final control element and the flow element are both located in the common primary air path to the individual mill. The boiler master demand acts as a set point here, where the PA flow to the mill is the measured value. The controller output is the demand signal for the individual PA vane or variable speed drive as the case may be.

This type of mill design vis--vis operation is somewhat different from other types, as discussed earlier. FigureVIII/5.2-2(b), which is mainly followed by manufacturers, such as the Foster Wheeler Energy AG corporation, may be referred to for information. Here the boiler combustion control signal regulates the output of the mill by PA flow control dampers placed in the common line to both the ends or sides. The predrying of coal feed is done at the entry of each side before it enters the drum, unlike what is done by the bypass PA damper in many types of tube mills.

Another significant difference is the provision of an auxiliary air and purge air supply line taken from the cold PA for each side of the mill drum. The same is designed to the required minimum velocities of the PA/fuel mixture for maintaining proper flow inside the coal duct and to prevent fuel settling during startup or in extreme low-load operation. This feature extends the individual mill load range without encountering drifting or pulsating fuel flow to the burners. The other purpose is to purge the coal air line automatically when burners are taken out of service.

The feed level control in the drum, classifier outlet temperature control, and seal air DP control are very much similar to those in the other type of mills with the exception of the source of the seal air. Here the seal air supply is taken from the cold PA without any provision of a seal air fan.

Selecting dispersion equipment for a specific application is a complex task. Dispersion of the mixture must be complete and the process and equipment must meet economic constraints. But much more is involved. In practice, such simple criteria are complicated by a variety of parameters related to fillers and to the materials in which they are dispersed. These parameters complicate the problem to the degree that it is not easy to formulate general guidelines. In this discussion we will consider the available equipment types most frequently used for filler dispersion and illustrate their applicability with some examples.

A ball mill is an effective means of dispersing solid materials in solids or liquids.8,9 Ball mills have several advantages which include versatility, low cost of labor and maintenance, the possibility of unsupervised running, no loss of volatiles, and a clean process. The disadvantages are related to discharging viscous and thixotropic mixtures, and considerably lower efficiency when compared with other mixing equipment. The millbase viscosity is usually restricted to about 15-20 Poise, and therefore ball mills are most frequently found in production applications such as paints, flexographic, publication gravure, and letterpress news inks, and carbon paper inks which are dispersed at elevated temperatures.

The mill should rotate at 50-65% of the theoretical centrifugal speed in order to allow balls to cascade, since the cascading balls grind most effectively and do not cause an excessive loss of ball material

Viscosity, the order of filler addition, and the quantity of material should be chosen so as not to cause a viscosity increase above the specified range, since the milling efficiency drastically decreases at that point

The degree of dispersion and jetness achieved when grinding carbon black depends on the wetting properties of the dispersing material and to some degree on the filler form. For instance, pelletized carbon black is easier to disperse than a fluffy type

The sandmill has some drawbacks. It is a two stage process (premixing followed by milling). Milling develops high temperatures in the mixture which causes loss of volatiles and requires cooling. If the millbase is high in viscosity or dilatant, the sandmill process may not work at all. Agglomerated or extremely hard pigments are difficult or impossible to disperse

Both ball and sand mills operate based on a viscous shear principle, thus the viscosity of the millbase is a critical factor in achieving dispersion. The size of filler particles is critical, especially in sandmills. It was found that the shearing force is inversely proportional to the square of the linear size of filler agglomerate. An agglomerate of diameter of 7 m attains 100 times the shear stress of an agglomerate of 70 m diameter. The difference between the ball mill and the sand mill is in the size and density of the grinding media, which is reflected in their performance. Sandmilling uses small particles of low density, and therefore, there is no noticeable reduction in the size of the sand particle, whereas the balls in ballmills are very much larger and may have a high density (steel), which results in a more complex mechanism of grinding including shattering and impacting which cause this mill to be more effective in disintegrating hard particles and agglomerates containing sintered particles.

There is another mill type called an attritor, which is similar to both the ball mill and the sandmill. In construction, it is similar to a sandmill. It also has a vertical shaft, but in the attritor the agitator bars replace the milling discs of the sandmill. It is also similar to a ball mill because it uses balls, usually ceramic ones having 5-15 mm in diameter. Because the motion of the balls is independent of gravity, an attritor can handle thixotropic materials and slightly higher viscosity of millbases, but the principle of action and type of forces operating are similar to those of the ball mill. An attritor applied to pigment dispersion gives several advantages. These include rapid dispersion, the possibility of either a continuous or batch process, low power consumption, small floor space, and easy cleaning and maintenance. Their main disadvantage is high heat generation. Attritors are equipped with a cooling water jacket which can control the heat flow to some extent, but conditions are often too severe for some resins, which may degrade during the process.

Three-roll, one-roll, and stone mills constitute a more mature dispersion technology still in use with medium viscosity millbases. A three-roll mill consists of the feed, center, and apron rolls. In roll mill operation:

The speeds of feed and apron rolls are adjustable, and each roll rotates with a different speed in order to induce shear in the material at the nip and facilitate the material transfer from one roll to the other

For mechanical reasons the gap between rolls cannot be less than 10 m and it usually ranges from 40 to 50 m.7 Small particles will not be affected as they pass through the nip, but agglomerates smaller than the distance between rolls will be disintegrated due to the shear stress imposed on the material

The one-roll mill works on a similar principle but the nip is regulated by a pressure bar. Shearing takes place between the roller and the shearing bar. Stone mills have similar principles of operation. The rotor turns on a stator to achieve shearing

With current raw materials, both the primary particles and agglomerates are very small, and if any positive action can be achieved during the milling process, it can only be done by affecting these small particles. It is thus necessary to operate these machines at very tight gaps which causes abrasion of the mechanical elements, rapid deterioration of equipment, and contamination of the product by the abraded material. This affects the properties of the millbase and the color of the product

The high-speed impeller or shear mixer is the most common equipment to prepare dispersions of solids in liquid. High speed shear mills and kinetic shear mills have retained their usefulness because of their ability to deagglomerate material that is not adequately dispersed in the premixing step. A high-speed shear mill is composed of two elements a container and an impeller. These factors are important in the design:

In the first stage, the viscosity changes from low to high as fillers are incorporated; in the second stage, viscosity remains constantly high because of the disintegration of particles which occurs during the application of the highest shear stress

Long mixing increases temperature and decreases viscosity. This does not provide the conditions for the best filler dispersion. By extending mixing over, for example, a 15 min period, the degree of dispersion is not improved, but the resin may actually be degraded

If the quality of dispersion is not satisfactory, the parameters of mixing should be changed. If the expected result cannot be attained, the range of conditions available is not adequate in this particular mill

In the third stage, the viscosity changes from high to low due to the addition of diluent. The viscosity range which can be handled by high speed mixers is similar to the range of a three-roll mill, i.e., up to about 200 Poise

The range of shear rates available in high-speed mixers is not broad. The flow rate of fluid in motion decreases as viscosity increases and is inversely proportional to the width of the flow passage which, in this case, is the distance between the disperser and the container which is very large in a high speed mixer. It is not so much due to an improvement in mixing equipment that high-speed mixers have become so popular, it is mostly because of the high quality raw materials (pigments, fillers) which are available now. High structure carbon blacks can be more easily dispersed. But with the increased structure, the size of the primary particles decreases, inhibiting dispersion. Because of the interrelation between both parameters, only the medium structure, coarser particles of carbon blacks can be dispersed by high-speed mixers. Other carbon black types demand further treatment. It should be noted that this is only true of a few fillers which are known to possess strongly bonded, small sized particles. In most cases, fillers can be successfully dispersed in high-speed mixers. However, care should be taken that the filler is selected with an appropriate particle size.

High-speed mixers have several important advantages over other existing equipment including the possibility of processing a batch in the same vessel, easy cleaning, and flexibility in color changes. The main disadvantage is that the final dispersion depends greatly on the chosen composition and technology, and these are sometimes limiting factors. Frequently, the proper conditions for quality dispersion cannot be achieved at all.

The basic construction of a high-speed mixer can easily be modified to one's special requirements. For example, a change from impeller to turbine rotor changes both the principle of dispersion and the range of application. The tangential velocities of filler particles can be as high as 500 m/sec. Such particles have a very high kinetic energy, sufficient to cause size reduction. Size reduction is due to particle-particle or particle-wall collisions, and this in turn, is related in efficiency to the relative velocities at the moment of collision. Relative velocity can be increased by decreasing the viscosity of the millbase. The upper limit of millbase viscosity is somewhere around 3 to 4 Poise. It is not viscosity alone which is important but the entire rheological character of the millbase. The best results are obtained when the millbase is nearly Newtonian. For this reason, the dispersion process is best performed in a diluted millbase. As is the case with high-speed mixers, a proper dispersion should be achieved in a matter of 10-20 min. If such is not the case, the conditions of processing should be modified. Once dispersion has been achieved, it should be stabilized, with the mixer continuously running, by the addition of more resin to increase the viscosity in order to prevent sedimentation or flocculation of the pigment.

The other possible modification to such a mixer can be achieved by a substantial lowering of the speed and a change in the motion of the mixing element to planetary. This configuration can process material of a much higher viscosity, up to several thousand Poise. The high speed mixer can be modified in various ways to match its capabilities to the process requirements. Stationary baffles may be added to increase the shear rate. The distance between the rotating and stationary elements can be decreased again increasing the shear rate. The mixer may be designed to work under both pressure and vacuum and with inert gas blanketing which permits deaeration and processing of volatile or moisture sensitive materials.

The other group includes heavy-duty mixers, such as the Banbury mixer and double-arm kneading mixers. The Banbury mixer with a power input of up to 6000 kW/m3 is the strongest and the most powerful mixing unit used by industry. Nearly solid materials are mixed by a rotor which is a heavy shaft with stubby blades rotating at up to 40 rpm. The clearance between the walls and rotor is very small, which induces a very high shear in the material. The high shear generates a great amount of heat which melts the polymer rapidly and allows for quick incorporation of filler. After the filler is incorporated, the dispersion process begins, with rapid distributive mixing along and between two rotors and between the chamber walls and rotor tips. Within 2-3 min, mixing is normally completed and the compound discharged into a pelletizing extruder or a two-roll mill which converts it to a sheet form.8 Carbon black, which is most frequently processed in a Banbury mixer, is usually placed between two layers of polymeric material in order to reduce dusting.

Double-arm kneading mixers are very popular in some industries. They consist of two counter-rotating blades in a rectangular trough carved at the bottom to form two longitudinal half cylinders and a saddle section. A variety of blade shapes are used, with a clearance between them and the blades and the side walls of up to 1 mm. The most popular blade shapes include: sigma, dispersion, multiwiping overlapping, single-curve, and double-naben blades. It is important for filler dispersion in this mixer that the viscosity of the millbase be kept high enough to create the required shearing force to disperse the material. The strong construction of the mixer and its high power allow one to work with concentrated compositions of pigments which could not be processed by any other method.

High volume production is done by mixing in an extruder.11 This method offers several advantages such as a continuous process, material uniformity, a clean environment, high output, and low labor. The biggest disadvantage of this method is a high investment cost. The twin-screw extruder is the most flexible type of extruder and most appropriate for compounding. Their screw designs can be varied as can the method of dosing and the output rate. The abrasiveness of the filler may affect the life-span of the equipment, and particle size and its distribution may influence the quality of filler dispersion and material uniformity. But in general, there is adequate machinery available for almost all requirements. For instance, glass-fiber reinforced materials can be produced by this technique with little change to the initial structure and dimensions of the glass fibers, which shows the versatility of the technology. The production rate of this method is comparable to the Banbury mixer, and an additional advantage comes from the fact that the material can be completely processed in one pass through the machinery.

The importance of the proper dispersion of fillers and the complexity of techniques for measuring the degree of dispersion are reflected in numerous publications. Further information on the mixing of fillers is included in Chapter 18.

The renewable power sources are being explored due to possibility of lack in availability of conventional resources in future. The major drawback of Renewable energy resources are dependency on geographical locations and environmental conditions however, the high initial cost, increased maintenance cost, and different rates of depreciation are the main challenges associated with these hybrid systems[18]. The irregular pattern of natural resources necessitates developing a hybrid system which can generate maximum conceivable energy for continuous and reliable operations [17]. The design of hybrid system is influenced by various factors such as condition of sites, energy availability, efficiency of energy sources as well as technical and social limitation In this specific situation, a combination of optimal sizing method is an indispensable factor to accomplish higher reliability quality with least expense [21,79,87,149]. The fundamental parts of the hybrid energy systems are renewable power source, nonrenewable generators, control unit, storage system, load or grid some times, sources and load may be AC/DC [102].

