separation technology

separation technology | sulzer

separation technology | sulzer

We develop, design and produce mass transfer equipment and can offer solutions for all your separation problems. Our portfolio includes state-of-the-art products for distillation, absorption, stripping, evaporation, phase separation, liquid-liquid extraction and crystallization.

mechanical separation technology | solid-liquid separation for your success

mechanical separation technology | solid-liquid separation for your success

For more than 60 years Flottweg has been developing and producing high-performance decanter centrifuges, separators, belt presses and plants for solid-liquid separation. Hand in hand with our customers, we are always prepared to meet new challenges and develop goal-oriented solutions. The ultimate goal is always clear: the success of our customers.

separation technology | westerman, inc

separation technology | westerman, inc

Manyseparatorslook identical on the outside. But our engineers work closely with operators to better understand production challenges at the well paddesigning internal innovations that help streamline the physics behind this equipment in a way that makes every minute worth more.

Unlike many units in service, Westerman separators were designed with today's multi-well pads in mindoptimizing processing under these high-pressure conditions. Our proprietary separation technology delivers dramatically enhanced efficiency of liquid gas separation that makes a big difference in overall surface operations.

No matter what the challenge, Westerman can specify the perfect well separation equipment for any play. All with the level of superior quality and efficiency for which our equipment is known nationwide. Because better quality is always worth it.

How do we ensure oursurface separation equipment is always worth specifying? Not only through close collaboration with operators, but also by leveraging a number of proven Westerman capabilities to streamline this mission-critical function. See what we bring to the job.

separation technology inc. is now part of ekf diagnostics | ekf diagnostics - stanbio

separation technology inc. is now part of ekf diagnostics | ekf diagnostics - stanbio

Legal Statement: This website contains information on products which is targeted to a wide range of audiences and could contain product details that are not valid in your country. EKF Diagnostics does not take any responsibility for accessing such information which may not comply with any legal process or usage in the country of your origin. Always refer to our package user manuals for the most up to date product information

separation and purification technology | journal | sciencedirect.com by elsevier

separation and purification technology | journal | sciencedirect.com by elsevier

Separation and Purification Technology is a journal dedicated to the dissemination of novel methods for separation and purification in chemical and environmental engineering for homogeneous solutions and heterogeneous mixtures. This includes any separation and/or purification of liquids, vapors

membrane separation technology market to hit $43.5 billion by 2027 - marketwatch

membrane separation technology market to hit $43.5 billion by 2027 - marketwatch

Jul 06, 2021 (Market Stats News via COMTEX) -- The global Membrane Separation Technology market size is expected to be worth around US$ 43.5 billion by 2027, according to a new report by Vision Research Reports.

Technology advancements related to durability enhancement and reduction of fouling potential are expected to have a favorable impact on the widespread adoption of membrane separation technologies. In addition, manufacturers have developed membranes that can withstand high operating temperatures and harsh chemical environments, which is expected to benefit the market growth.

Stringent regulatory framework and environmental concerns are expected to play a critical role in shaping the industry in the near future. Government regulations and policies pertaining to the water treatment for industrial as well as domestic wastewater are anticipated to positively impact water filtration industry, thereby, driving the demand for membrane separation.

Reverse osmosis is expected to remain the most dominant category in the membrane separation technology market and is likely to expand at a CAGR of 11.8% over the forecast period. The membranes used for the aforementioned separation technologies are generally characterized with a pore of less than one nm and are used for the production of ultrapure water, landfill leachates treatment, and seawater desalination.

The ultrafiltration process is also one of the most popular categories in the market. The segment was valued at USD 3.7 billion in 2019 and is likely to register a CAGR of 12.4% from 2020 to 2027. The high demand for such membranes can be attributed to the single-membrane filtration process in ultrafiltration that serves as an effective barrier to harmful bacteria, viruses, and other contaminants. Ultrafiltration membrane is widely used to treat wastewater for reuse purposes. Furthermore, ultrafiltration is also emerging as an alternative to reverse osmosis technology in household water purification systems.

