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Shanghai XiaZhou Industry Machinery Co., Ltd. Is a professional engaged in mining machinery and equipment development, production, sales and after-sales service as one of the large enterprises.The company has many years of mining machinery and equipment production history.
Jiaozuo Zhongxin Heavy Industrial Machinery Co.,Ltd is a crushing and screening equipment manufacturer in China.We produce full range of cone crusher,jaw crusher,impact crusher,vertical shaft impact crusher,vibrating screen ,vibrating feeder,sand washing machine,etc.We not only provide high cost performance products,but also first-rate service and solutions.
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JXSC HP(Hydraulic Multi-cylinder) Series Cone Crusher is developed on the spring cone crusher. It has the hydraulic adjustment function and stronger elastic recovery function, and with the more comprehensive insurance measures. The types of cone crushers use advanced technology, numerical control operation. The useful life increased by 30%-50% because of the working principle of more grind less crush.
JXSC HP cone crusher has the invincible advantages in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th crushing stage for a wide range of applications including mineral processing, aggregate processing, quarry plant, etc. Bring revolutionary meaning for cone crusher development, because of its compatible function of all day working, automation, high crushing performance, low probability of choking.Popular HP series cone crushers have HP100, HP200, HP300, HP400, HP500, HP800, well-known cone crusher manufacturers: Nordberg, Metso, Sandvik.Only constant innovation can create greater success, and so can cone crushers. Nordberg cone crusher absorbs and develop the advantages of Symons crusher and Omnicone, and be proved that combines with the marketable performance like high capability, easy operation, low wear cost, long service life, and best product shape.HP cone crusher main parts are feed bowl hopper, adjusting ring, mainframe, gear, eccentric, hydraulic motor, countershaft, tramp release, etc.
Less downtime The hydraulic tramp release design enables the cone crushers minimizes the possibility of choking caused by the tramp iron, and the large clearing stroke further reduced the downtime thus increase the efficiency.
Long service life The high-performance sealing system prevents dust entry into inner frame unless worn, that means to have a protection of moving parts reduce the possibility of contacting the rock and dust, and prolong the service life of the wear parts( head ball, liner, countershaft, feed hopper, etc.)
Easy to operate The hydraulic motor setting system greatly reduced the operation difficulty by high automation performance, more accurate setting maximum the capability while optimal crushing circuit. Besides, the design of a data transducer enables the HP cone crusher connecting to the DCS control system for intelligent operation.
Versatility HP cone crusher combines with the advantages of the Symons. only need to change the bowl liner, mantle and other components can apply in different stages which from secondary to quaternary, from coarse to extremely fine.
When the multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher works, the motor drives the transmission shaft twirl by the belt pulley and the triangle belt. The transmission shaft drives the mantle rotates around the spindle through the big and small bevel gears. The eccentric sleeve drives the movable cone rotation. The movable cone and fixed cone sometimes near and sometimes far from the wall of the rolling mortar, the materials in the crushing cavity are constantly ground and crushed, then the crushed materials are discharged from the lower part.
When there is a non-crushed material(such as iron) in the crushing cavity, the hydraulic overload protection system with automatic reset. The upper frame lifts up, the iron and another un-crushable permit to pass. Then the system automatically returns the upper frame to its original position.
Multi-cylinder Hydraulic Cone Crusher is developed on the spring cone crusher, which adds a hydraulic safety system to protect overload. After you watch this video, the machine working principle is very clear.]JXSC Mine Machinery Factory who provide the crushing machine, sand plant equipment, and mining equipment.stone crusher: jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, mob crusher, hammer crusher, roll crusher.sand plant equipment: sand
Shanghai Joyal Machinery Co., Ltd.devoted herself into manufacturing of industrial stone crushing & screening equipment, grinding mills and mining equipment. Our company has already formed a full set of modern production line, the main products are Jaw Crushers, Cone Crushers, Impact Crushers, VSI Sand Crushers,Sand Washers, Ultra fine Roller Mills etc., We assure you of our continuous atention and unfailling commitment to customer service at all times.