An arrangement of the renewable power generation with appropriate storage and feasible amalgamation with conventional generation system is considered as hybrid energy system or some time referred as a micro grid [155]. This system may be any probable combination of Photovoltaic, wind, micro turbines, micro hydro, conventional diesel generation, battery storage, hydrogen storage and Fuel Cell in grid-connected or off grid arrangement,

An assembly of interconnected loads, conventional distributed energy resources like distributed generators (DG), renewable resources and energy storage systems in a specified boundary as a controllable single entity referred as micro grid. It may be eternally connected to grid, or isolated by grid. There are worldwide numerous remote communities those are not directly connected to grid, and fulfill electricity demand from distributed generators based on fossil fuel in isolated Microgrids[97,165]. In this paper a assimilated arrangement of solar PV and wind renewable energy resources is discussed which is slightly different from the concept of microgrid.

Solar Photovoltaic /Wind based Hybrid Energy System shows its adequacy to provide the essential electrical demand for off grid utilization. The at most imperative feature of a Solar Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind based Hybrid Energy System is that it uses at least two sustainable power sources which enhances reliability, efficiency and financial restrictions emerges from single energy resources of renewable nature [18,89,133]. Solar Photovoltaic and Wind based Hybrid Energy System is considered as amalgamation of solar PV panel, Wind mills, charge controller, storage system, power conditioning units, diesel based generator set and load [19]. The assessment of performance of Hybrid system can be done by recreating their models at Simulink platform for the accessible insulation, speed of wind, electrical load and various components [20].

The essential objective for evaluation of Hybrid System are building up the suitable models for various components and their simulation in a sequential manner as firstly availability of speed wind, accessibility of sunlight and the demand of load models are simulated after that model of battery storage and diesel generator can be Simulated. Last strides in the entire procedure of assessment is deciding the coveted criteria and exploring the optimum structure of system. [21]. The optimal hybrid system arrangement should satisfy and compromise the objectives of power reliability and cost of system. The load demand frequently considered as limitation of the optimization issue and ought to be totally satisfied [22]. The solar PV/wind hybrid system is mostly reliant on execution of individual segments. To estimate the performance of solar PV/wind hybrid system, individual components are modeled initially after that entire system evaluated to meet the demand [23]. In general key aspects to analyze a hybrid system are hybrid system configuration with respect to the available resources, the optimization of the available renewable resources exploitation and the optimization of the output power quality [24].

Solar energy and wind energy are analogous to each other in nature and both are well appropriate to develop a hybrid system [26]. Availability of solar radiations are relatively greater in summer, winds are more accessible in the evening times of winters. This hybrid renewable energy systems give a more reliable output throughout the year can be planned to fulfill craved qualities on more decreased possible cost [27]. The constraints of Photo voltaic system, the assessed energy of wind energy system and the battery storage are the majorly considered parameters for evaluation of solar and wind based hybrid energy system. In addition, the precise angular attitude of Photo voltaic panels and the tower height of wind turbines are considered for achieving the minimum levelised cost of energy. Ribeiro [31] proposed multi-criteria based analytical decision scheme abbreviated as MCDA which consider several issues like economic, quality of life, technical and environmental issues of local populations.

Metrological data based on technological, economical, socio-political and environmental factors having major impact for estimation and selection of various components of Solar Photovoltaic and Wind based Hybrid Energy System [32]. Hourly climate information as sun oriented radiation, wind speed and temperature are raw information illustrates the inconstancy of the parameter input. Place to place data is hard to obtain for designing purpose at remote location [3,73]. Statistical metrological climatic information can be delivered by the average of month to month meteorological information. The information of climate can be anticipated from an adjacent site or synthetically can be produced [32]. Simulation for performance of Solar PV/Wind Hybrid Energy System required climate data including solar radiation, speed of wind and temperature which can be find from web sources and also from local meteorological station, it is best to find realistic solution preference should be given to the specified location based weather data [28]. To optimize solar photovoltaic and wind based hybrid energy system are hourly or day by day climate information of solar and wind energy are considered as required significant inputs [29]. Meteorological data determined the receptiveness and amount of sunlight based radiation and wind energy sources at a particular region. An investigation of characteristics of sun based emission and availability of wind at a specific location ought to be concluded before starting [28]. Bianchini A et al. gives stress on the metrological data in the form of solar irradiance and wind distribution and considered hybrid renewable energy system as a amalgamation of PV panel of rated power, horizontal axis wind turbine of rated power, a diesel generator of precise nominal power able to manage peak load and a battery bank of specific storage capacity [33]. Hall et al. [34] proposed the well-known engineered climate information term Typical meteorological year (TMY) utilized in simulation of solar energy model is first time. It is observational technique picking particular months from different years using the Fleckenstein Schafer accurate system [35].

load demand play a very important role in establishment of solar PV/wind hybrid renewable energy system provides more reliable power for off-grid and standalone applications compared to individual systems [21] The most of the reviewed studies are about the alone Solar Photovoltaic /Wind based Hybrid Energy System and few studies are available for grid connected system. The unsatisfied load request is procured from the grid. Along this way the hybrid system became noticeably trustworthy. The stand-alone systems with storage infused surplus energy to the grid at a prime cost. Along these lines, the grid connected system becomes more financially acceptable.

coal yard - an overview | sciencedirect topics

coal yard - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Uncovered storage of torrefied pellets at a coal yard exposing them to weather conditions, such as sun, rain, wind, and snow, can produce changes in the product that will result in gaseous and liquid emissions such as dust or leachate. Experiences conducted at hard coal yards have shown high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values for the leachate so that a ground insulation was required [49]. However, there are not yet sufficient information available that allow to take conclusions about the behavior of torrefied biomass stored in coal yards.

Risks for self-heating, ignition, and degradation during uncovered storage are currently under investigation and depend on multiple factors such as climate, pile size, and shape as well as pellet quality. Safety measures valid for coal yards should be applicable to torrefied biomass pellets. Degradation of torrefied pellets due to climatic effects increase the risk for dust formation for subsequent conveying operations [50].

Firing PRB and low-rank coals resulted in numerous changes in coal-fired power plants, largely as a consequence of the reduced calorific value of the fuels, the alkali metal and alkaline earth components of the inorganic fraction of the coals, the reactivity of the combustible fraction of the coals, and the reactivity of the inorganic fractionthe ashin these fuels. While the use of the PRB and low-rank coals included the design of new units, the PRB and subbituminous coals were also used in blends with bituminous coals in existing plants designed for the higher ranked coals, when such plants were modified to utilize the lower-cost, low-sulfur fossil fuels. Harding [27,28] and other engineers (see, for example, [2931]) have identified the modifications required to make this truly a new technology. These modifications result from the lower densities and lower calorific values of the various lower rank coals along with their higher reactivities with respect to both the combustible and inorganic fractions of the fuel mass. Many of the technology improvements deal specifically with the deposition issues discussed previously, and also by Raask [32], Baxter [23,33], and other researchers (for example, Zygerlicke, Benson and Borio [34]; Laumb, Folkedahl, and Zygerlicke [24]).

The use of PRB coals in existing plants dominated the initial use of this fuel; it was then followed by plants designed and built explicitly for the use of such relatively clean-burning coals. Initially the use of PRB coals almost always involved fuel blending with higher calorific value bituminous coals. For virtually all existing plants introducing PRB coals, the coal yard had to be modified to accomplish effective blending of the subbituminous and bituminous coals in a manner that facilitated relatively uniform feed to the boiler. Technological changes had to be made in all areas:

Existing plants burning PRB coals tend to be larger units (e.g.,>600MWe) throughout the West and Midwest, although some smaller plants have also been converted to burn PRB coals in blends with bituminous coals. Examples of such plants modified to burn PRB coals include the 3200-MWe Monroe Power Plant of Detroit Edison/DTE Energy, Oak Creek Power Plant units #5 #8 of WE Energy (formerly Wisconsin Electric), and many others. Small plants adapted to PRB coals include the Nelson Dewey 260-MWe cyclone power plant of Alliant Energy (a plant now retired). Plants designed specifically to burn PRB coals, such as the Robert W. Scherer Plant of Georgia Power (Plant Scherer), a Southern Company subsidiary, and the Belle River Generating Station of Detroit Edison of DTE Energy, were of significant capacity. Plant Scherer, at 3600MWe, is among the largest coal-fired power plants in the United States [35]. Another example of a power plant designed and built specifically for PRB coal is the Pleasant Prairie Station of WE Energy. Another such station is the Jeffries Energy Center of Westar Energy (see Fig.6.3).

Figure6.3. Jeffries Energy Center, owned and operated by Westar Energy. This generating station, located in Emmett Township, Kansas, with a net generating capacity of 1857MWe, was named Plant of the Year in 2003 by the PRB Users' Group.

Because of the lower specific gravity and calorific density (Btu/ft3) of PRB coals relative to bituminous coals, larger coal cars with greater carrying capacities are needed. 100- to 125-ton capacity cars of two types have been developed by Johnstown America, Thrall, and other railroad car manufacturers. These include the cars designed for rotary car dumpers installed at such plants as Monroe and Oak Creek: Coalporters and high side gondolas. Such coal cars have an additional and very important innovation: the rotating coupler. Each car has one rotating coupler, located on the end with a painted designation such as a stripe of a different color. The rotating coupler permits the cars to be unloaded without being uncoupled from the train if the rotary car unloader is set at grade. This speeds up the unloading process. At its most efficient, the rotary car unloader is equipped with a high horsepower (e.g., >5000hp) motor and arm arrangement to move and index the entire set of cars, such that the locomotives can be decoupled from the train and the arm can immediately position the carsstill coupled togetherin the rotary car dumper (see Fig.6.4). Rapid unloading of the train is accomplished, the locomotives are recoupled to the now empty coal cars, and the train is sent back to the coal mine.

New high volume coal cars also include rapid discharge bottom dump gondolas for plants such as Scherer, where coal trains run across a trestle. At plant Scherer and other similar installations the coal train never completely stops.

Because PRB coals have been burned in existing power plants, they are most frequently burned in blends. The use of blends precludes the use of certain stackout and reclaim systems such as linear stackerreclaimer systems. Rather, coal blending systems commonly employ underpile tunnels with plows and weigh-belt systems to manage the blending process (see Figs.6.5 and 6.6). The alternatives for stackout include multiple tube stackers (see Fig.6.7) and more labor-intensive blending systems. Alternatively, PRB coals can be blended with bituminous coals at off-site locations and then shipped to the plant. This precludes adjusting the blend to meet changing conditions. As Fig.6.7 illustrates, the technologies used for PRB coal management have been used for all coals. However, they are highly prominent in the management of PRB coals. Blends were constructed to provide a minimum energy density measured in Btu/lb (kcal/kg) and Btu/ft3 of fuel. Note that the transport of fuel to the silos, pulverizers, and boilers is inherently a volumetric proposition.

Figure6.5. Coal stackout gallery at Monroe Power Plant built in the late 1980s and early 1990s to establish three coal piles of different types of coal and support blending of PRB coal at the plant. The blending tunnel and weigh-belt system are underneath the coal piles.

In the power house, the highly reactive PRB coals became known for spontaneous combustion. This required new methods for housekeeping. It required instrumentation to indicate when self-heating and spontaneous combustion was imminent in silos and bunkers; inerting systems for silos became desirable. Similarly, inerting systems for pulverizers became essential, particularly for start-up and shutdown. Dynamic classifiers emerged to increase mill capacity [27,28]. Mill outlet temperatures were reduced as well [28]. Soot blowing became enhanced with high numbers of both insertable rotating (IR) and insertable kinetic (IK) soot blowers. Water lances and water cannons began emerging to shatter the slag formed from the calcium, sodium, and related compounds.

For plants designed specifically to burn 100% subbituminous coals, stack-out systems could include linear stackerreclaimer systems such as the Krupp in the shared coal yard of the Belle River and St. Clair power plants of DTE Energy shown in Fig.6.8. The fuel yard design for such plants is inherently more flexible. The boilers themselves were designed to be taller, with considerably more volume than bituminous coalbased boilers. Soot blowing and slag management systems also became more prominent.

Figure6.8. The Krupp linear stacker-reclaimer at the St. Clair/Belle River coal yard. These two plants share a common coal yard dominated by Decker and Spring Creek high sodium Powder River Bank coals.

