steps of open pit mining

describe the steps involved in open pit mining binq mining

describe the steps involved in open pit mining binq mining

3 Jan 2012 Open pit mining is the process of extracting ore, rocks or any valuable Most open pits are designed in a step-like structure, with each step Any mining design should anticipate environmental or public relations issues involved with the site. . What Are the Hazards Associated with Open Pit Mining?

Open pit mining requires close attention to geology, geotechnical planning, scheduling of A planned sequence of events is involved in mining a pit: Step 1. Designing the mining layout and blasts. Before any hole is drilled or rock mined,

Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rock Open-pit mines are dug on benches, which describe vertical levels of the hole. The steps in the walls help prevent rock falls continuing down the entire face of

This Code of Practice (this Code) on ground control for open pit mines is an approved and varying control measures that could be used in different open pit mines, this .. Detailed discussions on these steps and other aspects of open pit slope The model should describe the regional and mine site geology and provide

The project involved a detailed inter-facility comparison of the energy consumed in mining We describe our approach for developing energy cost . The open- pit mining operations were subdivided into 10 stages of production and three

Open pit mining is used to obtain ores that lie? What are the problems of Open- pit mining? Other than the exhaust of the equipment used Read More Phones ADHD Symptoms In Toddlers The Basic Steps of Making Great Pad Thai

Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining, open-cut mining, and strip Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially helpful minerals or The steps in the walls help avert rock falls continuing down the entire face of the wall.

Keywords: Mining method, surface mining, open pit mining, open cast mining, placer mining Section 2 describes surface mining equipment with particular focus on The first step in selecting the most appropriate mining Extraction of mineral or energy resources by operations exclusively involving personnel working on

It introduces students to the various phases involved in reference and describes the key concepts for the lesson. then described in a step-by-step format. This theme teaches students about open pit and underground mining, including

Gold Mining in the 21st Century: How Does Open Pit Gold Mining Really Work? The two most significant "Gold Rushes" in North America involved the panning of Each step of the way, a close analysis is made of the gold ore that is being

an open-pit mine is its tailings storage area. Providing It is often used as a construction material during mine development or may be stored in large piles and used after mining is . The first step to effective tailings management is to design a

the issues that should be addressed when open pit mines are excavated . Steps should be taken to ensure that hazardous areas are adequately marked at all times. .. describe safe work practices that can be used to reduce the risk or

The process of diamond mining generally starts with the formation of a geological a deep, open hole, often striated into several levels or steps, into which workers and removal supplies descend. Most open pit mines involve a combination of heavy machinery and diamond miner labor. What are Cruelty- Free Diamonds?

Open pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals are found near the surface of the earth. In some situations the steps are even reinforced for extra stability. . What Are the Hazards Associated with Open Pit Mining?

Lynx Case Study (Mining). Improved Confidence in an Open Pit Study This article will describe a complex geological property which has a marginal This first step in managing uncertainty is to eliminate the doubt related to modeling. A method of precise pit optimization commonly used in the mining industry is the

This paper describes the key objectives that long term planners are trying to achieve at each step The paper focuses on deposits amenable to open pit mining. LTP Tasks. The evaluation of a mineral deposit typically follows two stages of study depending on MSOPIT is used for the aforementioned stage one, tasks 1-3.

an overview of the open pit mining process

an overview of the open pit mining process

There are two types of mining methods commonly used in large scale mineral mining; open pit mining and tunneling. Open pit mining is used when the minerals to be mined are located just close to the surface. This is especially when the soil or material covering the minerals are relatively thin and can easily be moved for the mining to take place.

Open-pit mines are usually operated until either the mineral asset in them is depleted or expanding the mines becomes uneconomical to sustain. At such a point when this happens, the depleted mines are in some cases changed over to landfills for disposal of wastes.

Some type of water control is generally required to keep the pits for the open pit mine from turning into a lake; this is especially important if the mine is located in a climate with considerable precipitation or if the geological makeup of the mine allows for underground water movement.

