srep down of power fir iron ore beneficiation

beneficiation of iron ore

beneficiation of iron ore

Beneficiation of Iron Ore and the treatment of magnetic iron taconites, stage grinding and wet magnetic separation is standard practice. This also applies to iron ores of the non-magnetic type which after a reducing roast are amenable to magnetic separation. All such plants are large tonnage operations treating up to 50,000 tons per day and ultimately requiring grinding as fine as minus 500-mesh for liberation of the iron minerals from the siliceous gangue.

Magnetic separation methods are very efficient in making high recovery of the iron minerals, but production of iron concentrates with less than 8 to 10% silica in the magnetic cleaning stages becomes inefficient. It is here that flotation has proven most efficient. Wet magnetic finishers producing 63 to 64% Fe concentrates at 50-55% solids can go directly to the flotation section for silica removal down to 4 to 6% or even less. Low water requirements and positive silica removal with low iron losses makes flotation particularly attractive. Multistage cleaning steps generally are not necessary. Often roughing off the silica froth without further cleaning is adequate.

The iron ore beneficiation flowsheet presented is typical of the large tonnage magnetic taconite operations. Multi-parallel circuits are necessary, but for purposes of illustration and description a single circuit is shown and described.

The primary rod mill discharge at about minus 10- mesh is treated over wet magnetic cobbers where, on average magnetic taconite ore, about 1/3of the total tonnage is rejected as a non-magnetic tailing requiring no further treatment. The magnetic product removed by the cobbers may go direct to the ball mill or alternately may be pumped through a cyclone classifier. Cyclone underflows usually all plus 100 or 150 mesh, goes to the ball mill for further grinding. The mill discharge passes through a wet magnetic separator for further upgrading and also rejection of additional non-magnetic tailing. The ball mill and magnetic cleaner and cyclone all in closed circuit produce an iron enriched magnetic product 85 to 90% minus 325 mesh which is usually the case on finely disseminated taconites.

The finely ground enriched product from the initial stages of grinding and magnetic separation passes to a hydroclassifier to eliminate the large volume of water in the overflow. Some finely divided silica slime is also eliminated in this circuit. The hydroclassifier underflow is generally subjected to at least 3 stages of magnetic separation for further upgrading and production of additional final non-magnetic tailing. Magnetic concentrate at this point will usually contain 63 to 64% iron with 8 to 10% silica. Further silica removal at this point by magnetic separation becomes rather inefficient due to low magnetic separator capacity and their inability to reject middling particles.

The iron concentrate as it comes off the magnetic finishers is well flocculated due to magnetic action and usually contains 50-55% solids. This is ideal dilution for conditioning ahead of flotation. For best results it is necessary to pass the pulp through a demagnetizing coil to disperse the magnetic floes and thus render the pulp more amenable to flotation.

Feed to flotation for silica removal is diluted with fresh clean water to 35 to 40% solids. Being able to effectively float the silica and iron silicates at this relatively high solid content makes flotation particularly attractive.

For this separation Sub-A Flotation Machines of the open or free-flow type for rougher flotation are particularly desirable. Intense aeration of the deflocculated and dispersed pulp is necessary for removal of the finely divided silica and iron silicates in the froth product. A 6-cell No. 24 Free-FlowFlotation Machine will effectively treat 35 to 40 LTPH of iron concentrates down to the desired limit, usually 4 to 6% SiO2. Loss of iron in the froth is low. The rough froth may be cleaned and reflotated or reground and reprocessed if necessary.

A cationic reagent is usually all that is necessary to effectively activate and float the silica from the iron. Since no prior reagents have come in contact with thethoroughly washed and relatively slime free magnetic iron concentrates, the cationic reagent is fast acting and in somecases no prior conditioning ahead of the flotation cells is necessary.

A frother such as Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol or Heptinol is usually necessary to give a good froth condition in the flotation circuit. In some cases a dispersant such as Corn Products gum (sometimes causticized) is also helpful in depressing the iron. Typical requirements may be as follows:

One operation is presently using Aerosurf MG-98 Amine at the rate of .06 lbs/ton and 0.05 lbs/ton of MIBC (methyl isobutyl carbinol). Total reagent cost in this case is approximately 5 cents per ton of flotation product.