In summary, the techniques and technologies used for PRB coal were and are used elsewhere in other coal plants. However, they became essential to the use of PRB coal, making it a unique coal-fired plant technology, and it became the dominant coal-fired technology as Wyoming became the state dominating coal supply. PRB and related subbituminous coals from the western United States began to emerge in the early and mid 1970s and came to supply over 400million tons of coal annually to the US economy by the turn of the 21st century as is shown in Fig.6.9. This technological dominance resulted from the coal being low in pollutants and low in cost from the amazing deposits.

Blending can occur at any point in the supply of coal from mine to boiler or gasifier. Blending routinely occurs at coal tipples, particularly in the East where mines are small. There are numerous transfer facilities in the coal supply systemtypically located on major waterways. These facilities, served by boat or barge, rail, and truck, can blend coal to virtually any specification or can blend based on coal sources and on client preferences (and contracts). The most common blend location is in the coal yard of a power plant. This provides the maximum flexibility to the power plant.

Coal can be blended downstream of the coal yard [55]. One strategy that has been employed in recent years is to have the boiler as the place where blending occurs. Different coals are loaded into separate silos, run through separate pulverizers, and then fired in separate burners. This strategy requires silos rather than open bunkers for coal storage in the power plant. It is also more effective in tangentially fired boilers and less effective in wall-fired boilers. T-fired boilers have a single fireball where the fuels mix together; these furnaces are often considered a single burner with multiple fuel injection points.

Wall-fired units typically experience significant laning in the furnace and even through the convective pass. There is much less interaction between the flames in a wall-fired boiler than in a corner-fired boiler. This strategy has the advantage that individual pulverizers or mills can be set for the coal being fed. The disadvantages include the need for precision in filling silos and the lack of interaction between the fuels. The issue of precision in filling silos is not trivial; the demands of filling silos at power plants are such that this provides a basis for many mistakes.

Naantali-3 is a T-fired PC boiler, located in Naantali, Finland, that produces 315 MWth of electricity, district heat, and steam. Cofiring tests were carried out in April 1999 and MarchApril 2000. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the impact of cofiring of sawdust on boiler performance, flame stability, and emissions [35].

Coal and sawdust were the test fuels utilized at Naantali-3 for the tests. The fraction of sawdust cofired ranged from 2.5% to 8% (heat input basis). Pine sawdust came from a local sawmill that was located 50 kilometers from the power plant. Table 4.29 presents the fuel analysis for the sawdust and coals used during the test.

Coal and unscreened biomass were blended in the coal yard; the mixture was fed into the boiler through the coal mills. Three mills (Loesche roller mills) fed three burner levels, with each level consisting of four burners.

Coal and wood were mixed by a bulldozer in the yard. The coal and sawdust were spread in layers on top of each other by bucket charger and bulldozer. The thicknesse of each fuel and layer was based on the blending ratio. This method of blending is only a rough estimate; the level of accuracy is marginal.

Coal mill performance was the limiting factor. Mill fineness deteriorated with the addition of biomass in the fuel mass and increased with increasing percentages of sawdust. Biomass accumulation in the mill was detected; increased smoke formation was observed during the cofiring tests. Coal mill grindability was affected; biomass does not pulverize well, creating a mat on the grinding table, thus inhibiting the grinding effects. Negative effects were also seen for boiler efficiency and unburned carbon concentration [35].

For the most part, sawdust cofiring was successful. However, some negative effects were observedparticularly in the coal mills. Therefore, it was concluded that in order to achieve high cofiring percentages, separate injection of the biomass was necessary [35].

Cars are moved through the receiving yard and the departure yard by yard locomotives. In flat-switched yards, the classification is also performed by locomotives. In gravity yards, however, cars are pushed to the top of the hump by a locomotive and then cut singly or in groups to roll by gravity into the designated tracks. Normally, only one block is assigned to a track. If more than one block is on a track, that track must be reclassified. Blocks can be by destination (ultimate or intermediate), by commodity grade (as in ore or coal yards), or by continuing rail line.

Yards of an earlier day relied on car riders operating hand brakes for speed control, but today's yards have computer-controlled retarders for the purpose. Two conditions determine the height of the hump and the degree of speed control to be exercised. The first is the hard-rolling caran empty car, in poor mechanical condition, in cold weather, and with a head wind. The second is the easy-rolling cara loaded car, in good mechanical condition, in warm weather, and with a tail wind. The hump must be high enough to impart sufficient velocity head to get the hard roller past the clearance point of the body tracks. But the hump cannot be so high as to give the easy roller excessive speed that leads to damaging impacts with cars already standing on the body tracks.

Speed control is exercised by retarder units that apply pressure mechanically via electrically or electropneumatically operated shoes pressed against the sides of the wheel treads. The braking pressure is expressed in feet of velocity head and depends on the amount of resistance versus the effects of gravity that will be encountered between the hump crest and the leaving end of the last retarder and between the last retarder and the clearance point of the body tracks.

Using data on the train's consist received from the arriving train's departure terminal, a sorting or switch list is prepared and placed on a tape or stored in a computer memory that designates the block, body track, and switch routing to that body track, and switch routing to that body track. These data are then combined with the ambient situationcar weight, instantaneous car speed down the hump incline, temperature, wind velocity and direction, and number of cars already on the assigned trackto give continuous and automatic control from the moment a car is separated by the pin puller at the hump crest until it couples with the cars already in the body track. Switches are automatically aligned ahead of the car.

Gradients encountered during the descent are essential elements. These include a steep (4.0%) breakaway grade beyond the hump to separate the cuts of cars, a much flatter grade over the track scales (if any), an accelerating grade through the master retarder, and a somewhat flatter grade through the group retarders. Beyond the clearance point, a nonaccelerating grade may be used to maintain the release speed from the group retarder. Based on an average resistance of 6lb/ton, this would be a 0.30% grade. Improvements in car rollability and track stiffness have permitted grades as low as 0.20 or even 0.10%.

Some roads maintain a flat grade throughout the yard with a higher release speed from the group retarders. Others continue the nonaccelerating grade almost to the lower end of the yard. In either design, the trend is to put a short decelerating grade at the end of the body tracks to prevent cars from rolling out onto the ladder. Such a yard is referred to as a bowl. Inert retarders, functioning only by springs through which cars can be pulled, are usually placed below the lower clearance point for the same purpose.

A recent British innovation places a series of hydraulic cylinders and plungers beside the gauge corner of the rails on the hump descent, so that the wheel flanges come in contact with the plungers. Using computerized controls as with conventional retarders, the pressure required by the wheel flanges to depress the plungers is varied to give the desired speed restraint.

The fuel preparation for cofiring greatly benefits from the torrefaction of the biomass feed because this process makes biomass more brittle and less fibrous. The least cost option for cofiring uses the existing pulverization mills and feeds biomass directly into them along with coal. Though torrefaction cannot make biomass as grindable as coal, it makes significant improvement in the grindability of the biomass. As a result, the existing mills can grind the required amount of biomass without requiring additional energy. This allows the boiler to feed its burner with the required amount of coal and biomass to match the furnace heat input of the existing boiler. Furthermore, in cases where separate mills are used for coal and biomass, the improved grindability of torrefied wood allows the mills to produce particles of right size and in right quantity.

Capital investment for covered biomass storage could be a major component of the total cost of biomass cofiring upgrade of an existing plant. The carrying charge of that could tip the economic balance against cofiring. Even that may not prevent dried biomass from picking up additional moisture from the atmosphere and cause a health hazard due to fungal attack on biomass. Torrefied biomass, being relatively hydrophobic, does not pick up moisture even when stored outdoors and experience very little fungal attack. Thus, it obviates the need for expensive covered fuel storage allowing the plant to use parts of the existing coal yard to store the biomass.

Torrefaction acts like a quality leveller for multiple fuel feed. The difference between different biomass feedstock is reduced through torrefaction. Thus, while the quality of the delivered biomass supply is variable, the actual variation in quality experienced by the burner is much less. Torrefaction helps reduce the difference in combustion characteristics and heating value of the biomass feed.

The capacity or thermal output of a boiler could reduce for two reasons: the boiler furnace is not able to generate the designed energy input and the available heating surfaces of the boiler are not able to absorb the required amount of heat. The volumetric energy density of biomass is much lower than that of coal. For example, volume energy density of raw wood is 58MJ/m3 while that for typical coal is 30-40MJ/m3 because of lower density (350680 vs. 11001350kg/m3) and lower heating value (~1721 vs. 2433MJ/kg dry basis) of the biomass (Table 4.3). When coal is replaced by an equivalent (by energy content) amount of biomass in a boiler plant, a significantly larger volume of biomass is to be handled by the existing feed preparation, feeder, and the burner system. In most cases, these components of a PC-fired boiler lack adequate spare capacity to handle such a large increase in volume throughput. Among these, the capacity of the pulverization mills is the major limitation.

There is another reason why capacity of a coal-fired boiler could reduce when cofired with biomass. For a given energy input, the amount of flue gas increases when one replaces coal with biomass. In Example 10.1, one can see that though biomass contains a significantly larger amount of oxygen, the air requirement per unit MJ heat input is about the same as that for coal, but the mass of flue gas produced by biomass is higher. So, biomass cofiring could place an extra load on the existing induced draft fan and downstream units of the boiler plant. This necessitates reductions in boiler output. For heat absorption, the only limitation may be on the flame emissivity due to higher H2O fraction in the flue gas. Since biomass may constitute only a small part of the total feed in normal cofiring, flue gas emissivity may not bring about major change in heat absorption. The only limitation could be the flame temperature if it is reduced due to lower heating value of the biomass fuel.

In a pulverized coal (PC)-fired boiler, pulverizing mills grind coal to about 75m size, and transport it pneumatically through pipes to burners for combustion in a flame. A fluidized-bed boiler, on the other hand, would require the fuel to be crushed to only less than 10mm size and dropped under gravity into the furnace. Thus, cofiring of biomass in a fluidized-bed combustion boiler is a little easier than that in a PC-fired boiler because of the fuel flexible feature of fluidized-bed firing (Basu, 2006).

Raw biomass is highly fibrous in nature. Surface fibers of neighboring particles lock into each other making it difficult to flow smoothly. These along with the plastic behavior of biomass causes several problems such as:

Co-combustion of biomass would therefore require biomass to be ground to comparable sizes (~75m) and pneumatically conveyed through pipes. Because of its soft, nonbrittle characteristics, considerably more energy is required to grind untreated biomass to the above fineness. For example, to grind a ton of coal to a d50 around 500m, about 736kWh of grinding energy is required, while that for raw poplar and pine, the energy requirement would be 130 and 170kWh, respectively (Esteban and Carrasco, 2006). There is thus nearly an order of magnitude increase in energy consumption for biomass grinding.

Torrefaction addresses the above problems to a great extent by making biomass particles more brittle, smoother, and less fibrous. An optical photomicrograph taken after torrefaction shows (Arias et al., 2008) an absence of fibrous exterior, sharp ends in the biomass. Thus, the friction created by the interlocking of the fibers during the handling of a pneumatic transportation is greatly reduced after torrefaction.

We note from above that torrefaction reduces the energy consumption for grinding biomass. This section discusses the grinding issue further. Torrefaction temperature is the most influential parameter affecting grinding. The higher the temperature at which torrefaction is performed the lower is the energy requirement for grinding, or for a given energy input, more amount of fine particles are obtained after grinding. Grinding of torrefied biomass gives smaller and uniform size distribution of the product (Phanphanich and Mani, 2011). The grinding energy requirement for a specified level of grinding decreases with torrefaction temperature. Here, one notes that the specific energy consumption reduced from about 250kWh/ton for raw biomass to about 50kWh/ton for that torrefied at 280C.

Grindability index is a measure of the ease of grinding of a given feed. Utility industries use the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI) to express this parameter. In the direct cofired system, the existing mills designed for coal are used for grinding the cofired biomass. So, for a given mill, given rotation, and energy input, it is necessary to know how much biomass would be ground. HGI gives the comparative ease of grinding with reference to a standard coal. The higher the HGI the lower is the power requirements, and the finer the particle size. It represents a fuel that is easier to grind.

An HGI-measuring machine is a miniature ball mill type of pulverizer. Here, a standard mass (50g) of coal is grounded for a given time in the mill subjecting the balls to a known force. The resulting product is sieved to measure amounts dropping below 75m size. This amount is compared against some specified standards to define the parameter, HGI. As the HGI ball mill works on the same principle as pulverizing mills, the index obtained from this could give a fair assessment of the grinding capability of torrefied biomass.

For biomass, one should use (Agus and Water, 1971; Joshi, 1978) a standard volume of sample instead of mass to compare the grinding ease to coal and torrefied biomass. Thus, an equivalent HGI was used to define the grinding ease of torrefied biomass. More details are given in Bridgeman et al. (2010).