Joyal Machinery, with strength advantages of qualified quality &competitive price, we are strong enough to satisfy the production demand for various aggregate of all global customers. Quality assurance & satisfactory after-sale service are always Joyal peoples belief!
Shanghai Dongmeng Road & Bridge Machinery Co., Ltd. is a modern enterprise specializing in the research and development, manufacturing and sales of crushing and screening equipment (fixed and mobile).Relying on the pioneering and enterprising spirit, the unremitting pursuit of product excellence and Shanghai's industrial chain advantages
Dongmeng has established a complete service system to provide customers with comprehensive, fast, active and timely quality services. Through pre-sales consultation, proposal design, site planning, equipment transportation and installation, after-sales training and maintenance and other one-stop service system to ensure a greater return on customer investment.
JXSC stone cone crusher machine is widely used in many sectors, such as mining, smelting, building materials, roads, railways, water conservancy, and chemical industries. Our stone crushers machine is suitable for primary, secondary and tertiary crushing. Cone crushers mainly divide into GP, HP and Symons series, compound, CS, HPC, sand, laboratory, propel cone, etc.
JXSC provides a high-quality rock crusher cone machine, like the brands of Mesto and Nordberg. We also have other series crushing machines, such as jaw crusher, impact crusher, hammer crushers and sand making machines.
The cone series crushers compress stone/rock mineral materials by squeezing force between the fixed shaft and moving shaft. Change the least gap between the two crushing shafts of the equipment can adjust the target particle size. When the wedge or eccentric rotator starts to work, compression comes into being within the cavity. As the rock materials move down, the chamber mouth becomes narrower, the material becomes smaller. The crushed materials discharge at the lowest of the machine once they through the chamber.
Cone crushing types of equipment are widely used in metal and non-metal mines, cement plants, sand and stone metallurgy and other industries. It is applicable to various ores and rocks with fine and fine Platt hardness 5~16, such as iron, granite, limestone, quartzite, etc. Its working principle is the same as that of the gyratory crusher, but stone crusher cone only for crushing medium or fine material. The uniformity of the discharge particle size of the medium and fine crushing operations is generally higher than that required for the coarse crushing operation. Therefore, there is must provides a parallel section at the lower part of the crushing chamber. At the same time, expediting the rotation speed so that the material is in the parallel zone and squeeze more.
The crushing of the medium-fine crushing operation is larger than coarse. Then the loose volume after the crushing has a large increase. In order to prevent the crushing chamber from causing clogging, it needs to increase the total discharge cross-section by increasing the diameter of the lower portion of the crushing cone. And without increasing the discharge opening to ensure the required discharge size.
The discharge opening of the cone crusher parts is small. It is easier to cause accidents if feeding the non-crushed material. Because the medium and fine crushing operations have strict requirements on the discharge size. It must adjust the discharge opening in time after the liner is worn, if not will damage the cone.
When the Simon-type spring safety rock crusher cone overload, the tapered housing forces the spring to compress and raise itself to increase the discharge opening, and discharge the non-crushed material. The adjustment of the discharge opening is via adjusting the sleeve. And the adjustment sleeve of the housing can be rotated to drive the housing to rise or fall by the thread on the outer circumference to change the size of the discharge opening. The secure and adjust of hydraulic cone crushers in the same way as a hydraulic gyratory crusher.
When the cone crusher is working, the rotation of the motor rotates by a belt pulley or a coupling. Some drive shaft and cone portion rotates under the urging of the eccentric sleeve. Therefore, the broken wall of the crushing cone is close to and sometimes leaves the surface of the rolling wall fixed on the adjusting sleeve. Then the ore is continuously subjected to impact, pressing and bending in the crushing chamber to realize the crushing of the ore. The motor drives the eccentric sleeve to rotate by the bevel gear, the crushing cone rotates. The crushing cone is close to and then leaves the fixed cone to complete the crushing and discharging. The joint between the support sleeve and the frame body is pressed by the spring. When the crusher falls into a non-breakable object such as a metal block. The spring is compressed and deformed to discharge foreign matter. Therefore achieving insurance and preventing damage to the machine.