The high grade iron product, low in silica, discharging from the flotation circuit is remagnetized, thickened and filtered in the conventional manner with a disc filter down to 8 to 10% moisture prior to treatment in the pelletizing plant. Both the thickener and filter must be heavy duty units. Generally, in the large tonnage concentrators the thickener underflow at 70 to 72% solids is stored in large Turbine Type Agitators. Tanks up to 50 ft. in diameter x 40 ft. deep with 12 ft. diameter propellers are used to keep the pulp uniform. Such large units require on the order of 100 to 125 HP for thorough mixing the high solids ahead of filtration.

In addition to effective removal of silica with low water requirements flotation is a low cost separation, power-wise and also reagent wise. Maintenance is low since the finely divided magnetic taconite concentrate has proven to be rather non-abrasive. Even after a years operation very little wear is noticed on propellers and impellers.

A further advantage offered by flotation is the possibility of initially grinding coarser and producing a middling in the flotation section for retreatment. In place of initially grinding 85 to 90% minus 325, the grind if coarsened to 80-85% minus 325-mesh will result in greater initial tonnage treated per mill section. Considerable advantage is to be gained by this approach.

Free-Flow Sub-A Flotation is a solution to the effective removal of silica from magnetic taconite concentrates. Present plants are using this method to advantage and future installations will resort more and more to production of low silica iron concentrate for conversion into pellets.

beneficiation - an overview | sciencedirect topics

beneficiation - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Beneficiation includes crushing, grinding, gravity concentration and flotation concentration. Beneficiation is followed by processing activities such as smelting and refining. The beneficiation process begins with milling, which is followed by flotation for further beneficiation. At the first stage, extracted ores undergo the milling operation to produce uniformly sized particles for crushing, grinding, wet or dry concentration. The type of milling operable in a certain plant is chosen by capital investment and economics. The degree of crushing or grinding, which is required for further beneficiation, is dependent on capital. Crushing is a dry operation which only involves dust control using water spray (Drzymala, 2007). A primary or jaw crusher is located at the mine site and reduces the particle diameter of the ores into<6 in. The crushed ore is then transported to the mill site for crushing, grinding, classification and concentration. The second stage, grinding, is a wet operation which requires initial flotation and water to make a slurry. The hydrocyclone operates between each grinding operation to classify the type of particles: fine or coarse (Long etal., 1998).

This process is used to adhere to ore mineral or a group of minerals with the air bubbles after involving chemical reagents in operation. Chemical reagents got reacted with the desired mineral in the flotation process. The effectiveness of the flotation technique is dependent on four factors: the degree of oxidation of the ore, the number of copper minerals present, the nature of the gangue and the presence of iron sulphides. There are some other important factors such as the particle size, minerals compatible with the reagents and the condition of the water. Conditioners and regulators might be used during or after the milling time for ore treatment (Drzymala, 2007). Flotation is an effective method to concentrate the targeted elements existed in minerals based on the difference in physicochemical properties of various mineral surfaces. It can easily separate copper (Feng etal., 2018b), lead (Feng etal., 2017a), zinc (Feng and Wen, 2017) and tin (Feng etal., 2017b) minerals from gangue minerals by addition of flotation reagents. The concentrates of minerals must go through pyrometallurgical methods like smelting and refining. However, before these steps, the concentrates may require roasting and sintering, which depends on the processing method. The ore concentrate undergoes partial fusion which turns it into agglomerated material suitable for processing operations (Drzymala, 2007). The sintering operation consists of blending, sintering, cooling and sizing. At first, the raw material concentrates are blended with moistures in mills, drums or pans. This step is called blending. In the next step, the concentrate feed is fired or sintered and then cooled (Long etal., 1998). The sinter gets crushed with being cool. Then the concentrate will be graded. After grading, it is crushed to produce a smaller sinter product. In roasting, gassolid reactions are involved at elevated temperatures, which purify the metal by treating it with hot air (Shedd, 2016).

Dry beneficiation has two important advantagessaving water, a valuable resource, and no tailings pond and subsequently, no leaching of the trace/toxic elements into ground water. In dry beneficiation of coal, coal and mineral matter are separated based on differences in their physical properties such as density, shape, size, luster, magnetic susceptibilities, frictional coefficient, and electrical conductivity [2325]. Dry beneficiation gives a clean coal as well as reduces some of the polluting elements associated with minerals. It cannot remove the inorganic matter in coal present as salts resulting from the marine environment during coalification. Azimi etal. [26] evaluated the performance of air dense mediumfluidized bed separator in removing trace elements, such as Hg, As, Se, Pb, Ag, Ba, Cu, Ni, Sb, Co, Mn, and Be. Their study revealed the association of Pb, Ag, Ba, Cu, Mn, and Be with ash-forming minerals. Elements such as As, Se, and Sb showed some organic bonding. High rejection of Hg was achieved through dry beneficiation of coal where Hg is mostly associated with pyrites.