The water and wastewater treatment segment accounted for the largest market share in 2019 and is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of 11.5% over the forecast period. Growing restrictions on the discharge of untreated wastewater is expected to have a positive impact on market growth.

The pharmaceutical and medical application segment is also expected to register a notable CAGR of 13.01% over the forecast period, owing to growing demand for membrane separation technologies in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries owing to the constant requirement for separating particles and fluids in suspension.

North America market is also expected to witness a notable CAGR of 9.8% over the forecast period owing to rising government initiatives to encourage sustainable development. In addition, strict government regulations to control wastewater disposal from municipal sources are also expected to augment the market growth.

The pharmaceutical industry in North America is expected to witness exponential growth owing to various research and development activities related to healthcare products. The implementation of regulatory norms for the discharge of pharmaceutical effluents is anticipated to boost the overall market growth over the forecast period.

The Membrane Separation Technology market research report covers definition, classification, product classification, product application, development trend, product technology, competitive landscape, industrial chain structure, industry overview, national policy and planning analysis of the industry, the latest dynamic analysis, etc., and also includes major. The study includes drivers and restraints of the global market. It covers the impact of these drivers and restraints on the demand during the forecast period. The report also highlights opportunities in the market at the global level.

The report provides size (in terms of volume and value) of Membrane Separation Technology market for the base year 2019 and the forecast between 2020 and 2027. Market numbers have been estimated based on form and application. Market size and forecast for each application segment have been provided for the global and regional market.

This report focuses on the global Membrane Separation Technology market status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players. The study objectives are to present the Membrane Separation Technology market development in United States, Europe and China.

It is pertinent to consider that in a volatile global economy, we haven't just conducted Membrane Separation Technology market forecasts in terms of CAGR, but also studied the market based on key parameters, including Year-on-Year (Y-o-Y) growth, to comprehend the certainty of the market and to find and present the lucrative opportunities in market.

In terms of production side, this report researches the Membrane Separation Technology capacity, production, value, ex-factory price, growth rate, market share for major manufacturers, regions (or countries) and type.

Buyers of the report will have access to verified market figures, including global market size in terms of revenue and volume. As part of production analysis, the authors of the report have provided reliable estimations and calculations for global revenue and volume by Type segment of the global Membrane Separation Technology market. These figures have been provided in terms of both revenue and volume for the period 2016 to 2027. Additionally, the report provides accurate figures for production by region in terms of revenue as well as volume for the same period. The report also includes production capacity statistics for the same period.

With regard to production bases and technologies, the research in this report covers the production time, base distribution, technical parameters, research and development trends, technology sources, and sources of raw materials of major Membrane Separation Technology market companies.

Regarding the analysis of the industry chain, the research of this report covers the raw materials and equipment of Membrane Separation Technology market upstream, downstream customers, marketing channels, industry development trends and investment strategy recommendations. The more specific analysis also includes the main application areas of market and consumption, major regions and Consumption, major Chinese producers, distributors, raw material suppliers, equipment providers and their contact information, industry chain relationship analysis.

The research in this report also includes product parameters, production process, cost structure, and data information classified by region, technology and application. Finally, the paper model new project SWOT analysis and investment feasibility study of the case model.

Overall, this is an in-depth research report specifically for the Membrane Separation Technology industry. The research center uses an objective and fair way to conduct an in-depth analysis of the development trend of the industry, providing support and evidence for customer competition analysis, development planning, and investment decision-making. In the course of operation, the project has received support and assistance from technicians and marketing personnel in various links of the industry chain.

The Membrane Separation Technology market competitive landscape provides details by competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, investment in research and development, new market initiatives, global presence, production sites and facilities, production capacities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, product width and breadth, application dominance. The above data points provided are only related to the companies' focus related to Membrane Separation Technology market.