When the tertiary cone crushers pass through the crushing chamber or the machine overload for some reason. The cone crusher spring insurance system realizes the insurance, and the discharge port increases. The foreign matter is discharged from the crushing chamber of the cone crusher. If the foreign matter is stuck in the ore, it can uses the clearing system to continues increase the output. The foreign matters discharge out. Under the action of the spring, the cone crush machine automatically resets the discharge port, and resumes normal operation. The surface of the crushing chamber cover with a wear-resistant high manganese steel liner. The size of the discharge port is adjusted by hydraulically or manually.
The name of the single-cylinder cone crusher is because it is supported by a hydraulic cylinder at the bottom to support its crushing force. Due to the high rigidity of the hydraulic medium, the load force of the crusher can be well supported. At the same time, the protection effect is better in overload protection, and the crushing force can be made larger. Improving the power factor, reducing the equipment and foundation. Facility investment. The hydraulic cone crusher is also better than the springs.
The single-cylinder crushing machines construction is relatively simple, and the feed size of the S-cavity cone crushers can be larger. The CC series single-cylinder cone crusher also has a relatively simple structure, easy to use and maintain. JXSC CC series single-cylinder crusher has been widely used in hydropower, nuclear power, highway, high-speed rail, stone, mining and non-metal mines, and has been fully recognized by users. Its performance is comparable to that of foreign mesto brands. Good equipment also needs good maintenance, so the machine needs to care. The working condition during the use process also determines the service life of the equipment. It is very important to always do the maintenance work on the equipment to ensure that the equipment works under normal working conditions. Due to the structure of the crushers, it should pay special attention to the problems of crowding the feed, the segregation of the feed, the drop of the feed, and the like. And minimizing the unnecessary impact to cause abnormal damage to the crushers.
The multi-cylinder cone crusher evolves from the original multi-spring cone crusher. The hydraulic instead of the spring has a better protection effect, and the crushing force can be made larger. Then it will more powerful and efficient. The hydraulic cone crushers are also better than the spring cone machine. However, the structure of the hydraulic cone crusher is relatively more complicated. The cost of one input is higher than that of the spring cone crushers.
Although single-cylinder and multi-cylinder are named according to the number of hydraulic cylinders, we cant simply understand that the construction of them is the same. There is a big difference between the two cones crusher. The multi-cylinder hydraulic cone has a broken load-bearing structure, and the main shaft is not as long as a single-cylinder hydraulic cone. The multi-cylinder hydraulic cone-breaking overload protection device locates outside the casing. There are multiple accumulators single or multiple safety valves If there is excessive iron or jam. Accumulator stamping, if the pressure continues to rise, the safety valve will relieve, the upper frame will rise. And the gap between the broken walls will increase, and the iron block or the stuck material will fall.
Jiangxi Shicheng stone crusher manufacturer is a new and high-tech factory specialized in R&D and manufacturing crushing lines, beneficial equipment,sand-making machinery and grinding plants. Read More
According to the crushing force mode, the crusher machine divides into stone crushers and grinding machine.Whats the difference between stone crusher and grinding mill?General speaking, the former one is used to reduce the larger slab into a smaller size, various models of crusher are designed to maximize productivity at the lowest cost. The configuration of the suited crush machine is varied with different crushing stages in the complete crushing circuit, coarse crushing, medium-sized crushing, and fine crushing. The latter one of grinding mill machines are preferred to process fine and extremely fine material, grinding mediums include steel ball, steel rod, gravel, and metal lump so on. Some equipment is capable of crushing and grinding, such as self mill.Discrimination of the working principle1 Jaw Crusher. The movable jaw plate continually presses against the fixed die at a set time and force to squeeze the rock material caught in it.2 Cone Crusher. The inner movable cone rotates eccentricity and bumps the outer fixed cone, thus exerting strong crushing force on the ore material.3 Roll Crusher. The ore material is subjected to continuous crushing and impacting force between the two rollers.4 Impact Crusher. The ore lump crushed by the impact force of rapidly rotating moving parts.5 Ore Grinding Machine. The ore slab is crushed by the impact and grinding force of the grinding medium (steel ball, bar, gravel or lump) in the rotating cylinder. Rod mill, pan mill, ball mill, vibration mill, centrifugal mill, etc.Each kind of crusher has various models to suit different applications. Jaw crusher has the features of large crushing ratio, uniform product size, simple structure, reliable work, easy maintenance and economical operation cost. PF-I series impact crusher can crush materials with length less than 100 ~ 500 mm and its compressive strength can reach up to 350 MPA, which has the advantages of large crushing ratio. It is suitable for crushing medium hard materials, such as limestone in cement plant.