The beneficiation and obtainment of raw materials often has a severe effect on the environment and generates byproducts that in many cases cannot be further processed into suitable products. The high concentration of REs (mainly in the form of oxides) in spent glass polishing material would therefore enable the easier and resource-saving production of predominantly cerium and lanthanum oxides. As a consequence, the focus of this chapter was on reviewing and investigating recovery processes for REs, whereas all mineral acids of technical relevance were taken into account. The presence of RE compounds containing fluoride made digestion with nitric and HCl more complex and achieved maximum leaching yields for lanthanum of 70%, whereas the extraction of cerium was higher than 90% using high acid concentrations and excess as well as hydrogen peroxide to some extent. However, the main advantage of these process types is that less wash water is required compared with sulfuric acid processing. On the other hand, off-gas and wastewater treatment seems to be more easily manageable in the case of H2SO4. Nevertheless, because polishing agents are usually based on noncritical REs, which in some cases (especially cerium) are even being overproduced nowadays, the economic viability of such processes has to be carefully analyzed.

Mineral beneficiation begins with crushing and grinding of mined ore for near-complete separation of ore and gangue minerals as well as between ore minerals. Each processing step is designed to increase the grade (concentration) of the valuable components of the original ore. Mined ore undergoes comminution by crushing and grinding, and gravity concentration by Dense Media Separation (DMS) removes the bulk of the rocks and gangue minerals. Installation of a DMS unit between the crusher and the grinder is extremely beneficial to eliminate large volumes of waste rocks from the ore. Consequently, the grinder, milling, and flotation unit will treat a significantly lower volume of higher-grade preconcentrate at a reduced operating cost with respect to energy, grinding media, and flotation reagents. The mineral pyrrhotite is often magnetically separated, collected, and treated to recover the minerals of PGEs and nickel. Sulfide minerals are further concentrated by froth flotation. The final concentrate upgrades the PGE content to 0.0150% (100400g/t) PGEs. The wet concentrate dewatered is thickened in large tanks, and filtered by disk or drum filters. The concentrate is dried in a spray drier or flash drier to reduce the energy requirement for smelting and the possible occurrence of explosions in the furnace. Dry concentrate is transferred pneumatically from the drier into the furnace for smelting.

Mineral beneficiation, particularly base and noble metals, is sensitive to optimum use of reagents, recovery of metals, and clean concentrate. High fluctuation of feed grade at flotation cells yields loss of metals to tailing. The offline analytical procedures discussed at Chapter 7, Section 7.5, are not appropriate under changing feed grade. The process is not capable of continuous in-stream detection and spontaneous corrective measures. This is surmounted by complete concentrator automation. The circuit is comprised of three major integrated units: probe or sensor, in-stream analyzer, and digital process control module.

The in-stream X-ray analyzer (Fig.13.5) employs sensors acting as a source of radiation, which is absorbed by the sample causing fluorescent response of each element. The analyzer probes are installed in feed, concentrates, and tailing streams. The metal content (Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Ag, Au, etc.) and pulp density, in the form of electrical signals from the probes (sensors), are conveyed in electronic circuits (detectors generating a quantitative output signal) to a digital computer in the control room. A continuous screen display and/or printout showing the elemental dispersion at every minute is available for manual or automatic control of reagents in the flotation process. The field instruments for the flotation circuits comprise pH and metal probes and magnetic flow meters with control valves for reagent dosing pumps. The system improves the recovery of each metal as well as concentrate grade. The regulated feed reagents, apart from improved metallurgy, result in significant savings of reagent cost.

Figure13.5. Mill sampling system by in-stream analyzer. The probe is installed in the slurry stream of feed (conditioner) and reject (tailing) for continuous sensing of metal grades and simultaneous digital process control of reagents.