Prominent players in the market are predicted to face tough competition from the new entrants. However, some of the key players are targeting to acquire the startup companies in order to maintain their dominance in the global market. For a detailed analysis of key companies, their strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities are measured in the report by using industry-standard tools such as the SWOT analysis. Regional coverage of key companies is covered in the report to measure their dominance. Key manufacturers of Membrane Separation Technology market are focusing on introducing new products to meet the needs of the patrons. The feasibility of new products is also measured by using industry-standard tools.

Key companies are increasing their investments in research and development activities for the discovery of new products. There has also been a rise in the government funding for the introduction of new Membrane Separation Technology market. These factors have benefited the growth of the global market for Membrane Separation Technology. Going forward, key companies are predicted to benefit from the new product launches and the adoption of technological advancements. Technical advancements have benefited many industries and the global industry is not an exception.

New product launches and the expansion of already existing business are predicted to benefit the key players in maintaining their dominance in the global market for Membrane Separation Technology. The global market is segmented on the basis of region, application, en-users and product type. Based on region, the market is divided into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa (MEA).

- Market segmentation analysis including qualitative and quantitative research incorporating the impact of economic and policy aspects- Regional and country level analysis integrating the demand and supply forces that are influencing the growth of the market.- Market value USD Million and volume Units Million data for each segment and sub-segment- Competitive landscape involving the market share of major players, along with the new projects and strategies adopted by players in the past five years- Comprehensive company profiles covering the product offerings, key financial information, recent developments, SWOT analysis, and strategies employed by the major market players

This research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including the government policy, market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers and challenges. The following illustrative figure shows the market research methodology applied in this report.

The market estimations in this report are based on the selling price (excluding any discounts provided by the manufacturer, distributor, wholesaler or traders). Market share analysis, assigned to each of the segments and regions are achieved through product utilization rate and average selling price.

Major manufacturers & their revenues, percentage splits, market shares, growth rates and breakdowns of the product markets are determined through secondary sources and verified through the primary sources.

All possible factors that influence the markets included in this research study have been accounted for, viewed in extensive detail, verified through primary research, and analyzed to get the final quantitative and qualitative data. The market size for top-level markets and sub-segments is normalized, and the effect of inflation, economic downturns, and regulatory & policy changes or others factors are accounted for in the market forecast. This data is combined and added with detailed inputs and analysis from Vision Research Reports and presented in this report.

After complete market engineering with calculations for market statistics; market size estimations; market forecasting; market breakdown; and data triangulation. Extensive primary research was conducted to gather information and verify and validate the critical numbers arrived at. In the complete market engineering process, both top-down and bottom-up approaches were extensively used, along with several data triangulation methods, to perform market estimation and market forecasting for the overall market segments and sub-segments listed in this report.

Secondary Sources occupies approximately 25% of data sources, such as press releases, annual reports, Non-Profit organizations, industry associations, governmental agencies and customs data, and so on. This research study includes secondary sources; directories; databases such as Bloomberg Business, Wind Info, Hoovers, Factiva (Dow Jones & Company), TRADING ECONOMICS, and avention; Investing News Network; statista; Federal Reserve Economic Data; annual reports; investor presentations; and SEC filings of companies.

In the primary research process, various sources from both the supply and demand sides were interviewed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information for this report. The primary sources from the supply side include product manufacturers (and their competitors), opinion leaders, industry experts, research institutions, distributors, dealer and traders, as well as the raw materials suppliers and producers, etc.

The primary sources from the demand side include industry experts such as business leaders, marketing and sales directors, technology and innovation directors, supply chain executive, end users (product buyers), and related key executives from various key companies and organizations operating in the global market.

separation technology - an overview | sciencedirect topics

separation technology - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Membrane separation technology is a new high-tech marginal science developed in the 1950s. It has been widely used in various industrial fields and scientific research since the 1970s. It has been developing rapidly and has been paid close attention to by all aspects. Membrane separation is a method of selective permeation of some components in liquids by means of special thin films. In wastewater treatment, the membrane separation process mainly includes microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), diffusion dialysis, electrodialysis, and liquid membrane. Dalian Chemical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Environmental Protection, South China University of Technology, and other units have successively carried out liquid membrane treatment of organic wastewater experimental research, and part of the applications are in production. Research on treatment of high concentration organic wastewater by reverse osmosis technology in Beijing Institute of Environmental Protection has achieved good results.