1 Adjustable fine crusherThe adjustable fine crusher mainly consists of a rotary part, guard plate, crushing chamber. The latest fine crusher equipped with a hydraulic device can be very convenient to maintain, save time cost.2 Jaw crushing typeJaw crusher, is the first choice for primary crushing equipment, with large crushing ratio, uniform product size, simple structure, the relatively small volume can be installed in the tiny space, etc. Therefore, it is widely used in mines, metallurgy, construction material, water conservancy and chemical industries.Compared with cone crusher, jaw type crusher has less investment, less finished flake and lower production cost. Compared with hammer crusher, the wear resistant parts have longer service time, high production efficiency and fewer maintain fees.The common jaw crusher has single toggle type and double toggle type, the former one also called as simple swing crusher, the latter one is called as complex swing crusher.3. Gyratory crusherThe gyratory crusher is a large scale crushing machine which uses the gyratory movement of the crushing cone in the crushing cavity to extrude, squeeze and bend the materials. When the shaft sleeve rotates, the crushing cone is moving in eccentric around the center line of the machine continuously. The productivity of gyratory crusher is higher than that of jaw crusher.There are two types of discharging material and overload insurance, one is mechanical type, by adjusting the nuts on the top of the main shaft to lift up or down the crushing cone, thus change the discharge outlet width, and by cutting the safety pin on the driving pulley to stop overload. Another way is hydraulic gyratory crusher type, by changing the plunger under the hydraulic oil volume can adjust the crushing cone position, thus changing the size of the discharge port.4 Cone crusherCone crusher widely used in the metal and mon-metal mines, cement, sand & gravel, aggregate, quarry, metallurgy and other industries. it is suited for fine crushing all kinds of ores and rocks with hardness 5 ~ 16, such as iron ore, Non-ferrous metal ore, granite, limestone, quartzite, sandstone, cobblestone, etc.The working principle of cone crusher is the same as that of gyratory crusher, but it is only suitable for medium-sized crushing or fine crushing. The requirements of uniformity of particle size distribution in medium and fine crushing operations are generally higher than that in the coarse crushing operation. Therefore, a section of the parallel zone should be set at the lower part of the crushing cavity. In addition, the rotating speed of the crushing cone should be accelerated so that the material can be squeezed more than once in the parallel zone.The crushing of fine crushing operation is larger than that of coarse crushing operation, so the loose volume after crushing increases greatly. In order to prevent the crushing chamber from blocking, the total discharging cross section must be increased by increasing the diameter of the lower part of the crushing cone without increasing the discharging opening to ensure the required discharging granularity.When the Simon Spring Safety cone crusher overloads, the cone-shaped Shell forces the spring to compress and raise itself in order to enlarge the discharge port and discharge the non-broken material. The adjustment of the discharge opening is carried out by the adjusting cover, and the adjusting cover fixed with the shell can be rotated to drive the shell up or down by the thread on the outer circle, so as to change the size of the discharge opening. The safety and adjustment mode of hydraulic cone crusher is the same as that of hydraulic gyratory crusher.Maintenance of cone crusher1, Ensure full load production, avoid too coarse product granularity.2, Optimize the cone crusher productivity by setting reasonable crushing ratio.3, It is necessary that equipped with an iron removal device.4, The spring cannot be too heavy pressured, the large pressure may occur shaft broke, light pressure may cause spring vibrating, influence the crushing efficiency.