The steps to be taken for proper functioning of the slurry pond, handling of coal rejects and their utilization, periodic desilting, arrangement for water recirculation, measures to prevent water pollution from slurry ponds, arrangement for surplus water overflow, etc. shall be indicated in the mine closure plan. Reject dumps should be properly benched and graded on cessation of washery/mining operations and the area should be reclaimed biologically. Similarly, slurry ponds should be dismantled and dewatered and the area reclaimed at the end of washery/mining operations.

In the beneficiation of phosphate ores the tailings generated still carry significant phosphate content. The recovery has been difficult as the tailings carry a large proportion of clay minerals, magnesium oxide and iron carbonate mineral known as ankerite, an iron carbonate. Until recently, there was no suitable method for separating phosphate from such clayey wastes.

Progress has been made to recover some fraction of phosphate from these wastes. Separation of ankerite mineral has been attempted by magnetic separation with some success (Abdel-Khalek et al., 2001). The magnetic stream enriched with phosphate is further processed by flotation to separate magnesium oxide. A product containing 3132% P2O5 by processing tailings with 20% P2O5 has been produced (Abdel-Khalek et al., 2001).

The beneficiation study of vein-type apatite from Mushgia Khudag deposit, Mongolia, wascarried out to gain knowledge for processing an extremely REE-enriched igneous-hydrothermal ore type associated with Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous, c. 140Ma, syenite magmatism.

In the field, the studied apatite veins range from centimeters to several meters in width and crosscut the syenite. The main REE carrier phase is apatite, which contains an average of 14.7% total REO, with the highest values reaching 20.8%. This is the highest concentration of REE reported in apatite to date.

Apatite is accompanied by minor amounts of other REE phases, such as cheralite, monazite, parasite, synchysite, bastnaesite, and xenotime. Apatite typically occurs as idio- to hypidimorphic grains varying from 0.1 to 4.0mm in diameter.

In the composite sample, the content of REE was calculated as 1.74%, most of which comprised light REE. Y was the only heavy REE. The ratio of heavy to light REE was found to be very low. The recovery of apatite (REE) is the main aim of the beneficiation work.

Over 90% TREE recovery was obtained at the mass recovery of 22%. After three time cleaners, the final concentrate was of the grade TREE 9.3% at the recovery of 85.0% and of the grade P2O5 22.3% at the recovery of 85.7%. The enrichment ratio of the process was 5.3 for TREE and forP2O5.

Mineralogical studies indicated that after rougher and cleaner flotation, the contents of the two REE-bearing minerals in the concentrate, apatite (REE) and monazite, had increased to 80.39% and 0.69% from the original 11.19% and 0.1%, respectively.

Apatite-hosted REE ores are expected to represent an increasingly important source for REE in the future due to the abundance of apatite and other phosphates in various geological environments including igneous, igneous-hydrothermal, and sedimentary systems.

Most ore beneficiation methods require large volume of water. It is necessary in the process of separation of various valuable and gangue minerals. The final concentrates as produced contain high proportion of moisture. Smelters, captive or custom base, are generally located at long distances from mining- beneficiation sites due to inadequate infrastructure. Shipment of concentrate in pulp form to long distances is not advisable. Pulp transport by road, rail or sea route is unsafe even at exorbitant high cost. Therefore, dewatering or solid-liquid separation is performed to generate dry concentrate. However, partial presence of water is desirable, say between 5 and 10% moisture content, for easy handling and safe transport. Metal losses are expected if the moisture content is totally dry or too low. It often becomes serious environmental issue on account of spreading air-driven concentrate in dry and dust form. Dewatering is done at successive stages of sedimentation or thickening, filtration and thermal drying.

Sedimentation is natural gravity settling of the solid portion of the concentrate pulp. It takes place in a cylindrical thickening tank in the form of layers (Fig. 12.50). Pulp is fed continuously from the top of the tank through pipe. The clear liquid overflows out of the tank. The thickened pulp settled at the bottom is taken out through a central outlet. The deposition process can be accelerated and the settled solids can be pushed toward the central outlet by rotating suspended radial arms performing as automatic rake mechanism. Sedimentation process would produce thickened pulp of 55-65% solids by weight.

Filtration is the second stage of solid-liquid separation, normally after thickening, by means of a porous medium. The most common filter media is cotton fabrics but can be extended to any one of jute, wool, linen, nylon, silk and rayon. The filter pads allow liquid to percolate and retain the solid on the outer surface. The filter media is washed and cleaned at regular interval for better performance and longevity. Several types of filter mechanisms are in use. The most widely used filters in mineral processing applications are disc, drum and horizontal type. Filtration produces moist filter cake of 80-90% solids.