Dust explosion is a major problem in handling and conveying of fine dusts. So, special attention is paid in PC-fired power plants where coal dust is being conveyed or milled. Since pulverized biomass is being considered for cofiring, one needs to explore this potential to ensure that presence of fine dust of torrefied dust does not make the matter worse. In a typical explosive situation, the dust could be ignited by an energy source, and it is followed by rapid exothermic oxidation of the mixture. This leads to an increase in temperature that further increases the reaction and the gas expands rapidly. In a confined space like pipelines from the pulverizer to the burner, the pressure increases with temperature. The combustion rate increases with temperature and pressure, further aggravating the situation, which eventually leads to explosion that could burst the pipeline or its confinement. Large buildup of pressure leading to explosion is also possible even without a confinement.

Because of its low ignition temperature and high reactivity, torrefied biomass could potentially have worse risk for dust explosion. When the solid concentration in dust increases, the minimum temperature at which a dust-cloud ignites drops. Torrefied wood is more brittle in nature than biomass is; as such, it would have higher level of dust formation and greater potential for explosion. If one compares the above factors for coal and torrefied biomass, one could easily note that torrefied wood has greater potential of explosion.

Additionally, the ignition temperature of biomass is typically below that of coal. These make torrefied biomass particularly vulnerable to explosion and fire. Thus, care should be taken to reduce the risk of dust explosion in a cofired plant. Relatively low volatile content of torrefied biomass could, on the other hand, make it less explosive, but in the absence of any such data, it is only a speculation.

The intensity of explosion increases with increase in the combustibility of dust particles, So, depending on the combustibility of the torrefied wood, it may have a higher dust explosibility than raw wood, but this hypothesis is yet to be proved through experiments.

Torrefied biomass could produce more fines during handling than standard biomass would. Because of its low ignition temperature and high reactivity, chances of catching fire are real in a plant. Thus, particular attention needs to be paid to avoid fire in a plant cofired with torrefied biomass.

Find the impact on combustion air requirement and flue gas production if the boiler is to retain the energy input into the furnace. Assume the air to contain 1.3% moisture. Composition and heating values of these fuels are given below:CompositionBituminous CoalTorrefied BiomassRaw BiomassC (%)67.3654.7038.49H (%)4.586.004.86O (%)5.6936.4037.19N (%)1.300.100.25S (%)2.0800.00Ash (%)8.842.802.8Moisture (%)9.910.0016.4HHV (MJ/kg)28.9121.913.97

a.First we carry out the calculation for raw biomass:Using Eq. (3.34), we calculate the theoretical dry air needed per kilogram raw biomass.Mda=11.53C+34.34[H(O/8)]=11.5338.49+34.34(4.8637.19/8)=4.512kgair/kgrawbiomassActual air with 20% excess air=1.24.512=5.41 dry air/kg of raw biomass.Moisture in air is 1.3%.So, the wet air requirement is Mwa=(1+0.013)5.41=5.48 wet air/kg of raw biomass.Amount of flue gas product through complete combustion is found from Eq. (3.36).FluegasmassWc=Mwa0.2315Mda+3.66C+9H+N+O+2.5S=5.480.23154.512+(3.6638.49+94.86+0.25+37.19)/100=6.66kg/kgrawbiomassHeating value of biomass is 13.97MJ/kg. So, for 1MJ energy input the furnace needs (5.48/13.97) or 0.392kg air and produce (6.66/13.97) or 0.476kg flue gas.b.Repeating the above computation for coal, we find that 1kg coal needs 11.22kg wet air and produces 12.03kg flue gas and releases 28.91MJ heat.So, for 1MJ energy input in the energy the furnace needs (11.22/28.91) or 0.39kg air and produces (12.03/28.91) or 0.416kg flue gas.c.For torrefied biomass in similar way, we get that 1kg torrefied biomass needs 8.27kg wet air and produces 9.60kg flue gas and releases 21.9MJ heat.So, for 1MJ energy input in the energy the furnace needs (8.27/21.9) or 0.377kg air and produces (9.6/21.9) or 0.438kg flue gas. Figure 10.4 plots these data against C/H ratio of fuels.Figure 10.4. Computation in Example 10.1 shows that when the C/H ratio of the fuel is changed the combustion air required per unit heat release does not change much but the flue gas produced changes.

Results are listed in the table below:Bituminous CoalTorrefied BiomassRaw BiomassEnergy density of fuel (MJ/kg)28.9121.913.97Mass of flue gas produced for per unit heat release (kg/MJ)0.4160.4380.476Wet air needed to burn unit mass of fuel (kg/kg)11.228.275.48Air required per unit energy release (kg/MJ)0.390.380.39Flue gas produced per unit fuel burnt (kg/kg)12.039.606.66Energy carried by unit mass of flue gas (MJ/kg)2.402.282.09

It is interesting to note that while wet air required for unit heat release is nearly independent on the fuel type, the amount of flue gas produced per unit energy input depends much on the fuel type. Raw biomass has higher flue gas weight than coal, but torrefied biomass produces mass of flue gas per unit heat release comparable to that of coal.

The fuel preparation for cofiring greatly benefits from the torrefaction of the biomass feed because this process makes biomass more brittle and less fibrous. The least expensive option for cofiring uses the existing pulverization mills and feeds biomass directly into them along with coal. Though torrefaction cannot make biomass as grindable as coal, it makes significant improvement in the grindability of the biomass. As a result, the existing mills can grind the required amount of biomass without requiring additional energy. This allows the boiler to feed its burner with the required amount of coal and biomass to match the furnace heat input of the existing boiler. Furthermore, in cases where separate mills are used for coal and biomass, the improved grindability of torrefied wood allows the mills to produce particles of right size and in right quantity.

Capital investment for covered biomass storage could be a major component of the total cost of biomass cofiring upgrade of an existing plant. The carrying charge of that could tip the economic balance against cofiring. Even that may not prevent dried biomass from picking up additional moisture from the atmosphere and cause a health hazard due to fungal attack on biomass. Torrefied biomass, being relatively hydrophobic, does not pick up moisture even when stored outdoors and experiences very little fungal attack. Thus, it obviates the need for expensive covered fuel storage allowing the plant to use parts of the existing coal yard to store the biomass.

Torrefaction acts like a quality leveler for multiple fuel feed. The difference between different biomass feedstock is reduced through torrefaction. Thus while the quality of the delivered biomass supply is variable, the actual variation in quality experienced by the burner is much less. Torrefaction helps reduce the difference in combustion characteristics and heating value of the biomass and coal.

The capacity or thermal output of a boiler could reduce for two reasons: the boiler furnace is not able to generate the designed heat input in furnace, and the available heating surfaces of the boiler are not able to absorb the required amount of heat. The volumetric energy density of biomass is much lower than that of coal. For example, volume energy density of raw wood is 58MJ/m3 while that for typical coal is 3040MJ/m3 because of lower mass density (350680 vs. 11001350kg/m3) and lower heating value (1721 vs. 2433MJ/kg dry basis) of the biomass (Table4.3). When coal is replaced by an equivalent (by energy content) amount of biomass in a boiler plant, a significantly larger volume of biomass is to be handled by the existing feed preparation, feeder, and the burner system. In most cases, these components of a PC-fired boiler lack adequate spare capacity to handle such a large increase in volume throughput. Among these, the capacity of the pulverization mills is the major limitation.

There is another reason why capacity of a coal-fired boiler could reduce when cofired with biomass. For a given energy input, the amount of flue gas increases when one replaces coal with biomass. In Example11.1, one can see that though biomass contains a significantly larger amount of oxygen, the air requirement per unit MJ heat input is about the same as that for coal, but the mass of flue gas produced by biomass is higher. So biomass cofiring could place an extra load on the existing induced draft fan and downstream units of the boiler plant. This necessitates reductions in boiler output. For heat absorption, the only limitation may be on the flame emissivity due to higher H2O fraction in the flue gas. Because biomass may constitute only a small part of the total feed in normal cofiring, flue gas emissivity may not bring about major change in heat absorption. The only limitation could be the flame temperature if it is reduced due to lower heating value of the biomass fuel.

In a PC-fired boiler, pulverizing mills grind coal to about 75-m size, and transport it pneumatically through pipes to burners for combustion in a flame. A fluidized-bed boiler, on the other hand, would require the fuel to be crushed to only less than 10-mm size and dropped under gravity into the furnace. Thus, cofiring of biomass in a fluidized-bed combustion boiler is a little easier than that in a PC-fired boiler because of the fuel flexible feature of fluidized-bed firing (Basu,2006).

Raw biomass is highly fibrous in nature. Surface fibers of neighboring particles lock into each other making it difficult to flow smoothly. These along with the plastic behavior of biomass causes several problems such as the following:

Co-combustion of biomass would therefore require biomass to be ground to comparable sizes (75m) and pneumatically conveyed through pipes. Because of its soft, nonbrittle characteristics, considerably more energy is required to grind untreated biomass to the aforementioned fineness. For example, to grind a ton of coal to a size with 50% below 500m, about 736kWh of grinding energy is required, while that for raw poplar and pine, the energy requirement would be 130 and 170kWh, respectively (Esteban and Carrasco,2006). There is thus nearly an order of magnitude increase in energy consumption for biomass grinding.

Torrefaction addresses the aforementioned problems to a great extent by making biomass particles more brittle, smoother, and less fibrous. An optical photomicrograph taken after torrefaction shows (Arias etal.,2008) an absence of fibrous exterior, and sharp ends in the biomass. Thus the friction created by the interlocking of the fibers during the handling of a pneumatic transportation is greatly reduced after torrefaction.

We note from the above paragraphs that torrefaction reduces the energy required for grinding biomass. This section discusses the grinding issue further. Torrefaction temperature is the most influential parameter affecting grinding of the terrified biomass. The higher the temperature at which torrefaction is performed, the lower is the energy requirement for grinding, or for a given energy input, more amount of fine particles are obtained after grinding. Grinding of torrefied biomass gives smaller and uniform size distribution of the product (Phanphanich and Mani,2011). The grinding energy requirement for a specified level of grinding decreases with torrefaction temperature. Herein, one notes that the specific energy consumption reduced from about 250kWh/ton for raw biomass to about 50kWh/ton for that torrefied at 280C.

Grindability index is a measure of the ease of grinding of a given feed. Utility industries use the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI) to express this parameter. In the direct cofired system, the existing mills designed for coal are used for grinding the cofired biomass. So for a given mill, given rotation, and energy input, it is necessary to know how much biomass would be ground. HGI gives the comparative ease of grinding with reference to standard coal. The higher the HGI the lower is the power requirements, and the finer the particle size. HGI represents a fuel that is easier to grind.

An HGI-measuring machine is a miniature ball mill type of pulverizer. Herein, a standard mass (50g) of coal is grounded for a given time in the mill subjecting the balls to a known force. The resulting product is sieved to measure amounts dropping below 75-m size. This amount is compared against some specified standards to define the parameter, HGI. As the HGI ball mill works on the same principle as pulverizing mills, the index obtained from this could give a fair assessment of the grinding capability of torrefied biomass.

For biomass, one should use (Agus and Waters,1971; Joshi,1979Agus and Waters,1971Joshi,1979) a standard volume of sample instead of mass to compare the grinding ease to coal and torrefied biomass. Thus an equivalent HGI was used to define the grinding ease of torrefied biomass. More details are given in Bridgeman etal., (2010).

Dust explosion is a major problem in handling and conveying of fine dusts. So special attention is paid in PC-fired power plants where coal dust is being conveyed or milled. Because pulverized biomass is being considered for cofiring, one needs to explore the explosion potential to ensure that presence of fine dust of torrefied dust does not make the matter worse. In a typical explosive situation, the dust could be ignited by an energy source, and it is followed by rapid exothermic oxidation of the mixture. This leads to an increase in temperature that further increases the reaction, and the gas expands rapidly. In a confined space such as pipelines from the pulverizer to the burner, the pressure would increase with temperature. The combustion rate increases with both temperature and pressure, further aggravating the situation, which eventually leads to explosion that could burst the pipeline or its confinement. Large buildup of pressure leading to explosion is also possible even without a confinement.

Because of its low ignition temperature and high reactivity, torrefied biomass could potentially have worse risk for dust explosion. When the solid concentration in dust increases, the minimum temperature at which a dust-cloud ignites drops. Torrefied wood is more brittle in nature than biomass is; as such, it would have higher level of dust formation and greater potential for explosion. If one compares the aforementioned factors for coal and torrefied biomass, one could easily note that torrefied wood has greater potential of explosion.