Right way. First of all, you need to know the crusher materials, the maximum feeding size, finished particle size, handling capacity, crushing environment. With detailed information, JXSC will provide the stone crusher suitable for your production needs.
The humidity and hardness of different materials are different. The higher the hardness, the higher the degree of difficulty. For example, granite hardness, the jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher will better. River pebble texture hard wear-resistant, roller crusher crushing effect is better. Brittle materials are more suitable for heavy hammer crushers, such as calcite.
2. Sorting machineWe can design the crushing plant flow chart when knowing the crushing demand and determine the primary, secondary and tertiary crusher use of which type. crusher. The next step is to choose the type of device. In order to improve efficiency, the general primary crusher processing capacity will be larger than the secondary.
1. Control material sizeThe crusher has a maximum feed size. When the feed particle size is too large to the equipment caused serious damage. Whether soft or medium-hard material, both cause different damage. If some of the materials are larger than the maximum feeding size of the crusher, the crusher is easy to appear stuck cavity, blocking phenomenon, affecting the aggregate production efficiency. 2. Correct feeding materialMany enterprises in order to increase the production capacity and blindly carry out the transformation of the bunker. It resulted in excessive feeding. And that feed too much, it will cause the material too late to break, and the broken material can not be discharged in time, resulting in blocking. Therefore, material cut-off and excessive feeding will affect the capacity of the crusher. 3. Maintenance and repairsThe daily maintenance and repair of the stone crusher is the key to the effective operation of the equipment. Check the machine regularly and replace the wear-out parts in time.
Jiangxi Shicheng stone crusher manufacturer is a new and high-tech factory specialized in R&D and manufacturing crushing lines, beneficial equipment,sand-making machinery and grinding plants. Read More
Cone crushers were originally designed and developed by Symons around 1920 and therefore are often described as Symons cone crushers. As the mechanisms of crushing in these crushers are similar to gyratory crushers their designs are similar, but in this case the spindle is supported at the bottom of the gyrating cone instead of being suspended as in larger gyratory crushers. Figure5.3 is a schematic diagram of a cone crusher.
The breaking head gyrates inside an inverted truncated cone. These crushers are designed so that the head-to-depth ratio is larger than the standard gyratory crusher and the cone angles are much flatter and the slope of the mantle and the concaves are parallel to each other. The flatter cone angles help to retain the particles longer between the crushing surfaces and therefore produce much finer particles. To prevent damage to the crushing surfaces, the concave or shell of the crushers is held in place by strong springs or hydraulics which yield to permit uncrushable tramp material to pass through.
The secondary crushers are designated as Standard cone crushers having stepped liners and tertiary Short Head cone crushers, which have smoother crushing faces and steeper cone angles of the breaking head. The approximate distance of the annular space at the discharge end designates the size of the cone crushers. A brief summary of the design characteristics is given in Table5.4 for crusher operation in open-circuit and closed-circuit situations.
The Standard cone crushers are for normal use. The Short Head cone crushers are designed for tertiary or quaternary crushing where finer product is required. These crushers are invariably operated in closed circuit. The final product sizes are fine, medium or coarse depending on the closed set spacing, the configuration of the crushing chamber and classifier performance, which is always installed in parallel.
For finer product sizes, i.e., less than 6mm, special cone crushers known as Gyradisc crushers are available. The operation is similar to the standard cone crushers, except that the size reduction is caused more by attrition than by impact . The reduction ratio is around 8:1 and as the product size is relatively small the feed size is limited to less than 50mm with a nip angle between 25 and 30. The Gyradisc crushers have head diameters from around 900 to 2100mm. These crushers are always operated under choke feed conditions. The feed size is less than 50mm and therefore the product size is usually less than 69mm.