Disk filters are used with vacuum filtration equipment. It is made of several large discs (Fig. 12.51). Each disk consists of sectors that are clamped together. The ribs between the sectors are designed in a radial fusion narrowing at the center. The semidry feed enters from the side. The disc rotates slowly so that cake forms on the face of the disc and semidry cakes are lifted above the slurry. The cake is suction dried. It is removed by scraper blades fitted on the side of each disc and pushed to discharge chutes. Generally, disk filters are used for heavy-duty applications such as dewatering of lead-zinc-copper concentrate, low-grade iron ore-taconite, coal, and aluminum hydrate.

Horizontal belt filter consists of a highly perforated horizontal rubber drainage conveyor deck fitted with filter media. Slurry is fed at the starting point of the deck and moves to the other end. Filtration starts partly by gravity and partly by vacuum mechanism attached to the bottom of the moving drainage deck. The cake is discharged as the belt reverses over a roller.

Drum or rotary drum filter works on the same principle as that of a disc filter. The drum is mounted horizontally and rotates in slow motion (Fig. 12.52). The surface of the drum is tightly wrapped with filter media and divided into several compartments, each one attached with drain lines. The filter is partially submerged in slurry feed. The drum rotates slowly through the slurry and produces filtered cakes while moving out of the submergence level. Partially dry cakes are removed by a combination of reversed air blast and automatic scraper knife.

Drying of concentrate is done prior to shipment. Rotary thermal dryer is widely used for production of final salable concentrate. It consists of a long cylindrical shell mounted on a roller at little slope to rotate the unit in uniform speed. Hot air at about 980 C is passed inside the cylinder through which the wet feed moves from feeding point to discharge end by gravity. Dry concentrate at 510% moisture moves on conveyer to the stockyard before being loaded onto trucks or rail wagons as required for shipment.

A simple process of beneficiation has been selected, which will be low in capital cost. As the scheme is a simple one, the cost of operation and maintenance will be minimal. The process technology is so chosen that it should be able to meet the quality parameters laid down by consumers. The flow scheme is briefly described here:

The scheme of beneficiation indicated here is a simple and effective technique that does not take into consideration either small coal or fines. This simple scheme may be applicable both for consumption in the power sector and the cement industry. However, depending upon the raw coal characteristics and needs of the consumer, total washing may be needed, as in the case of coking coal (Fig. 9.6).

metso outotec wins contract for iron ore beneficiation and pelletising plant | global mining review

metso outotec wins contract for iron ore beneficiation and pelletising plant | global mining review

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Save to read list Published by Jessica Casey, Editorial Assistant Global Mining Review, Thursday, 17 June 2021 12:00

Metso Outotec has signed a landmark contract for the delivery of an iron ore beneficiation and travelling grate pelletising plant to Africa. The parties have agreed to not disclose the value of the contract.

This new greenfield plant is the first integrated beneficiation and pelletising plant we are delivering globally. It will feature Metso Outotecs sustainable proprietary technology, such as low nitrogen oxide burners to minimide emissions in the process, as well as state-of-the-art digital solutions, including our OptimusTM process optimiser and a green pellet-size control system, said Jari lgars, President, Metals business area.

Metso Outotecs scope of delivery includes the engineering and supply of key process equipment for the beneficiation and pelletising plant. In addition, Metso Outotec will provide site supervision and commissioning services and deliver automation and training for the project. Metso Outotec conducted early engineering works for the plant in 2020.

In this webinar, Chris Pearson, Group Business Development Director at MMD Group, will discuss in detail their Fully Mobile Surge Loader (FMSL), its key requirements, and implementation considerations.

African mining news Iron ore mining news Mining equipment news

In this webinar, Chris Pearson, Group Business Development Director at MMD Group, will discuss in detail their Fully Mobile Surge Loader (FMSL), its key requirements, and implementation considerations.

the value of mineralogical analysis for iron ore mining and beneficiation | materials talks

the value of mineralogical analysis for iron ore mining and beneficiation | materials talks

This Mineralogy in Mining blog series started with a general overview of the value of mineralogical monitoring for an efficient ore beneficiation. During the last decades high-grade iron ore deposits, particularly in Western Australia, required hardly any downstream processing.