Open-cast mines are burrowed on benches, which depict vertical levels of the pit. These benches are usually excavated at between four and sixty-meter intervals. The size of the benches depends on the size of bulldozers used to make them.

Most of the open pits mines used to produce building materials (quarries) are usually shallow and thus dont have benches. The walls of the pits are excavated at an angle to minimize the dangers associated with having vertical walls such as falling rocks. This is determined the nature of the rocks especially their weathering and structural weaknesses such as foliations, shears, and faults within the area.

The walls to the pits are usually stepped. The flat part of the wall steps is known as the berm or bench while the slanted segment of the walls is known as the batter. The creation of steps in the walls is meant to help prevent rocks falling. Sometimes rock bolts, shotcretes, and cable bolts are used to create additional support for the walls. De-watering drills might be used to help mitigate water weight by boring on a level plane into the walls, which might affect the strength of the walls.

Other than strong walls, open pit mines are made with a strong haul road which is generally built along the edge of the pit, in the form of a gradual slope up from the bottom of the pit on which trucks can drive up carrying both minerals and waste rocks. The waste rocks are heaped up on the surface, close to the edge of the open pit in what is commonly referred to as the waste dump. The waste dump is likewise layered and stepped, to slow down degradation.

Tailings dams can be poisonous because of the presence of toxic materials such as unextracted sulfide minerals, several types of harmful minerals in the gangue, and most often cyanide which is utilized to treat gold ore using the heap leaching process. This poisonous materials can be harmful to the encompassing environment if not managed properly.

When the mineral in the open pit is depleted, the mine need to undergo rehabilitation. Some of the time, abandoned open pits are used as dumping for solid waste. In the event that the mined ore contained sulfides it is secured with a layer of mud to be used avert access of rainwater and oxygen from the air, which can oxidize the sulfides to produce sulfuric acid. The mine is then covered with soils and vegetables planted over it to recover the natural look of the area.

Mine rehabilitation is an important step in the process of developing a mine, and most countries require a plan in place to to rehabilitate the land following a mining operation, although not all countries have the same requirements. 3rd world countries are generally much more relaxed about regulations than some of the major gold mining countries such as Canada, Australia, or the United States.

reading: open-pit mining | geology

reading: open-pit mining | geology

This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rocks are found near the surface; that is, where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunneling (as would be the case for sand, cinder, and gravel). For minerals that occur deep below the surfacewhere the overburden is thick or the mineral occurs as veins in hard rockunderground mining methods extract the valued material.

Open-pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. However, some form of water control is usually required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake, if the mine is situated in a climate of considerableprecipitation or if any layers of the pit forming the mine border productive aquifers.

Open-cast mines are dug on benches, which describe vertical levels of the hole. These benches are usually on four to sixty meter intervals, depending on the size of the machinery that is being used. Many quarries do not use benches, as they are usually shallow.

Most walls of the pit are generally dug on an angle less than vertical, to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. This depends on how weathered the rocks are, and the type of rock, and also how many structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a faults, shears, joints orfoliations.

The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, and the flat part of the step is known as the bench or berm. The steps in the walls help prevent rock falls continuing down the entire face of the wall. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and shotcrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, which is often enough to cause failures in the wall by itself.

Ore which has been processed is known as tailings, and is generally a slurry. This is pumped to a tailings dam or settling pond, where the water evaporates. Tailings dams can often be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, and oftencyanide which is used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process. This toxicity can harm the surrounding environment.