Compared with the conventional method, the method has the following obvious advantages: (1) the equipment investment is low and the floor area is small. (2) The operation cost is simple and the maintenance warranty is convenient. (3) The operation of environmental sanitation, since the membrane method is a closed operating system, there is no sewage flow and odor emission. (4) The energy consumption is low. The membrane method is a phase-free separation technique, which consumes only the electric energy when the pumping liquid is consumed. (5) The processing efficiency is high. The highest removal rate of COD in the conventional method is 50% of the coagulating sedimentation method, 60% to 70% of the coagulating sedimentation and activated sludge method, and the membrane method can reach about 80%. The chroma removal rate, the conventional method limit is 80%, and the membrane method can reach about 95%. (6) No sludge production. The membrane process does not produce a large amount of sludge as a conventional treatment, thus saving the cost and the labor for treating the sludge.

Fig.17.2 shows the process of treating papermaking wastewater with a multistage continuous filtration membrane system. In Fig.17.2, the wastewater is filtered and pumped into each stage of the membrane assembly, where the liquid and concentrate are collected at their respective exits. A heat exchanger with available steam or cooling water for constant temperature. The flow rate and solid content of concentrated liquid are controlled by a refractometer at the end of the membrane system on the production line or by a controller that controls the flow ratio of liquid to concentrate. Some osmotic fluids are mixed with cleaning agents as cleaning fluids for regular cleaning of membranes.

In addition to the traditional membrane separation technologies, a new innovative membrane separation technique that has been used in Europe and the United States is pervaporation. This technology, called the cross-flow pervaporation system, removes VOCs from water. The technology, which is commercially available, can be used to remediate ground water, leachate, and wastewater that contains solvents, degreasers, and gasoline. In the pervaporation process, organic-permeable membranes made of synthetic polymers such as silicon rubber or polyethylene are used to adsorb VOCs preferentially from contaminated water. Depending on the organic contaminant, concentration factors of 5- to 200-fold are found achievable.

Distillation may be used as a phase separation technology. Distillation is the most mature separation technology, and the method of choice for many separations on the bulk chemical scale. Therefore, although research on inclusion distillation has almost exclusively been the domain of the Toda group, this technology is considered as a promising alternative for future industrial chiral separations.

Basically, upon addition of the inclusion host to a racemic mixture, the host will include one of the enantiomers preferentially, lowering the activity of the complexed enantiomer in the liquid phase, resulting in a lower amount of that enantiomer in the vapor phase. After collection of the enantioenriched vapor phase, the second enantiomer can be liberated by increasing the temperature.

First, we investigate the most advanced separation technology for separating CO2 from the flue gas after combustion. This technology has been used for decades; postcombustion is the most inclusive separation technique, and it utilizes a chemical substance for CO2 absorption and separation from other flue gases. The most important advantage of this method is that many of the emission sources (power plants and industrial units) can be equipped with these separation facilities [14].

Today, CO2 absorption and separation using amines is the most widely used postcombustion CO2 separation method. The choice of an appropriate chemical for CO2 separation depends on the composition, CO2 concentration, and pressure of the flue gas. The amount of separated CO2 depends majorly on the cost [15]. Through this method, CO2 can be separated almost completely; however, the separation of the CO2 residue in the gas stream is costly and requires a significant amount of energy. Normally, amines can separate 85% of CO2 gas [16].