Iron ores were simply crushed and shipped as lump ore for iron making. However, with decreasing ore grades in existing high-grade deposits and exploration of new lower-grade deposits, the need for additional beneficiation steps is on its way to becoming the new standard for the iron ore industry. Depending on the mineralogy of the ore, in some cases, crushing and simple screening is sufficient, in other cases more complex concentration processes (such as washing, magnetic separation or even flotation) may be required.

In the first blog about the Value of mineralogical monitoring, we concluded that X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a fast, versatile and accurate tool for mineralogical analysis, which can be easily implemented in process environments and mine operations. In the following case study, we discuss the added value of XRD for the mineralogical analysis of lateritic iron ore.

For this case study, seven samples of lateritic iron ore were analyzed. All samples were prepared as pressed pellets and were measured on Aeris Minerals tabletop diffractometer with a scan time of 10 minutes, followed by an automatic quantitative phase analysis.

Any XRD pattern is a set of diffraction peaks of different intensities, located at certain diffraction angles (2q), specific to a certain mineralogical phase. Peak positions enable identification of existing phases. The relative intensities of each mineral contribution to the XRD pattern allows to quantify the relative amount of each mineral present using the full-pattern Rietveld method [1].

In Figure 1, the lateritic iron ore sample primarily consists of goethite, with only 28% of hematite, 1.4% of quartz, and minor amounts of carbonates and clays. Furthermore, this sample contains over 12% of amorphous phase.

Comparing the XRD result shown in Figure 1 with the rest of the samples (Figure 2), it is clearly visible that the amount of clay minerals, quartz and carbonates varies from sample to sample. Other phases, like rutile and magnetite are present as well. There is a clear correlation between the amount of crystalline goethite and amorphous content. Based on such a detailed mineralogical analysis, the different ore grades can be mixed to and optimal blend and further downstream processing can be adapted and optimized to save costs.

Accurate quantitative mineralogical analyses is not the only added value of XRD. Using known stoichiometries of the minerals present, the Fe2+ content can be directly calculated from the XRD pattern, eliminating the need for time-consuming wet chemistry tests. Furthermore, a data set representing all variations of a mining operation or during processing can be used to build a statistical model (Principle Component Analysis, PCA) for clustering different iron ore grades based on XRD raw data using the software package HighScore Plus. Partial Least Square Regression, PLSR [2,3,4] can be used to predict process parameters for iron ore beneficiation directly from the XRD raw data, avoiding time and cost intense chemical and physical tests. An existing PLSR model of can be applied for fast definition of ore grades for new unknown samples.

An example for a statistical model (PCA analysis) of different iron ore grades is shown in Figure 3 bottom, [5]. The samples are characterized by a varying hematite/goethite ratio, clay and quartz content (Figure 3, top).

We clustered the patterns based on similarities and combined the cluster model with the quantitative mineralogical analyses results (Figure 3, bottom). Each small solid sphere corresponds to an XRD measurement of one sample, size of the sphere represents the amount of total iron in a corresponding sample. Samples with similar mineralogy are grouped in a cluster, shown by a semi-transparent sphere. Our statistical model consists of four clusters, characterized by different mineralogical content and hence different ore grade: green for low grade (low hematite), red for medium grade, blue and yellow for high grade, with yellow showing the sample with the highest hematite content.

To use this model for easy assessment of ore grade, an XRD pattern for a new sample should be measured and inserted into the model. It will be automatically assigned to one of the clusters, corresponding to a certain ore grade. Phase analyses can be done as well; however, is not required.

In the introduction blog, we discussed the advantages of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for online mineralogy monitoring. Not all minerals, commonly present in iron ore are spectrally active, however, such minerals like goethite, clays are spectrally active, and can therefore be easily identified and quantified using an on-line NIR over-the-belt analyzer. Real-time monitoring of goethite content can be used for e.g. effective ore blending. On-line control of the content of soft minerals in the run-of-mine will improve efficiency of beneficiation processes, prevent possible equipment blockage and other common issues associated with the presence of large quantities of soft minerals in the ore.