Additionally, the ignition temperature of biomass is typically below that of coal. These make torrefied biomass particularly vulnerable to explosion and fire. Thus care should be taken to reduce the risk of dust explosion in a cofired plant. Relatively low volatile content of torrefied biomass could, on the other hand, make it less explosive, but in the absence of any such data, it is only a speculation.

The intensity of explosion increases with increase in the combustibility of dust particles. So depending on the combustibility of the torrefied wood, it may have a higher dust explosibility than raw wood, but this hypothesis is yet to be proved through experiments.

Torrefied biomass could produce more fines during handling than raw biomass would. Because of its low ignition temperature and high reactivity, chances of catching fire are real in a plant. Thus particular attention needs to be paid to avoid fire in a plant cofired with torrefied biomass.

Find the impact on combustion air requirement and flue gas production if the boiler is to retain the energy input into the furnace. Assume the air to contain 1.3% moisture. Composition and higher heating values (HHV) of these fuels are as follows:CompositionBituminous coalTorrefied biomassRaw biomassC (%)67.3654.7038.49H (%)4.586.004.86O (%)5.6936.4037.19N (%)1.300.100.25S (%)2.0800.00Ash (%)8.842.802.8Moisture (%)9.910.0016.4Higher heating value (MJ/kg)28.9121.913.97

Solution1.First, we carry out the calculation for raw biomass: Using Eq. (3.34), we calculate the theoretical dry air needed per kilogram raw biomass.Mda=11.53C+34.34H(O/8)=11.5338.49+34.34(4.8637.19/8)=4.512kgair/kgrawbiomassActual air with 20% excess air=1.24.512=5.41 dry air/kg of raw biomass. Moisture in air is 1.3%. So the wet air requirement is Mwa=(1+0.013)5.41=5.48 wet air/kg of raw biomass. Amount of flue gas product through complete combustion is found from Eq. FluegasmassWc=Mwa0.2315Mda+3.66C+9H+N+O+2.5S=5.480.23154.512+3.6638.49+94.86+0.25+37.19/100=6.66kg/kgrawbiomass (3.36)Heating value of biomass is 13.97MJ/kg. So for 1MJ energy input, the furnace needs (5.48/13.97) or 0.392kg air and produces (6.66/13.97) or 0.476kg flue gas.2.Repeating the aforementioned computation for coal, we find that 1kg coal needs 11.22kg wet air and produces 12.03kg flue gas and releases 28.91MJ heat. So for 1MJ energy input in the energy, the furnace needs (11.22/28.91) or 0.39kg air and produces (12.03/28.91) or 0.416kg flue gas.3.For torrefied biomass in a similar way, we get that 1kg torrefied biomass needs 8.27kg wet air and produces 9.60kg flue gas and releases 21.9MJ heat. So for 1MJ energy input in the energy, the furnace needs (8.27/21.9) or 0.377kg air and produces (9.6/21.9) or 0.438kg flue gas. Fig.11.4 plots these data against C/H ratio of fuels.Figure 11.4. Computation in Example 11.1 shows that when the C/H ratio of the fuel is changed the combustion air required per unit heat release does not change much, but the flue gas produced changes.

First, we carry out the calculation for raw biomass: Using Eq. (3.34), we calculate the theoretical dry air needed per kilogram raw biomass.Mda=11.53C+34.34H(O/8)=11.5338.49+34.34(4.8637.19/8)=4.512kgair/kgrawbiomass

Actual air with 20% excess air=1.24.512=5.41 dry air/kg of raw biomass. Moisture in air is 1.3%. So the wet air requirement is Mwa=(1+0.013)5.41=5.48 wet air/kg of raw biomass. Amount of flue gas product through complete combustion is found from Eq. FluegasmassWc=Mwa0.2315Mda+3.66C+9H+N+O+2.5S=5.480.23154.512+3.6638.49+94.86+0.25+37.19/100=6.66kg/kgrawbiomass (3.36)

Repeating the aforementioned computation for coal, we find that 1kg coal needs 11.22kg wet air and produces 12.03kg flue gas and releases 28.91MJ heat. So for 1MJ energy input in the energy, the furnace needs (11.22/28.91) or 0.39kg air and produces (12.03/28.91) or 0.416kg flue gas.

For torrefied biomass in a similar way, we get that 1kg torrefied biomass needs 8.27kg wet air and produces 9.60kg flue gas and releases 21.9MJ heat. So for 1MJ energy input in the energy, the furnace needs (8.27/21.9) or 0.377kg air and produces (9.6/21.9) or 0.438kg flue gas. Fig.11.4 plots these data against C/H ratio of fuels.

Results are listed in the following table:Bituminous coalTorrefied biomassRaw biomassEnergy density of fuel (MJ/kg)28.9121.913.97Mass of flue gas produced for per unit heat release (kg/MJ)0.4160.4380.476Wet air needed to burn unit mass of fuel (kg/kg)11.228.275.48Air required per unit energy release (kg/MJ)0.390.380.39Flue gas produced per unit fuel burnt (kg/kg)12.039.606.66Energy carried by unit mass of flue gas (MJ/kg)2.402.282.09

It is interesting to note that while wet air required for unit heat release is nearly independent on the fuel type, the amount of flue gas produced per unit energy input depends much on the fuel type. Raw biomass has higher flue gas weight than coal, but torrefied biomass produces mass of flue gas per unit heat release comparable to that of coal.

A comprehensive study was conducted considering coal and saw dust in a tangentially-fired pulverized-coal unit of FORTUM's Naantali-3 CHP power plant which has the capacity of 79MW electricity, 124MW district heat and 70MW steam [11]. This is equipped with the modern technologies such as roller coal mills, modern low-NOx-burners, over-fire air (OFA), electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and flue-gas desulphurization plant (FGD). The coal/saw dust blend was prepared in the coal yard and supplied to the boiler through coal mills. The outcome of this study indicated that by using this concept the substitutions of 530% (on the basis of fuel input) coal is possible by biomass type fuels.

Later, Zhang [93] in a similar type of study used woody biomass, cedar chip in a lab-scale drop tube furnace. The objective of this study was to look into the synergetic relations between the inorganic elements of the selected fuels and the level of emissions of sub-micron particles (particles<1.0lm in size, PM1) and super micron particles (particles in the size range of 1.010lm, PM1+). The blend of cedar chip with coal was maintained using 10%50% of biomass on mass basis. Air-firing was considered for all the fuels ratios at furnace temperatures of 1200C and 1450C. The principle effect of this study indicated that, under an indistinguishable calorific input, burning of the biomass enhanced the formation of emission of PM1 particles. Microstructures of typical coarse ash particles generated from combustion of different fuels in Fig.9 indicated the significant interaction between inorganic constituents during co-firing. The contents of emissions were largely comprised of volatile elements such as K, Ca, Fe, Na and P. When a small fraction (10%) of cedar chip was supplied, there was less effect of the interaction between the inorganic elements of single fuels at any selected furnace temperature. But a noteworthy impact was achieved during co-firing of >10% cedar chip with coal at the temperature of 1450C. Another interesting works regarding K release was documented by Mason in Ref.[94]. Another study [95] investigated the effect of co-firing of woody biomass residues of sugarcane bagasse with pulverized coal with different ranks. Pyrolysis was conducted using three-colour pyrometry and high-speed high-resolution cinematography and the significant changes were observed during char processing. It was experienced with the process of softening, melting, swelling etc. Based on Ref.[95], there has been further research with other biomass that have been documented in Ref.[96].

knife mill, knife chopper - all industrial manufacturers - videos

knife mill, knife chopper - all industrial manufacturers - videos

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The knife mill GRINDOMIX GM 200 is perfectly suited for grinding and homogenizing foodstuff and feedstuff. It accepts sample volumes up to 0.7 liters and homogenizes substances with a high water, oil ...

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The Knife Mill, type PS is used for single-step size reduction of different types of rubber that are easy to shred, such as NBR, SBR and EPDM in standard bale size. The rubber can be cut into granule ...

... Cutting Chamber size up to 8"x18" (20.3cm x 45.7cm) Throughput: 123 lbs/hr to 221 lbs/hr (58kg/hr to 100 kg/hr) 3 knife open rotor design for efficient size reduction Rotating end discs for ...

... 2000H MSHP 2000CT MSHP 3000H MSHP 3000CT Weight Kg 1750 1950 2500 2770 Cylinder Pressure bar 320 320 320 320 Blade Length mm 175 175 175 175 Dimension A mm 1936 1938 2065 2045 B mm 1466 1462 ...

The Rapid RG Series is specifically designed for beside-the-press recycling of hard and brittle materials. The ultra-slow rotor speed and screenless operation provide low noise level and very low dust level even with ...

Features Very little dust The cutters do not re-cut sprues and runners in the same place so that the cutters can minimize dust, static electricity, and heat generation. Very few miscuts The cutters have the mechanism to cut the sprues ...

RotaCut RCX handles extreme applications The Next Generation Grinder for Primary Sludge, Digester Cleanout & Biogas Applications The RCX is the newest iteration of the RotaCut line. It is a complete redesign of the inline grinder concept ...

... of the gaps between the circular knives. The strips reach the counter-knive one besides the other and they are cut by the knife cylinder into cubical shape. During the cutting process there is no measurable increase ...

the ultimate guide to 5-axis cnc machining | kingsbury

the ultimate guide to 5-axis cnc machining | kingsbury

5-axis CNC machines are incredibly versatile manufacturing centres that benefit from employing up to five different axes simultaneously. Three linear axes and two rotational. Their capabilities are significantly more diverse than typical 3-axis CNC machines.

5-axis machines can be configured in such a way as to eliminate multiple setups and can thus reduce the need for constant supervision, increasing efficiency and achieving single-setup machining or Done-In-One. View our range of 5-axis machines.

A 5-axis machine is a force multiplier for any machine shop. In the hands of a skilled operator it can create complete parts without any setup changes basically one op to completion dramatically reducing downtime. The section below indicates the major industries that make use of CNC-machined components and how they can benefit from 5-axis freedom of movement.

One of the main reasons why 5-axis CNC machines are ideal for the aerospace industry is the limited amount of re-fixturing required. Due to the complexity of a typical aerospace component, 3 or 4 axis CNC machines will require multiple re-fixturing steps and re-orientations to allow for the cutting head to machine difficult to reach areas. Aerospace components also have organic shapes with compound curves which are an ideal application for 5-axis machines. An example of a compound curve can be found in turbine blades which are cast and typically machined by a 5-axis machining centre to achieve the final desired shape and surface finish.

The automotive industry is characterised by high production volume with a critical requirement for consistency. From the first to the thousandth, each component needs to fit within a specific tolerance every time. Most components in the transport industry are made using low-cost high-volume processes like stamping, injection moulding and casting. However, these cheap and fast techniques require advanced and highly accurate tooling, which is an ideal application for 5-axis machining.

Like the aerospace industry the medical industry has an extremely stringent requirement for quality. Certain medical parts may have a direct and immediate effect on a persons health or survival rate if there are detrimental quality issues. Some medical components have organic shapes machined out of exotic materials to enable them to be implanted into a patient. 5-axis CNCs can both machine these types of materials and handle the organic shapes of such implants. Apart from implants there is also a need for 5-axis on other medical-related applications like medical impellers and CT scanner components.

The energy industry is the backbone of all other industries. It is vast and encompasses many different technologies. From coal-fired power stations to concentrated solar power systems and even more exotic technologies like fusion, there is a never-ending need for advanced components that push the limits of engineering, materials science and manufacturing. Due to these intensive requirements there is a need for machining systems that can reliably produce advanced components and this is where 5-axis machinery comes into its own. One example of the types of complex components that are emerging in the industry is the plasma containment chamber in a stellarator fusion device. The shapes in this machine are so organic and complex that there is simply no other way to manufacture them apart from with a 5-axis machine.

The industrial sector includes many other industries not mentioned previously, such as the manufacture of consumer products, mining, construction, etc. Due to the large scope of the industrial sector there are many complex components requiring manufacture for which 5-axis machines are invaluable. General CNC machines take up the bulk of the work in this industry with 5-axis machines serving a supporting role in tool making, mould making and specialised applications.As technology advances alongside machine learning and AI, there will be more optimisation occurring on existing systems and technologies. Although advancements in additive technology are opening manufacturing up to more complex shapes, production processes are still relatively slow. At least for now, nothing can match the pace and flexibility of a 5-axis machining solution.

Driven Precision Engineering, based in Southampton, are using their Hermle 5-axis virtually 24/7 during the busy race car season. The machine is producing race car components in a range of materials, jigs and fixtures, and aluminium moulds for manufacturing carbon fibre car parts.