Fig. 3.1 shows the equipment and different stages of CO2 separation by amines. Flue gas is supplied to a large column called the absorber and CO2 is selectively absorbed by amine solvents at 313333K (after the elimination of impurities). The CO2-free gas stream which consists mainly of N2 (85%90% of CO2 is removed) exits from the top of the absorber, while the CO2-rich amine solution is supplied to a second column, called the stripper, in which the solvent is heated up to 373393K. During this process, referred to as recovery, CO2 is separated from the amine solution. Subsequently, the recovered solvent (containing a little amount of CO2) is returned to the absorber, and the separated CO2 (more than 99% purity) is sent to the next stage for compression, after which it is transported [18].

The CO2 separation by amine solution was first introduced by Bottoms in 1930 [19]. Many factories are using this technology for CO2 elimination from low oxygen content gas streams, such as natural gas and hydrogen [20]. The selection of the appropriate amine compound for CO2 separation depends on different conditions. The most commonly used amine compound for CO2 elimination from flue gas under atmospheric pressure is monoethanolamine (MEA). Under higher pressures, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) is utilized for CO2 removal. Except for MEA and MDEA, other solvents, such as aqueous ammonia, amino acid salts, and special amines (e.g., KS-1), have successfully facilitated CO2 absorption from flue gas [21].

The heat required for CO2 separation from the amine solution is supplied by water vapor at a temperature in the range of 393413K. The best alternative heat source for this, is the steam of a generator and decreases the power generation efficiency from 58% to 51% for gas-fired power plants and also from 45% to 38% for coal-fired power plants [16].

In addition to the solvent-based absorption, postcombustion capture technologies exist, including adsorption and membrane separation, which are in their early stages of development compared to the absorption process [7].

A variety of technologies such as membrane/electrochemical separation technologies, biological processes, ozonation, and physicochemical treatments including coagulation, volatilization, sorption, and sedimentation have been employed for the removal of PPCPs from water and wastewater. The application of these diverse techniques would depend on the contaminant level, cost of the process, and chemical nature of PPCPs.

A number of separation processes such as microseparation, nanofiltration, and ultrafiltration are recommended for the contaminant removal in aqueous media. However, the efficiencies of removing PPCPs by separation processes are markedly dependent on the size and molecular weight of the target PPCP molecules. Nghiem et al. (2004) suggested that hormones removal by nanomembranes could depend on the size of the hormone molecule, hydrogen bonding of hormones to membrane functional groups, and hydrophobic interactions of the hormone with the membrane matrix. The nanofiltration membrane with charged surface modifying macromolecule exhibited long-term performance in separating ibuprofen molecule in aqueous media (Rana et al., 2012). Also, it has been reported that steroid hormones can adsorb onto membranes via hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions with membrane polymer (Schfer et al., 2003).

Electrochemical separation technologies such as electrocoagulation, internal microelectrolysis are cable of isolating only the pollutants from water, whereas other electrochemical advanced electrochemical processes such as anodic oxidation, electrooxidation, electro-Fenton reactions, photoelectro-Fenton, and photoelectrocatalysis remediate contaminated water by degradation of pharmaceuticals (Sirs and Brillas, 2012). The use and performance of different electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for the treatments of PPCPs have been extensively studied (Feng et al., 2010; Murugananthan et al., 2010; Boudreau et al., 2010; Zhao et al., 2009). These methods were effective in degradation of PPCPs in aqueous media. However, electrochemical degradation processes can produce more toxic and biorecalcitrant by-products than the parent PPCPs (Sirs and Brillas, 2012).

The ozonation process is considered as another promising technology for the treatment of PPCPs contaminated water (Esplugas et al., 2007; Ek et al., 2014). The complete removal of carbamazepine in natural water was observed by the ozonation process (Andreozzi et al., 2002). It was observed complete removal of paracetamol with 30% mineralization after ozonation process. Oxalic, glyoxylic, cetomalonic, and formic acids, and hydroquinone were formed as intermediate products (Andreozzi et al., 2003). Even though ozone treatment processes have been applied with success, it is crucial to know the toxicity of intermediate compounds that are formed after ozonation process.