After mining finishes, the mine area must undergo rehabilitation. Waste dumps are contoured to flatten them out, to further stabilise them. If the ore contains sulfides it is usually covered with a layer of clay to prevent access of rain and oxygen from the air, which can oxidise the sulfides to producesulfuric acid, a phenomenon known as acid mine drainage. This is then generally covered with soil, and vegetation is planted to help consolidate the material. Eventually this layer will erode, but it is generally hoped that the rate of leaching or acid will be slowed by the cover such that the environment can handle the load of acid and associated heavy metals. There are no long term studies on the success of these covers due to the relatively short time in which large scale open pit mining has existed. It may take hundreds to thousands of years for some waste dumps to become acid neutral and stop leaching to the environment. The dumps are usually fenced off to prevent livestock denuding them of vegetation. The open pit is then surrounded with afence, to prevent access, and it generally eventually fills up with ground water. In arid areas it may not fill due to deep groundwater levels.

Gold is generally extracted in open-pit mines at 1 to 2ppm (parts per million) but in certain cases, 0.75ppm gold is economical. This was achieved by bulk heap leaching at the Peak Hill mine in western New South Wales, near Dubbo, Australia.

Nickel, generally as laterite, is extracted via open-pit down to 0.2%. Copper is extracted at grades as low as 0.15% to 0.2%, generally in massive open-pit mines in Chile, where the size of the resources and favorable metallurgy allows economies of scale.

strip mining, open-pit mining, surface mining, mining techniques, mining equipment, mining dictionary

strip mining, open-pit mining, surface mining, mining techniques, mining equipment, mining dictionary

Strip mining is a kind of surface mining. The ore is very near to the surface of the land but has one or more layers of rock and filth on top of it. To mine the ore, these layers have to be removed.

When the coal or mineral is found, it may be broken up by the blazing. The size of the chunks is important because the miners don't normally want it in minute pieces. They usually want it in pieces that are capable to be moved with big machinery.

This mining is done in elongated, narrow strips. When the ore is done in one strip, the miners start to create another strip next to it. The waste, filth, and rock that they take off of the top of the next strip is put on top of the last one. This is recurring until the last strip is done and the waste from the primary strip is brought back to fill it.

Strip mining, like other types of surface mining, finishes in hurting the area around the mine. The rock, gravel, trees, plants, and filth are dumped in regions round the mine. When it rains, this runs over the land and into watercourse and rivers. The rain pushes the mine filth on top of the region topsoil and buries it. The streams lands up being blocked and rivers flood. Water is impure by the flooding. The mined land was normally ruined, too. There were no vegetation left. The topper most layer of the soil was bulldozed under the rock. It became the cheap and swift way to mine awaiting the U.S. Government made mining firms fix [regain] the land when the mining was done. To regain land, mining firms have to fix the land and make it like it was prior to. With strip mining, waste was pushed onto the final strip mined. This lands up making a whole bunch of rows that require to be leveled when mining is done. The mining firm has bulldozers flatten the elevated strips until they are all even. Topsoil is bulldozed over the top of the whole thing and trees and grasses are planted.

Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.

literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.

The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".

Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.

Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.

Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.

Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.

Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.

open-pit mining definition | anglo american

open-pit mining definition | anglo american

Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining, is a surface mining technique that extracts minerals from an open pit in the ground. Open-pit mining is the most common method used throughout the world for mineral mining and does not require extractive methods or tunnels. This surface mining technique is used when mineral or ore deposits are found relatively close to the surface of the earth. Open-pits are sometimes called quarries when they produce building materials and dimension stone.

Open-pit mines are dug on benches that are between four and sixty-meters in size, depending on the size of machinery used to excavate. The walls of most open-pit mines are dug at an angle and include steps to prevent avalanches from occurring inside the build site. The incline section of the wall is called the batter, and the flat part of the step is called the bench or berm.

Waste rock is piled up near the edge of the pit and spreads both horizontally and vertically. This is known as the waste dump. The waste dump is also tiered and stepped, to keep rocks from falling into other parts of the site.

After mining finishes, the mine area must undergo rehabilitation to minimize environmental damage. This step in the mining process is critical to ensuring the sustainability of the land for future use.

First, waste dumps are contoured to flatten them out and stabilize them. If the ore contains sulfides, it is covered with a layer of clay to prevent rain and oxygen from oxidizing the sulfides into sulfuric acid, which is also known as acid mine drainage.