The most significant benefit of 5-axis machining is the ability to machine complex shapes and parts from solid that would otherwise have to be cast. This additional movement creates machining angles and arcs that were only previously possible with a multitude of special fixtures or additional setups. It can give lead times of one or two weeks, instead of two months or more that would be needed for castings.

5-axis machines can machine nearly every visible surface, which reduces the need for multiple setups or special features. Due to the range of motion of its cutting head and extra rotational axes, these machines can reach 5 sides of a part, meaning there will be less re-fixturing required and fewer setups. This not only saves time, but also saves cost and operator error. Moreover, with multiple setups, there is always a possibility of incorrect alignment each time the part is moved.

There are additional costs each time a machine operator touches a part. Through opting for a 5-axis machine, this wasted time and subsequent cost is eliminated. By reducing the time taken to re-fixture the part, this in turn also reduces the labour costs. The fewer the time an operator needs to touch a part the lower the cost will be.

Certain parts are only able to be machined with a 5-axis movement, however, alternative parts can be machined more efficiently with a 3+2 movement. Here, the 4th and 5th axes are used to secure the work piece in a fixed position, therefore eradicating the need for all 5 axes to move simultaneously. 3 + 2 machining is perfect for parts with features on multiple faces or angles.

Using the 5-axis capabilities on contoured geometry directly results in a better overall surface finish in less time, in comparison to 3-axis machining where a good surface finish requires longer lead times. The use of shorter cutters in 5-axis machining reduces the vibration of the tool, allowing a higher quality surface finish to be obtained. This reduces, and can even eliminate entirely, the need for time-consuming hand finishing.

There is the potential for inaccuracies in each setup change, once a part is removed from the machine and precise alignment can be lost. Using the same Zero or Home location means that feature-to-feature accuracy is maintained.

Due to its shorter tools, a 5-axis machine is able to get much closer to the material, which in turn allows for higher cutting speeds without putting excessive load on the cutter. This not only increases tool life but also reduces tool vibration and breakages. The machine also possesses additional axes of rotation drilling compound holes at odd angles a great deal faster than traditional CNC machines as the head can be oriented along the correct axis for each hole automatically.

When making complex parts such as turbine blades, impellers and aerospace airframes, 5-axis CNC machinery maximises productivity by reducing the cycle times. As a result, this efficiency allows manufacturers to successfully compete for business in aerospace, automotive, medical and other major industries.

By adding one 5-axis machine, many other machines can be eliminated or repurposed, therefore increasing the space available on the shop floor. These repurposed lathes, VMCs or HMCs can then be made more cost-effective by being used to produce less complex parts.

The 5-axis machine increases uptime, decreases human error and eliminates the need for special fixtures. For parts with features or holes on multiple faces or angles, 3+2 machining is the clear choice.

The axes on aHermle5-axismachine for exampleare represented byX, Y, Z, A and C.Whenstanding in frontof the Hermle,the Xaxisruns fromleft to right, theYaxisis themovement towards and away from you, and theZaxismoves the spindleup and down. These are the threelinearaxes on a traditional CNC machine. The Aaxisallows rotational movement around theX-axisand the Caxisallows rotational movement aroundthe Z-axis. This means that the C-axiswill rotate clockwise andcounter clockwiseif youre standing in front of the machine and the A-axiswill rotate as if rolling away or towards you.

5-axis CNC machining is just as capable as traditional 3-axis machining when it comes to materials. All the standard and non-standard materials can be machined if the correct speeds and feeds are used along with the correct tooling.

Titanium is a high-strength low-weight material that is used in aerospace and medical applications. Titanium is notoriously difficult to machine due to its inherent toughness and requires machines with high-torque spindles and significant machine rigidity. Furthermore, the abrasive nature of titanium means that a trade-off needs to be made between material removal rates and tool life.

Stainless steel comes in various grades, but the austenitic steels are the most commonly machined. As is the case with titanium, machines cutting stainless steel need to have high levels of rigidity and should have enough spindle torque to cut the material without the tool chattering or rubbing against the parts. However, if a machine is capable of cutting titanium, then stainless steel should not be a problem if the correct speeds and feeds are used.

There are many different aluminium alloys with different properties. Despite aluminium being generally softer than other high-performance materials it has its own set of challenges. Aluminium tends to stick to the tool if incorrect feeds and speeds are used. Aluminium is ideal for 5-axis machining because the material is generally more forgiving that some of the high-strength alloys.

Inconel is a high-temperature nickel alloy that has exceptionally high corrosion, scaling and oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Coupled to this it has very good resistance to high pressure at these punishing temperatures. These exceptional properties make working with Inconel very difficult, it tends to work harden during machining and requires ceramic tooling to efficiently cut into the material.

With over 130 years experience in machine tool manufacture and 60 years experience in building state-of-the-art machining centres, BURKHARDT+WEBER has a range of truly impressive machining centres with payloads of up to 20 tonnes.

Zimmermanns gantry-style CNCs have truly impressive build volumes due to the flexibility offered by their gantry design. Ideally suited for large projects in the aerospace, automotive and marine industries.

screening equipment for almost every application

screening equipment for almost every application

Without the right screening technology, you could be focusing more on maintenance than on the most pressing issues like how to grow your operation. Screening technology that runs smoothly and efficiently can pay large dividends. If you want to outpace your peers, you need solutions with higher throughput and enhanced durability. You need screening technology precision engineered to your specific use case.

We offer a wide range of screening technology for a number of applications and use cases. Our screening products are the preferred solution for many in the mining industry, and many other industries also call our technology the best in the market. We design and manufacture screening technology in accordance with your individual equipment,functions and operating parameters, and offer customized support and installation tailored around your unique pain points.

With a considerably robust offering of specific screening technologies, we can assist you in selecting the right solution for your specific pain point. In all we do, our focus is on helping you to reduce costs and find sustainable productivity.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

powder milling and grinding processing equipment supply | mpt - mill powder tech

powder milling and grinding processing equipment supply | mpt - mill powder tech

Mill Powder Tech (MPT) has been a grinding and mixing machinery manufacturer from Taiwan for 70 years, and their client is a leading seasoning powder supplier. Hot pepper, black pepper, white pepper and cinnamon are the spices mainly sold by the client to Europe and Japan. As soon as you walk into their plant, among all the production lines from countries such as Taiwan, Japan, Europe and China, you can see three sets of turnkey projects from MPT. At ALLPACK Indonesia tradeshow, twenty years later, the client decided to order two extra production lines from MPT for their new factory. Why MPT? For the last 20 years, none of the machines from MPT needed any repairs, even during busy seasons when they required the machines to operate 24 hours a day.

A lifespan three times longer, quality powder delivery, malfunction-free, high production, low labor cost, simple installation, and easy maintenance are what the client experienced. They never needed MPT to install the production line - that's how uncomplicated it is. For spices that are dry, crispy and contain less than 15% oil, PM6 is perfect. Actually, sugar is the major grinding product for most of buyers. MPT's pin mill turnkey project has been maximizing its production capacity and providing evenly sheared powders, which permits the Indonesian client to sell high-quality seasoning powders globally.

As a spice supplier, two factors necessary in order to provide high-quality spice powder are: to ensure the scent of spice is perfectly preserved, as well as to ensure each spice is evenly ground. For the last 70 years, beginning with Japanese style, to today's German milling system, MPT's milling and grinding equipment has avoided the heat effect on powder. Their client's spice milling turnkey project consists of feeding hopper, belt conveyor, hammer mill, pin mill, cyclone separator, dust collector and discharge rotary valve. The design, which separates the motor from the bearing and belt, along with hammer mill and pin mill's heat dispersion from rotor's rotation, means that powder's standard is elevated.

We all now that overheated powder milling equipment can result in a change in the spice's flavor, scent preservation, and machinery malfunctions, along with shortened lifespan (70% of usage of machine is recommended), by allowing each component to operate independently, the machine's lifespan is prolonged. PM6, the spice grinding and milling production line, is designed for mass production without thermal influence.

When you insert 100 kg of spices into a grinder turnkey project, the output is also 100 kg. Nothing is wasted. Cyclone separator plays a role in directing where the powder gets collected. For new plant expansion, the cyclone separator is tailored for hygienic reasons. After multiple of shearing and grinding cycles, powder that can't pass through the filter mesh will get collected by the cyclone separator. Powder that does pass through would be the product that is ready for sale. The hammer mill and pin mill are responsible for the grinding processes, and the dust collector ensures nothing is wasted.

At the new plant, the PM6 production line used to mill hot pepper, white pepper, black pepper and cinnamon, is a combination of feeding hopper, belt conveyor, hammer mill, pin mill, cyclone separator, dust collector and discharge rotary valve. It is a heavy duty 50 HP milling system that is suitable for mass production, with150-200kg per hour and 20mesh ~ 150mesh fineness.

The Indonesian client chose a pin type milling machine to pulverize their spices. Stud type, pin type, and knife type rotors are optional for grinding raw spices into powders. Choosing a rotator gives you different results from grinding after going through three shearing and grinding procedures, adjusting filter mesh and changing knife size enhances the powder fineness in the end. Various kinds of spice milling can be done by switching washable knife and filter mesh, although single machine for one kind of spice is recommended, unless ozone treatment is applied.

Particle size distribution report paper is delivered with the milling machinery procurement, which proves filter mesh's efficiency and expectation of powder fineness is achieved. Generally, MP6 is a set of milling and grinding equipment with adjustable production amount and cutting size. If PM6 operated 24 hours a day, the production capacity would be 24 tons for sugar, 12 tons for rice, and 6 tons for seasoning spices.

To cut bigger objects such as ginger, hot pepper, herbs or sugar, TM series cutting equipment is available. It has no filter mesh, therefore, alternate knife sizes is how you can cut with desired size. Pin mill (PM) grinding equipment suits dry and crispy foods that contains less than 15% oil, including coffee, sugar, beans, spices, flour, rice, etc. For oily or sticky products that contain over 15% oil, such as sesame and peanuts, PMM series grinding machine is available. For extra fine powder milling, APM grinding equipment is available.

PM6 is a powder milling turnkey project that has been around for so long that its design has been modified to include simple installation and easy maintenance over the course of time. Rotor is the only part that needs to be obtained from PMT, since all the holes are fixed, and so buying it somewhere else can be risky. Other than that, ordinary maintenance, such as changing bearing oil or switching air discharge cloth and filter screen, can simply be done by the client. In addition, having all the washable parts makes cleaning easy. Overloaded machine shuts down with its auto protection, and the user can simply unload everything and restart the machine.

We have many clients that we haven't heard from for 20 years, because their machines never have major issues. The goal of our business is to provide good service to retain happy relationships., said a manager of PMT. In order to provide total solutions, if you are new to finding suitable grinding equipment, there is information you need to provide before receiving constructive suggestions, including the food that you wish to mill, the plant size and location, production capacity, and powder fineness requirements. Sometimes a buyer would send a sample product for MPT to grind.

The progress report is given prior to machine assembly, onsite and offsite lab testing and electricity examination videos are provided. Communication is always there thoughout the whole process. Operation training and the machine manual are delivered to ensure user's proper use of the machine.

In Japan, people's green environmental expectations and the trend of using recycled material to create dynamic product is common. Paper recycling is one of the most common types of recycling. In order to use recycled paper as a housing construction material, a Japanese company, HRD, purchased Mill Powder Tech (MPT)'s turbo mill to establish quality paper powder for their plant in the Philippines.

MPT is a powder mill supplier with over 70 years of experience. When HRD handed them a paper powder sample, MPT sent them a design sketch of a customized turbo mill that is specifically designed for the purpose. HRD uses three different types of papers including poster paper, carton and A4 paper. Thus, paper powder's character is required to be elastic and sticky with cushion and with cotton's look and feel. To meet HRD's requirements, instead of using the traditional paper pulp method, MPT designed a turbo mill that uses multiple blades to generate high speed vortexes and vibrations. The powder handling processing equipment turnkey project contains the turbo mill, blender and mixer, separation treatment equipment, etc.

"It was a concept and MPT made it happen." said Tony Ling, the sales manager of MPT. MPT designed a powder handling and processing equipment turnkey system that is cost-saving and in the end created the most valuable paper powder to benefit their customer's business. "Because of our turbo mill, HRD's paper powder has become their best-selling housing construction material, a material that is anti-humidity, non-flammable and earthquake-proof, which is perfect for Japanese houses."

The paper powder is made of recycled paper after using a mixture of chemicals. To form an elastic character, the size of each particle matters. Too small or too big can fail to meet the standard. "Our turbo mill is designed not only to fabricate fine quality of paper powder, but also has high production capability," said Mr. Ling.