Biological treatments are relatively new approaches to remove and degrade PPCPs in aqueous media. Fungi use their extracellular enzymes to break down many stable compounds (Ek et al., 2014). Rodarte-Morales et al. (2011) investigated the application of three different fungi for the removal of PPCPs belonging to different therapeutic groups: antidepressants (citalopram and fluoxetine), antibiotics (SMX), antiinflammatory drugs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen), antiepileptics (carbamazepine), tranquilizers (diazepam), and fragrances (celestolide, galaxolide, and tonalide). Complete degradation of all the PPCPs except for fluoxetine and diazepam was observed; however, the implementation of these biological techniques in real environmental conditions should be further studied.

Sorption-based techniques are considered as a friendly approach to remove PPCPs because of their simplicity of design, low initial cost, and ease of operation (Xu et al., 2017). However, proper disposal/regeneration of sorbents needs to be considered when recommending sorption-based techniques for long-term applications. The sorbents used for PPCPs removal and detailed mechanisms of actions will be discussed in detail in the following sections.

Porous inorganic materials have many applications in catalytic and separation technologies. Of these, zeolites constitute a large family and have made a great impact on the chemical industry and in everyday life. The synthesis of microporous solids (pore diameter 520) with connectivities and pore chemistry different from zeolitic materials has attracted considerable attention. A variety of such open-framework structures, in particular Al, Zn, and Ga phosphates as well as other metal phosphates, prepared hydrothermally in the presence of structure-directing organic amines, have been characterized. There have been many breakthroughs in the design and synthesis of these molecular seives with well-defined crystalline architecture and there is a continuing quest for extra-large-pore molecular sieves. Several types of new materials including tunnel and layer structures have been reported. The discovery of mesoporous silica (pore diameter 20200) by Mobil chemists added new possibilities for porous solids. The synthesis of mesoporous materials also makes use of structure-directing surfactants (cationic, anionic, and neutral) and a variety of mesoporous oxidic materials (e.g., ZrO2, TiO2, AlPO4, aluminoborates) have been prepared and characterized.

An appropriate integration of hydrogen bond interactions at the inorganicorganic interface and the use of solgel and emulsion chemistry have enabled the synthesis of a large class of porous materials. Today, we have a better understanding of the structure, topology, and phase transitions of mesoporous solids. Block copolymers have been used to prepare mesoporous materials with large pore sizes (>30nm). There is also some understanding of the lamellarhexagonalcubic phase transitions in mesoporous oxides (Fig. 6). Derivatized mesoporous materials have been explored for potential applications in catalysis and other areas. It is found that transition metal complexes and metal clusters encapsulated in mesoporous phases show high catalytic activity for specific reactions. Macroporous solids with pore diamaters in the 200- to 10,000- range have been prepared by using polymer spheres as templates. Macroporousmesoporous silica has been characterized.

Organic inclusion compounds and clathrates have been known for a long time. While these compounds are still being investigated, there have been efforts to synthesize novel organic or organicinorganic hybrid structures by supramolecular means. A recent example of noncovalent synthesis of a novel channel structure formed by trithiocyanuric acid and bipyridine is shown in Fig. 7. The channels can accommodate benzene, xylenes, and other molecules and the process is reversible.

In this chapter, the progress on extraction and separation technologies for rare earths is reviewed with respect to bastnsite, monazite, mixed rare earth ores, and other rare earth resources. The present technology and hydrometallurgical processes for rare earths satisfy the technical needs for the recovery and separation of rare earths at industrial scale. However, for meeting increasingly stringent environmental regulations, key research directions in rare earth separation, purification, and recovery should be as follows.