Then, the waste dump is covered with soil, vegetation is planted, and the area is fenced to prevent livestock from eating the newly planted vegetation. This layer will eventually erode but in the meantime, it will allow the leaching of heavy metals to occur slowly enough for the surrounding environment to absorb them.

open pit mining techniques|surface mines|rock or mineral extraction

open pit mining techniques|surface mines|rock or mineral extraction

Open-pit Mining Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining, open-cut mining, and strip mining, means a process of digging out rock or minerals from the earth by their elimination from an open pit or borrow. The word is used to distinguish this type of mining from extractive methods that need tunneling into the earth. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially helpful minerals or rock are found close to the surface; that is, where the overburden (layer material covering the valuable deposit) is comparatively thin or the material of interest is structurally inappropriate for tunneling. For minerals that happen deep underneath the surface-where the overstrain is solid or the mineral happens as veins in hard rock- underground mining methods take out the precious material.

Open-pit mines that manufacture building materials and dimension stone are usually referred to as quarries. People in few of the English-speaking countries are not likely to make a difference among an open-pit mine and other kinds of open-cast mines, like quarries, borrows, placers, and strip mines. Open-pit mines are characteristically engorged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or a mounting ratio of overburden to ore makes more mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are at times converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. Nevertheless, some form of water control is normally required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake. Open Cut mines are dug on benches, which portray vertical levels of the hole. These benches are normally on four meter to sixty meter intervals, relying on the size of the machinery that is being utilized. A lot of quarries do not use benches, as they are normally shallow. Most walls of the pit are normally dug on an angle less than vertical, to avert and lessen damage and hazard from rock falls. This relies on how weathered the rocks are, and the kind of rock, and also how a lot of structural weaknesses happen within the rocks, like a fault, shears, joints or foliations.

The walls are stepped. The inclined part of the wall is called the batter, and the flat part of the step is called as the bench or perm. The steps in the walls help avert rock falls continuing down the entire face of the wall. In some instances additional ground support is needed and rock bolts, cable bolts and shotcrete are utilized. De-watering bores might be used to ease water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, which is frequently sufficient to cause failures in the wall by itself. A haul road is located at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks may drive, taking ore and waste rock. Waste rock is piled up at the surface, near the edge of the open cut. This is known as the waste dump. The waste dump is also tiered and stepped, to lessen degradation. Ore which has been processed is called as tailings, and is normally slurry. This is pumped to a tailings dam or settling pond, where the water fades away. Tailings dams may frequently be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, few types of toxic minerals in the gangue, and frequently cyanide which is utilized to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach method.

Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.

literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.

The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".

Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.

Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.

Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.

Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.

Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.

what is open-pit mining? (with picture)

what is open-pit mining? (with picture)

Just like the name suggests, open-pit mining is a type of mining operation that involves the digging of an open pit as a means of gaining access to a desired material. This is a type of surface mining that involves the extraction of minerals and other materials that are conveniently located in close proximity to the surface of the mining site. It differs from other types of mining processes that may require the digging of underground tunnels a long distance from the surface in order to reach the material. One of the advantages of the open-pit mining system is the fact that it is not as capital or labor intensive as the underground method of mineral or precious metal and stone extraction.

The process of open-pit mining is precipitated by the analysis of the area in order to determine the presence of the desired material that may be coal or ore. If it is determined that the desired materials are present in the area, the next step would be to calculate the stripping ratio of the mining process, meaning that even though ore, coal or another desired material may be present, the profitability of mining it has to be ascertained. This may be done by calculating how much of the surface material obstructing the mineral of choice has to be moved in order to reach the desired material. Generally, the less effort it takes to extract whatever material is in the sites, the more the mining company stands to gain in terms of profit as a consequence of the fact that the material and labor investments will be reduced. The stripping ratio in open-pit mining is important because the profitability of that particular mining venture hinges on the ability of the company to gain more from the extraction process than what it expends in order to obtain access to the material.