To summarize, with the decreasing iron ore grade, the chemical analyses alone is no longer sufficient for cost-effective mine operation. Mineralogy of iron ore deposits, directly influencing the outcome of any beneficiation step, must be considered. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an indispensable tool for fast, accurate and tailored mineralogical analyses. XRD can be used for the quantitative assessment of full mineralogical composition at every step of ore-to-metal process. New statistical methods (e.g. clustering, partial least square regression) opened up new possibilities for efficient use of large data sets, enabling quick and easy assessment of the ore grade, deviations in the process, as well as extraction of relevant process parameters directly from the diffraction data, eliminating the need for additional time-consuming, costly tests.

iron ore

iron ore

We know that not all Iron Ore deposits are the same and changing commodities prices are placing higher demands on producers to sweat the assets through process improvements, and increase revenues by converting tailings. Thats why understanding your project objectives and opportunities is our first step in developing solutions that transform your ores into valuable commodities. This holds true for all projects that we are involved in and forms the basis for our ongoing work in developing and delivering innovative and cost effectiveprocess solutionsacross the project lifecyclethat transform your ore bodies into valuable commodities.

To be confident in investing in a project, you need to know that the separation process will work on start-up and throughout the life of the operation. We give you certainty by testing representative samples and analysing the results beyond basic calculations to deliver innovative and cost effective process flowsheets that maximise the grade and recovery of valuable minerals including Magnetite, Hematite and Goethite.

Customers value our 75 years experience in metallurgical testing, whether performed in our extensive metallurgical test laboratory in Australia or, under our direction, in partner test laboratories in the USA, South Africa, Brasil and India.

We routinely test samples as small as 100 grams for characterisation and specific gravity fractionation, through to larger samples up to 2000 kg for bench and pilot scale testing and flowsheet development. We also have the capability to create multi-stage pilot scale circuits to treat bulk samples (80-100 tonnes) for process testing and circuit optimisation and our test equipment includes the latest gravity, electrostatic and magnetic equipment.

High grade concentrates and high recovery of iron ore can be achieved using effective feed preparation systems (typically controlled crushing, screening, milling, classification and slimes removal) in combination with cost effective, efficient metallurgical separation.

Hard rock hematite deposits often require a combination of milling, screening and on occasion, fine classification to prepare a finely sized (-1.0mm), liberated feed for beneficiation by gravity separation. This is typically followed by re-grinding of the tailings to liberate more hematite for further iron unit recovery by magnetic separation.

WHIMS are also often employed to recover fine hematite from spiral circuit tailings. The inclusion of medium intensity magnetic drum separation (MIMS) in combination with jigging may be considered for the beneficiation of the 6-1mm fraction of some friable ore bodies.

Having developed an effective and optimised flowsheet, you need a plant that safely and effectively applies this flowsheet to the ore body to extract high grade iron ore whilst delivering high availability, with low capital and low operational expenditure.

For this reason our equipment is designed and manufactured using the latest technologies and is fully tested in processing operations to ensure maximum performance. This means that when we release new process equipment you can be assured that it will be fit for purpose and cost effective.

A good example is the engineering we completed for ArcelorMittals projects in Canada and Africa. The specific ore required our teams to design a High Capacity wash water spiral which becames the HC33.

As a world leader in process solutions we have delivered some of the largest and most complex projects including design of the worlds largest wet concentrating plant at the ArcelorMittal project, and the design and supply of two tailings treatment beneficiationplants for Arrium in Australia.

existing and new processes for beneficiation of indian iron ores | springerlink

existing and new processes for beneficiation of indian iron ores | springerlink

The iron ore industries of India are expected to bring new technologies to cater to the need of the tremendous increase in demand for quality ores for steel making. With the high-grade ores depleting very fast, the focus is on the beneficiation of low-grade resources. However, most of these ores do not respond well to the conventional beneficiation techniquesused to achieve a suitable concentrate for steel and other metallurgical industries. The present communication discusses the beneficiation practices in the Indian context and the recent developments in alternative processing technologies such as reduction roasting, microwave-assisted heating, magnetic carrier technology and bio-beneficiation. Besides, the use of new collectors in iron ore flotation is also highlighted.

hyfor | primetals technologies

hyfor | primetals technologies

4(HYFOR)100%CO2HYFOR()HYFOR0.15 mm()

Finmet/FINOREDFINEX()()0.15 mm100%()CO20DRI()HBI

HYFOR--900 C(100%)(HDRI)600 CHYFOR(HBI)

Primetals Technologies, Limited7,000 www.primetals.com.

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