Firstly, novel extractants for the extraction and separation of rare earths should be exploited. The PO bond of organophosphorus extractants has strong polarity, which allows one to design extractants with better suited steric and electronic effects. At present, the nonpolar groups of the organophosphorus extractants are mostly two or three identical, unsubstituted alkyl groups. These structural characteristics prevent to dramatically change the nature of the molecular structure and to adjust electronic effect and steric effects of presently available organophosphorus extractants. For example, due to similar ionic radii of rare earths, the commercial currently available organophosphorus extractants such as D2EHPA, HEHEHP, and Cyanex 272 do not generate large separation coefficient for these elements. Therefore, the design and synthesis of organophosphorus extractants with novel structural features, such as asymmety (the molecule has different nonpolar groups), cyclic structure (cyclic substituent or two substituents on the phosphorus forming a ring), and bearing alkyl chains decorated with other substituents (hydroxyl, halogen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing groups), may become the main direction of future research. For example, in our group, a new organophosphorus extractant containing a nitrogen substituent (named Cextrant 230) has been synthesized and successfully used for the extraction and separation of Ce(IV), F, and Th(IV) from sulfuric leachates of Bastnsite.

A second emphasis would be to develop high-efficiency prepreparation technology for rare earth ores. A good technology should comprehensively recover all of the valuable elements from rare earth ores. It would give out less emission of noxious gasses, liquid, and solid wastes, decrease the extraction and separation costs, and improve resource utilization. Some new technologies have already emerged for the separation of rare earths, such as molecular recognition technology (MRT). Ucore Rare Metals Inc. applied MRT to generate heavy rare earth concentrates with purity >99%. One of the significant advantages of MRT is that the separation process does not use any solvent or hazardous chemicals. The other is the highly selective recovery of high-purity rare earths.

Finally, it is also important to combine the study on the separation of rare earths and the preparation of rare earth compounds with specific properties. The continuous development of high technology requires increasing demands for high-purity rare earth products. This translates in higher requirements with respect to the impurity content of rare earth products and to their physical and/or chemical properties. Therefore, integrating studies on the separation of rare earths and the preparation of targeted rare earth compounds will be beneficial to both fields; in particular this would decrease the cost of the whole process from mining to the consumer products. Furthermore, improving the level of automatic control of rare earth separation processes as well as ensuring a constant quality of rare earth products is also important. Much attention should be put on the preparation of target compounds for the manufacture of phosphors, laser crystals, functional ceramics, cocatalysts, and among others.

Technologies that may be included in a corrective measure fall into three categories: separation technologies, detoxificationdestruction technologies and immobilization technologies. Treatment processes that achieve removal but not destruction will generally require additional management and may be implemented in a separate system. Thus, both separation and detoxdestruct technologies may be required in the same system.

General considerations for media are presented in Tables VI.10.4VI.10.7. Table VI.10.4 presents in situ strategies for various major contaminant families and Tables VI.10.5VI.10.7 do the same for ex situ strategies.

It is desirable to combine treatment process applications where possible, e.g. treating sludge residue from a liquid process sequence along with contaminated soil in the same process(es), if both sludge and soil contain similar or the same contaminants.

Every treatment process will generate a residue; sludge, brine, ash, dust, etc. All but the simplest treatment systems will therefore likely generate an array of residues, which considered as a group, will provide combination treatment possibilities. Comparison criteria for this step will therefore include treatment combinations that make best use of treatment process applications to mixed media, e.g. soils and sludges.

The roles of surfactant and polymer in water treatment are well established. Surfactant and polymer-based separation technologies have been developed over the past few decades and have good potential for treating industrial effluents. Each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages, and thus the applications of these technologies very much depend on the targeted ions, effluent characteristics, discharge requirements and cost. Much research has addressed the applications of polyelectrolyte or surfactant alone, but the usage of their mixture has shown some unique advantages in terms of cost and stability, and has a great potential for a wider application range. Therefore, for the polymersurfactant mixture system, there is need for testing with actual wastewater, developing mathematical models and extending the applications to treat different charged species such as pesticides and organic pollutants. Once these needs are fulfilled, pilot plant studies should be conducted before applying the polymersurfactant complexation and flocculation technology at full scale.

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