The effect of stearic acid loading in rubber on the adhesion between rubber compounds and brass-plated steel cords was examined in respect to aging treatments and cure conditions. The adhesion interphase of a thin brass film/rubber compound containing stearic acid was investigated using an Auger electron spectrometer. The loading of stearic acid to rubber was not effective in the improvement of adhesion of rubber stock cured under optimum conditions, whereas it improved the adhesion property of premature cured samples by enhancing the physical property. High loading of stearic acid severely deteriorated the adhesion property, even at an unaged state due to the excessive formation of zinc sulfide. The loading of stearic acid did not affect the sensitivity of the rubber compound to humidity and thermal aging, but amplified the deterioration of adhesion when the rubber compound was subjected to salt solution aging, resulting in extremely poor adhesion. The effects of other ingredients and the aging treatment were also thoroughly examined.
Jeon, G. S., Han, M. H. and Seo, G., Improving Adhesion Properties between Rubber Compound and Brass-Plated Steel Cord by the Addition of Epoxidized Natural Rubber to Rubber Compound,Korean J. Chem. Eng.,15, 317 (1998b).
Kurbatov, G. G., Beshenkov, V. G. and Zaporozchenko, V. I., AES and Factor Anlaysis Study of Cord-Oxidized Brass Layers and Rubber-to-Brass Interface Chemical Composition,Surf Interface Anal.,17, 779 (1991).
Luyt, A. S., A Differential Scanning Calorimeter Study of the Interaction of Zinc Benzothiazole-2-Thiolate, Sulfur, Stearic Acid, and Zinc Stearate in the Absence and Presence of Polyisoprene,J. Appl. Polym. Sci.,47, 2177 (1993).
van Ooij, W. J., Weening, W. E. and Murray, P. F., Rubber Adhesion of Brass-Plated Steel Tire Cords: Fundamental Study of the Effects of Compound Formulation Variations on Adhesive Phenomena,Rubber Chem. Technol.,54, 227 (1981).
Jeon, G.S., Han, M.H. & Seo, G. The adhesion properties of stearic acid-loaded rubber compounds to brass-plated steel cords. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 16, 434440 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02698265
Vibration-damping elements designed to dampen vibrations that can cause bad functioning, impact or noise generated by moving parts or vibrating masses on unbalanced machines. Elesa+Ganter offers a wide selection of vibration dampening elements, rubber bobbins and rubber buffers which can be mounted on machine units such as motors, compressors and pumps or used as end stops or setup elements, e.i. for conveyors.
The vibration body is made of NR Natural Rubber hardness 40, 55 or 70 Shore A. The base plate is available in zinc-plated steel or stainless steel AISI 304. The catalogue of vibration-damping elements and rubber buffers includes cylindrical or parabolic profile, with different dimensions, threads and holes to respond to all application needs.In the range are new antivibration and rubber buffer components that allow more lateral displacements without departing from the vertical plane of the metal insert.
There are numerous technical specifications that must be considered when using these anchors, including diameter, bolt diameter, and required hole size. The Double Expansion Anchor is a great fastener when working with soft masonry or base materials of questionable strength. The size of the anchor refers to the diameter of the machine bolt/screw used to expand this anchor. Once all of these factors have been determined, you can find the expected holding values in the technical information below.
Spacing: The forces on a Double Expansion Anchor are transferred to the material in which it is installed. If the anchors are installed too close together, it can cause an interaction of the forces, thus reducing the holding power. As a rule of thumb, the expansion anchor industry has established a minimum standard of ten (10) anchor diameters for spacing between anchors and five (5) anchor diameters from an unsupported edge. When vibration or sudden impact is part of the load conditions, the spacing should be increased.
Values shown are average ultimate values and are offered only as a guide and are not guaranteed. A safety factor of 4:1 or 25% is generally accepted as a safe working load. Reference should be made to applicable codes for the specific working ratio.