Usually, the open pit-mining system is one that is based on simplicity due to the fact that it merely requires the shifting of whatever material is covering the deposit. This process may be expedited if the top material is made up of easily maneuverable material, such as coarse sand, as opposed to rocks that may require more specialized equipment to break down and move them from the site. After a while, the profitability of such mines will decrease since the materials that are closest to the surface will have been mined.

@pastanaga - There are advantages and disadvantages in every kind of mining process, but I'm not sure in a lot of cases that mining is necessary at all. That's the best means of ensuring that no one gets sick or that the environment maintains its integrity, after all.

@browncoat - Actually, open pit mining can be better than the alternative, as long as it's done well. For one thing, it isn't always done on pristine forested glades and usually there is a condition in the planning that the company involved has to fill in the pit when they're done and plant over it. So the land could end up being better than it was when they started. And mining is extremely dangerous when you dig down under the ground instead of into it. Open pit mining might not be completely safe, but it's safer than having deep tunnels that will probably never be filled and may contain dangerous gases or become unstable over time.

And mining is extremely dangerous when you dig down under the ground instead of into it. Open pit mining might not be completely safe, but it's safer than having deep tunnels that will probably never be filled and may contain dangerous gases or become unstable over time.

Open pit mining is just so destructive and awful I don't know how it can be allowed anywhere, let alone in the places it's often done. They basically just strip off huge chunks of land so that nothing can grow there and in the process they end up polluting nearby water supplies and disrupting every other local natural process, since they use loud, obtrusive machinery. The pollution tends to be heavy metals that take forever to leave the ecosystem and cause all kinds of problems in any creature that encounters them. Basically, it's the kind of exploitative resource gathering that ensures our grandkids are going to think we were complete idiots with no regard for our own health and wellness.

The pollution tends to be heavy metals that take forever to leave the ecosystem and cause all kinds of problems in any creature that encounters them. Basically, it's the kind of exploitative resource gathering that ensures our grandkids are going to think we were complete idiots with no regard for our own health and wellness.

open pit mine planning and design - a guide to using open pit data in micromines scheduler - part 1 - micromine

open pit mine planning and design - a guide to using open pit data in micromines scheduler - part 1 - micromine

Before any mine scheduling can be completed, a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) pit design must be created. The easiest way of doing this is using the Interactive Create Wireframe tool, allowing the user to create a wireframe within two simple steps .

To create realistic mining shapes a pit shell solid must be cookie cut into mining block wireframes. The new Wireframe | Operations | Create Mining Blocks function takes a pit solid and generates mining blocks based on a planar, regular, cutting grid and equally spaced bench heights.

The output of this operation is mining block wireframes and (optionally) a string file representing the cutting grid.The output blocks are automatically attributed with some of the key attributes that will be used in mine scheduling.

Interrogating the mining block wireframes against a block model is the next key step in the workflow. The process provides information about the quantities and qualities of different material types within the mining blocks.

Before any calculations you must classifying the different material bins within the model. This is achieved by defining unique filter conditions. Once the filter conditions are defined the Grade Tonnage tool can be populated. A Material set is used to define the material bins involved in the interrogation. Attributes defined in the material set can be automatically created and written onto the mining block wireframes once the process is run.

A scheduling project can be started once you have attributed mining block wireframes. A key step in setting up a scheduler project involves defining Scheduler Attributes via Scheduling| Manage Attributes. These attributes represent the physical (Volume, Tonnes, Grade) and custom properties (Pit, Stage, Zone, Block Name) of mining tasks and must be defined before the information can be brought into the scheduler. Therefore, it is important to create scheduler attributes for any properties that you want to include in the schedule.

The next key step, to be covered in Part 2 of this blog, is to map scheduler attributes to attributes on the mining block wireframes. This will ensure that tasks have meaningful values once they are imported into a project.

Related Equipments