Japan is one of the high-tech countries that is famous for delivering high quality powder processing equipment. While other nations are imitating their technology and trying to catch up, Taiwan's seasoned equipment building experience, turnkey project implementation ability and reasonable price is attracting them over to seek material handling machinery solutions.

Paper Recycling Turnkey Grinding System consists of a hammer mill, metal remover, turbo mill, U type screw conveyor (scrapers), explosion outlet, cyclone separator, rotary valve, level switch, cooling water inlet and explosion outlet.

6000 gauss magnetic separator is ideal for paper recycling; It removes metal particles from recycled papers. Recycling paper goes through a metal remover before going into a turbo to prevent damage turbo mill, it is also equipped after hammer mill.

By lowering the temperature in the spiral chamber and allowing particle's self-impact, and by using four blades' grinding enforcement, Mill Powder Tech's screen-less turbo mill, TM-600, was made to grind 5mm particles of processed seaweed powder into 100 mesh per second, along with 80-100kg per hour production in order to meet a client's expectations.

Located in Italy, the client was one of the few seaweed powder providers mainly supplying Agar-agar and carrageen (also called Carrageenan) to food and pharmaceutical companies. And their newly developed products required finer powders. Knowing Mill Powder Tech has over 70 years of powder mill experience, at a tradeshow, the client challenged them to process their agar-agar, the hardest seaweed to process.

Due to agar-agar's elastic and dense textures, it is difficult to grind. With the regular turbo mill, the temperature rises once it starts cutting. Furthermore, dry agar-agar is very tough and elastic. Therefore, instead of ordering a whole powder processing line, the client only requested the turbo mill in order to test out Mill Powder Tech's capability.

Overall, heat elimination is important. Mill Powder Tech's Turbo Mill is screen-less, operated with cold water recycling system to cool down the grinding temperature in chamber. Screw transportation was replaced with vacuum suction to eliminate agar-agar's cluster.

For the last 35 years, TPM has been dedicated to developing turbo mills that would produce smaller particles without changing material textures or odors. Today, Mill Powder Tech provides five series of turbo mills, ranging from TM-250 to TM-1000; rotation speed from 1,200 to 8,000 (r.m.p), horse power from 15HP to 150HP and particle size in a range of about +18 to 325 mesh.

Heat can change the texture of any particle that is dense and glutinous, also; the material generates heat if grinding requires more power. To avoid heat, the turbo mill was designed without screen to assure wind's smooth flow. As a result, the cooling system successfully reduced the heat, and a fine and white powder was created.

There are five series (TM250, TM400, TM600, TM800, TM1000 ) of turbo mills which each contain a number of blades. When particles are put in the feeder, besides their self-crushing, shearing and grinding are also conducted in a few seconds to meet specific size expectations.

Along with agar-agar and carrageenan, materials that easily generate heat can also be pulverized by Mill Powder Tech's powder grinding machine, including plastic, sugar, pigment, toner, leather, asbestos, etc.

In the end, Mill Powder Tech's client was able to deliver high quality processed seaweed powder to their pharmaceutical company clients, and decided to buy the whole powder handling processing line and subsequently to make further orders later on.

After a year of testing and trials, a completed ginger powder processing line was built by Mill Powder Tech, based in Taiwan, for a company named Wakaya Perfection Ltd. The powder handling processing equipment was designed with 150kg per hour production capacity, FDA approval, 1/3 energy-saving, and the ginger was ground profoundly to meet the required standards.

Organic pink Fijian ginger only grows on Wakaya Island in Fiji, its unique character has allowed Wakaya Perfection to sell the ginger powder to high-end consumers in the U.S. The quality of ginger powder has to be top rated, which means no change of color or odor, and its fineness has to be delicate. Ginger powder is used in beverage or capsule form, thus the process requires food-grade standards. The processed powder will be tested for FDA approval. Also, because of the shortage of resources on the island, water and energy conservation should be considered.

When the ginger is put in the ginger washing machine, all the ginger is tumbled and rinsed back and forth with 9 nylon brushes to remove the dirt and peel off the skin without using a great amount of water. Next, the washed ginger is put into a feeding hoper for slicing. The ginger cutting machine comes with different sets of knives that cut ginger into pieces. When the fiber in the ginger is trimmed, it enhances the quality of the ginger powder. Moreover, the slicing process reduces the time for drying, which saves electricity and money.

Once the ginger is done cutting, it is delivered to the oven for the drying process. The two-door drying machine has the capacity to handle up to 40 trays of ginger. It has multiple blades to carry out hot air and the hot air can be re-used, which is energy-saving. As you can see from the video, even the bottom layer of ginger is dried entirely.

Rather than sourcing from different manufacturers for various machines, Wakaya Perfection had Mill Powder Tech to design and supply the entire production line. In the end, the processed powder was sent to the U.S. and received FDA approval, and its reasonable production costs positively benefited Wakaya Perfection's business.

The advantage of the ginger washing machine is its 9 nylon brushes and controllable back and forth rotating function. The patented designed allowed all ginger to roll out automatically without extra labor. It is also designed to use the minimum amount of water to get the job done. In Fiji, the source of water is rain; therefore, the ginger washing machine's water is drained and reused.

Cutting is an important procedure before drying. If ginger is not sliced to the right thickness, it can lead to different colors of powder. Mill Powder Tech's cutting machine, SM-2, is adjustable to slice ginger in various thicknesses. The thinner a ginger slice gets, the shorter the fiber is, and the easier it is to dry. It comes with three sets of knives including 2-8mm, 3-8mm, and 8-20mm. The size of the cutting machine is 750*520*900 mm, weight 70kg, horse power: 1HP *1, 0.5HP *1 and its production capacity is 300-1000kg/ hr.

The quality of ginger powder is related to the dryness of sliced ginger. Too wet, the color of ginger powder won't be even, it is harder to grind, and the smell is not as fresh. The ginger drying equipment, DM-480, is a two-door dryer that is designed to blow dry in different directions with controllable temperature between 20C to 160C. It has an auto-stop function when it reaches expected temperature; it is energy-saving and has capacity of up to 40 plates of gingers.

Before turning dried ginger into ginger powder, the hammer mill is equipped for the 1st stage crushing. The hammer mill's dimensions are 900*540*900 L*W*H mm, rotating speed is up to 3200 RPM with 80-200 kg/hr production capacity.

Ginger has fibers. Having a cup of ginger tea with fibers in it would change the texture of tea. To fix it, fiber has to be cut into shorter strands. Turbo mill, TM400, consists of a 4-blade shearing knife that would cut the fiber into smaller pieces in a few seconds. In addition, because of the short fiber, it's easier to grind, thus, less heat is generated.

A good cup of coffee is a blended coffee that contains different coffee beans from various regions, since it is very rare for a single type of coffee to meet all of the preferences, including flavor, aroma, body and aftertaste. Hence, coffee bean blending has become a fine art, and many coffee companies have developed their own blended coffees as their specialties.

In Sydney, Australia, Cofi-Com TRADING PTY LTD is a commercial green coffee producer that supplies blended coffee designs and roasted coffee analyses. The beans come from different regions of the world, which allows for creating recipes of beans. Their own blended coffees, namely Venus Superior Blend and Aroma, are well-known and sold to famous coffee shops such as illy, Starbucks, etc. After using the same ribbon mixer for years, Cofi-Com wanted to replace the old blending equipment in order to sustain the quality of mixing. Hence, they contacted Mill Powder Tech with their requirements. Mill Powder Tech is a Taiwanese powder handling equipment manufacturer with over 70 years' experience. Based on Cofi-Com's requests, 3 tons handling amount, a complete production line design and also presentable to their visitors, Mill Powder Tech designed a ribbon mixer production line with total solutions.

Ribbon Mixer's blending was the most important step in the turnkey project. To prevent unstable coffee taste, 100% uniform mixing was required. To show how precise Mill Powder Tech's ribbon mixer was, rather than using coffee beans, Mill Powder Tech used beans with dynamic colors; there were yellow, green, red, black and brown beans. After a series of tests and trial, you could see the different colors of beans spread out evenly.

Normally rotary cone mixer is recommended for coffee bean mixing, however, because Cofi-Com preferred a machine that is more flattering, therefore, Mill Powder Tech customized horizontal mixer to meet their specific needs. Mill Powder Tech adjusted the width between ribbon and barrel, and the width of ribbon itself to prevent breaking of beans occurred while mixing.

The blending coffee's turnkey design consisted of a bucket elevator, a destoner machine, a ribbon blender, a dust collector, a storage bin and an automatic sewing machine. When coffee beans were dumped into a feeding hopper, a bucket elevator would carry them to a destoner machine that shakes out the unqualified ones. Later, the beans were sent to a ribbon blender for mixing. Once done blending, the dust collector was connected to remove the particles. In order to ensure the continuation of operation, well mixed beans were stored in a storage bin temperately while conducting packaging and sewing with sack bags.

Overall, the whole coffee blending processing line was designed with 3 tons of handling capacity. For production efficiency, the storage bin was designed to allow non-stop processing, and to assure bean quality, destoner machine was equipped. At the end of the production line, an automatic sack sewing machine was connected to conduct packaging procedure. It was a one-stop production line with outstanding mixing job and assured time and money was saved. As a result, Cofi-Com was thrilled with Mill Powder Tech's high performance machinery. So far, the ribbon mixer processing line has been operating efficiently.

Mill Powder Tech is located in Taiwan and has over 70 years of industrial powder handling equipment and turn-key system experience. Mill Powder Tech's great flexibility in customization will help you save costs and energy in the long run to ensure your business benefits.

Nestl S.A. is a Swiss multinational food and beverage company headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world measured by revenue. In 2007, they came to Taiwan intending to find a qualified supplier making Nestl beverages, namely, Nescaf Coffee and Nestl MILO. Besides having their own World Standard processing equipment testing and production procedure systems, Nescaf also requested meeting GMP certification and custom-made mixing turnkey system.

Three years later after negotiation, commissioning to the extra purchasing, Mill Powder Tech (MPT) delivered state of the art powder processing equipment with high production capability. When you walk into the plant, you can see a large production system with six ribbon mixer (mixing blender) processing lines - three for Nescaf Coffee and another three for Nescaf MILO, packing in highly intense speed. The whole industrial blender turnkey project was rigorous, but MPT pulled it through with their seasoned powder handling processing equipment building experience.

In Nestl's custom built processing plant, horizontal mixers (RM-300 & RM-500) are used for the 3-in-1 coffee and MILO powder mixing process. They are a total six powder handling processing equipment lines; they are GMP certified patented (patent # I311923), meet Nestl International Processing and Production objectives and is the only one in Taiwan.

Ribbon Mixer can handle a maximum batch volume of 4,800 litres (2,000 kg) of product with rotation speed between 18-36 RPM. It is designed to meet high-speed dry powder mixing efficiency. Ribbon mixer's shaft seal and bearing are specifically designed to reduce rolling friction which allowed long-term usage. Agitator ribbon assures pure additive blends by performing mixing operations. Both inner and outer sides of the ribbon mixer are polished and easy-to-clean.

Industrial cone blender is applicable for mixing particles such as drugs that are made of various components with versatile gravities. For RC-3000, its production capacity is 50 to 3,000 kg and 120 to 7,000 liters.

Because of the conical shaped blender and the separated motors (outer barrel and inner blades), cone mixer is able to spin at an angle of 0 to 360 degrees with 4-way mixing action. Overall, it is an optimal mixer for products of high viscosity and density.

Double cone mixer, DC-50 and DC-100, is an economical blender that is used to combine multiple small batch materials including food preparations, cosmetic manufacturing, resin powder additions, 3-in-1 coffees, herbal medicines, plastics, vitamins and minerals etc. It is an efficient and adaptable blender for mixing dry powder and granules homogeneously.

Mill Powder Tech (MPT) turbo mill handles what other powder processing and handling equipment can't surpass namely German machine quality in the market with solid reputation. With more than 70 years of powder handling experience, MPT has sold their powder machine to over 70 countries and grounded hundreds of types of materials into high quality powders.

A soy milk drink that is sold in Hong Kong, mainland China, Australia, New Zealand, North America, Europe, South East Asia and other markets throughout the world, this leading beverage company that has been selling soybean milk for decades - it has high-protein and sold at an affordable price to accompany everyone's breakfast.

For years, they've been using the traditional method to make soy milk - from harvesting, grading, de-hulling, grinding, formulation, sterilisation, aseptic storage to the final packaging. They also supply soy products including tofu, natural soy-based products and desserts, pasta and noodles. A few years ago, they wished to start selling soy mill in China. However, China is a big country, which means shipping fresh soy milk can be tricky, and the cost of making soy milk is high, which means they also need to find other solutions to cut down costs. Knowing MPT has more than 70 years of powder handling experience, they contacted them for advice.

MPT designed a powder processing line and showed them how the production line is going to reduce the staff cost, prolong expiry date and create an additional valuable product for them. It is an automatic production line that requires less staff to monitor and operate; it uses turbo mill to grind soybeans, which saves time and money for extra processes; and lecithin can be extracted from soybean powder. Overall, the production capability is higher!

The soybean powder production line includes a turbo mill, cyclone equipment, dust collectors, a screw conveyor, a bag filter, a soybean skin-grinding turnkey system, a tunnel type dry-cooling machine, a fine-stone vibro separator and a density filter. It is the result of years of blade structure development and relentless testing. When using MPT's turbo mill to grind soybeans, the powder is fine, the temperature is stable, the particles are constant, the flavor is contained, and the soy protein is maintained.

"Our turbo mill is sold worldwide, it is competitive regarding meeting clients' powder requirements and at the same time cost-saving. It is our goal to deliver authentic powder handling equipment for our clients." said the sales manager of MPT.

During the process, the high quality of bean powder can be stored for one month. Additionally, rather than selling regular bean related tofu products, the powder machinery system is able to create valuable lecithin after the beans are separated into three parts - coat, nut and lecithin. MPT not only solved the company's soy milk preservation problem, they also assisted them to develop a new product.

MPT delivers innovative, high efficiency powder processing equipment to leading companies in dynamic industries such as food, spices, environmental recycling material, mineral, pharmaceuticals, etc. So far, the soybean beverage company has procured two soybean powder mill lines located in Hong Kong and China and the 3rd set of powder processing machine turnkey projects is under negotiation. Their business has grown so well that the cooperation continues.

Compared to the powder-handling equipment in Taiwan, the machines in Japan and Europe are 3-5 times more expensive. In order to stay competitive, there are more and more buyers seeking powder processing machines with reasonable prices elsewhere. Mill Powder Tech (MPT) is a Taiwanese powder processing equipment supplier that has sold their grinding machines to more than 70 countries and ground hundreds of materials with prominence. Even in Europe, MPT is able to meet the strict requirements, for instance meeting CE criteria and design high quality powder machines.

In Spain, there's a well-known carrageen supplier that needed to buy powder machines to integrate with the ones in the plant due to the increasing sales. To find a qualified supplier, a series of evaluations were conducted. Because MPT's successful turbo mill stories in Asia, they contacted them. The company perceived the contrast between the carrageen powders made by MPT and others, as well as the productivity and machine performance. In the end, MPT won the order with outstanding achievements. The company ended up purchasing two sets of powder processing equipment systems with four turbo mills.

The powder system integration was a challenge but it went well. For a turbo mill, regardless its powder fineness (200 mesh) and productivity (130kg per hour), the outstanding achievements have surpassed other European competitors. Plus, the easy to operate and acceptable price is also advantageous and allowed the company to be more ambitious. Each powder handling line contains a vacuum suction, screw conveyor, vibro separator & filter, rotary valve, cyclone separator, explosion relief valve and rotary valve. Two turbo mills are the major machines among the whole project. MPT's turbo mill is a powder grinding machine that has been developed and modified for decades based on users' experience. Today, MPT's turbo mill can grind any kinds of material, and it's the only one in many regions that is capable of doing so.

Nice Group is a famous enterprise in Taiwan and owns 3 listed companies. It is one of the top 100 enterprise groups in Taiwan with a business scope covering household chemicals, food, logistics and leisure-related areas.

AGV Products Corp is one of the subsidiaries of Nice Group in Taiwan. They have been specialized in producing healthy foods and drinks for years. Due to people's increasing awareness of having good eating habits, AGV Products Corp is able to provide dynamic options of foods and beverages and become a leading company in Taiwan. MPT's turbo mill plays an important role providing reliable and efficient powder handling processing equipment to assist them to reach their production goals.

Pin mill is suitable for small scale to medium scale production, it is easy to clean, reasonable priced and easy to operate. For powder suppliers who wish to provide multiple powders, Pin Mill allows you to implement various rotors (stud type, pin type, knife type), stators and screen rings in order to meet powder fineness standards. Pin mill's easy operation permits you to replace or expand to achieve processing goals.

SFC is a Japanese baking powder company that delivers a large amount of powder every day. Mill Powder Tech (MPT) is a Taiwanese powder machine manufacturer with more than 70 years of powder handling experience. Knowing MPT from a trade show, SFC visited MPT with specific requirements. SFC required a custom-made impact classifier mill, a requirement which allowed MPT to increase their impact classifier mill's production capability - 600kg per hour production capacity and 1,000-5,000 mesh.

For general screen-less air classifying mill, after raw material is ground into fine powder in the grinding chamber, powders are classified in order to meet particular parameters. Each blade is designed with various angles to create dynamic fluent current to capture the finest powder.

"With the Japanese client's new design, baking soda's productivity is increased. Because of their new design, we've developed a new type of air classifier mill with better performance." said Tony Ling, a sales manager of MPT.

Patented S-Type Impact Classifier Mill (S-ICM) powder processing equipment is specialized in dry powder classifying. The optimal multiple responses grinding design, fine powders can be cleanly classified, stable temperature control, high speed operation, manufactured in stainless steel and special type of blades to ensure the grinding process is safe, clean, efficient and high quality. The air classifier is suitable for various industries including pharmaceutical industry, consumer goods, chemical industry, food industry, etc. In addition, custom Engineering and turnkey system design are available.

ICM-410 for CPC Corporation, Taiwan. (CPC Corporation, Taiwan (CPC) is the foremost energy enterprise in the Republic of China.)Impact classifying mill ICM-520 turnkey project for high density fine materials.

In Toronto, there are people who line up waiting outside to buy rice powder for making rice related products for their businesses. Like some businessmen, Mr. Wang started small by selling ground raw rice in a residential building using grinding equipment he bought from a Taiwanese powder handling processing machine supplier, Mill Powder Tech (MPT). MPT is a powder handling equipment builder with more than 70 years of experience and their powder processing machine is sold worldwide.

The business went extremely well, sometimes there are people waiting outside for 24 hours just to buy batches of rice powder. Two years later, the owner moved to an industrial district and purchased bigger powder processing equipment to cope with the large demand.

In two years, Mr. Wang has upgraded his turbo mill from TM 400 to TM 600, plus the later procurement of a pin mill. MPT always aims to provide environmentally friendly machinery and equipment to various fields of industry, thus, rather than using the traditional method to produce rice powder, which involves washing and soaking the rice, draining it, laying it out and then grinding it, turbo mill TM 400 and 600 are designed to eliminate the water handling process. At the beginning, the owner was concerned about the generated heat during grinding, since it may affect the texture of rice noodles made with the powder. In the end, the result showed that MPT's machine performs well. Without water handling processing, the grinding process is cost-saving and more efficient.

For rice powder buyers, their fondness for Mr. Wang's rice powder is because of its high quality. They are able to use the powder to make chewy rice noodles with great taste, as well as Chinese and Vietnamese noodles, turnip cakes, bread, rice pancakes, or any foods that require gluten-free. Overall, Mr. Wang is thrilled with MPT's powder handling processing equipment and is willing to invest more to expand his business in the future.

In Canada, Mill Powder Tech (MPT)'s impact classifier mill is sold to Confiseries which is a sugar company that is specialized in providing sugar products. They purchased ICM-750 powder processing equipment turnkey system in Nov, 2012 for making maple sugar powder, which is a famous sugar made from Canada's maple trees. They requested 300-400 kg per hour of production capability and 300 mesh of powder fineness. MPT was able to meet their requirements with great performance.

Mill Powder Tech (MPT) broke through difficulties in developing an impact knife mill that would solve spice and herb's grinding dilemmas. Due to various factors (environmental, equipment, human operation), spice and herb powder handling processing equipment can result in low quality powders. With MPT's innovative design, spice's temperature is controlled, color is sustained, productivity is increased and the price is reasonable.

Impact knife mill is great for small and medium enterprises who wish to deliver high performance ground herbs, roots and spices. It is also cost-saving, with high production capacity and easy maintenance. Impact Knife Mill (IKM-310)

For some herbs, their roots and seeds can make the grinding process tricky, in the end, the odor can be lost, the color can be faded and the root can be very difficult to cut. They can wear the powder equipment out and the whole powder handling process becomes costly and inefficient.

Because impact knife mill's reasonable price, for powder suppliers who wish to sell great selections of species, it is affordable to buy several impact knife mills at once. It does not only save your time for cleaning and switching equipment, also avoids the chance of contamination.

In Bangladesh, ACI Limited and Square Group are both leading companies in pharmaceutical, food, construction, daily product industries. Their procurement of MPT's spice grinding systems proved their #1 selection of powder mill supplier.

The subsidiaries, ACI Foods Limited, is selling pure spices, including chili powder, turmeric powder, coriander powder and cumin powder. SQUARE Herbal & Nutraceuticals Ltd. has attained the core confidence of health care providers with the highest quality herbal products of purely eastern and western origin, as well as meeting ever expected efficacy and safety based on international standards.

"Good grinding processing equipment should be able to retain the odor of spice in its own place, leaking smell shows failure of the process. Our more than 70 years of powder mill experience has allowed us to develop outstanding blades to handle any kind of materials.", Tony Ling, a sales manager of MPT claimed.

The grinding method of conventional grinders utilizes collision, cutting, and friction to accomplish the goal of powder refinement, typically such method produces from impact surface that contaminates the out-put material. When required particle fineness is in high micron, the contamination becomes worse. On the other hand, a capable JET MILL delivers refined powder without contamination, however it presents the problem of high energy consumption and inefficiency out-put performance. Thus, Mill Powder Techs combined the advantages of the two grinding methods, without the problematic impurity issues, and creates Cyclone Mill.

Mill Powder Tech (MPT), based in Tainan, Taiwan, was founded over 70 years ago and specializes supplying industrial powder handling process equipment. Today, with 12 agents and 30 distributors located globally, MPT has sold their grinding equipment to over 70 countries. As a prominent size reduction solutions provider, more than 40 types of machines are ready to serve you with solid technology.

MPT started providing animal feeding-stuff and food size reduction equipment in 1940. In 1975, MPT developed the 1st turbo mill prototype after years of collected experience, in 2004, MPT expanded their market worldwide with outstanding patented powder processing equipment and turnkey project design targeting in material grinding, mixing and crushing.

To compete with the powder processing equipment from Europe and Japan, MPT designs GMP and CE certified powder processing equipment in a cost-effective manner. In addition, they also deliver environmentally friendly designs to meet market trends.

MPT's powder grinding machine meets 80% customers' requests, and to fulfill the needs of other clients who wish to grind what normal equipment can't, MPT is going one step further, delivering custom-made and smart turnkey projects.

"Our goal is to design powder handling equipment that is flexible, integrated, cost-effective and productive; in the end, their business is profitable based on over 70 years of seasoned engineering experience." said the Sales Manager of Mill Powder Tech.

With more than 70 years of experience, Mill Powder Tech's powder processing equipment is highly recommended if you wish to supply fine powders. The powder's temperature is controlled, color is sustained and productivity is increased when using MPT's machine. Turbo mills, blenders, pin mills, impact classified mills, cyclone mills, hammer mills, powder grinders, cutting crush machines, bread crumb grinders, vertical mills, peanut milling machines and sesame milling machines with more than 40 types of equipment is ready for you to choose. Industrial blenders and mixers, temperature controlling, pulverizers and vibratory feeders are integrated into material powder handling systems for complete processing.

Mill Powder Tech (MPT) started providing animal feeding-stuff and food size reduction equipment in 1940. In 1975, MPT developed the 1st turbo mill prototype after years of collected experience, in 2004, MPT expanded their market worldwide with outstanding patented powder processing equipment and turnkey project design targeting in material grinding, mixing and crushing. If you are looking for a powder handling expert, look no further than Mill Powder Tech from Taiwan. They've handled hundreds of materials that are involved in various industries including chemical, food, pharmaceutical, plastics & rubber, mineral, recycling, etc. Send MPT an inquiry now!

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We use standard security technology SSL or HTTPS standard technology for keeping an internet connection secure and safeguarding any sensitive data that is being sent between two systems, preventing criminals from reading and modifying any information transferred, including potential personal details.

We may update this Privacy Policy to reflect changes to our information practices. If we make any material changes we will notify you by email (sent to the e-mail address specified in your account) or by means of a notice on this website prior to the change becoming effective.

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