Maintenance of the wear components in both gyratory and cone crushers is one of the major operating costs. Wear monitoring is possible using a Faro Arm (Figure 6.10), which is a portable coordinate measurement machine. Ultrasonic profiling is also used. A more advanced system using a laser scanner tool to profile the mantle and concave produces a 3D image of the crushing chamber (Erikson, 2014). Some of the benefits of the liner profiling systems include: improved prediction of mantle and concave liner replacement; identifying asymmetric and high wear areas; measurement of open and closed side settings; and quantifying wear life with competing liner alloys.
Various types of rock fracture occur at different loading rates. For example, rock destruction by a boring machine, a jaw or cone crusher, and a grinding roll machine are within the extent of low loading rates, often called quasistatic loading condition. On the contrary, rock fracture in percussive drilling and blasting happens under high loading rates, usually named dynamic loading condition. This chapter presents loading rate effects on rock strengths, rock fracture toughness, rock fragmentation, energy partitioning, and energy efficiency. Finally, some of engineering applications of loading rate effects are discussed.
In Chapter4, we have already seen the mechanism of crushing in a jaw crusher. Considering it further we can see that when a single particle, marked 1 in Figure11.5a, is nipped between the jaws of a jaw crusher the particle breaks producing fragments, marked 2 and 3 in Figure11.5b. Particles marked 2 are larger than the open set on the crusher and are retained for crushing on the next cycle. Particles of size 3, smaller than the open set of the crusher, can travel down faster and occupy or pass through the lower portion of the crusher while the jaw swings away. In the next cycle the probability of the larger particles (size 2) breaking is greater than the smaller sized particle 3. In the following cycle, therefore, particle size 2 is likely to disappear preferentially and the progeny joins the rest of thesmaller size particles indicated as 3 in Figure11.5c. In the figures, the position of the crushed particles that do not exist after comminution is shaded white (merely to indicate the positions they had occupied before comminution). Particles that have been crushed and travelled down are shown in grey. The figure clearly illustrates the mechanism of crushing and the classification that takes place within the breaking zone during the process, as also illustrated in Figure11.4. This type of breakage process occurs within a jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, roll crusher and rod mills. Equation (11.19) then is a description of the crusher model.
In practice however, instead of a single particle, the feed consists of a combination of particles present in several size fractions. The probability of breakage of some relatively larger sized particles in preference to smaller particles has already been mentioned. For completeness, the curve for the probability of breakage of different particle sizes is again shown in Figure11.6. It can be seen that for particle sizes ranging between 0 K1, the probability of breakage is zero as the particles are too small. Sizes between K1 and K2 are assumed to break according a parabolic curve. Particle sizes greater than K2 would always be broken. According to Whiten , this classification function Ci, representing the probability of a particle of size di entering the breakage stage of the crusher, may be expressed as
The classification function can be readily expressed as a lower triangular matrix [1,16] where the elements represent the proportion of particles in each size interval that would break. To construct a mathematical model to relate product and feed sizes where the crusher feed contains a proportion of particles which are smaller than the closed set and hence will pass through the crusher with little or no breakage, Whiten  advocated a crusher model as shown in Figure11.7.
The considerations in Figure11.7 are similar to the general model for size reduction illustrated in Figure11.4 except in this case the feed is initially directed to a classifier, which eliminates particle sizes less than K1. The coarse classifier product then enters the crushing zone. Thus, only the crushable larger size material enters the crusher zone. The crusher product iscombined with the main feed and the process repeated. The undersize from the classifier is the product.
While considering the above aspects of a model of crushers, it is important to remember that the size reduction process in commercial operations is continuous over long periods of time. In actual practice, therefore, the same operation is repeated over long periods, so the general expression for product size must take this factor into account. Hence, a parameter v is introduced to represent the number of cycles of operation. As all cycles are assumed identical the general model given in Equation (11.31) should, therefore, be modified as
Multiple vectors B C written in matrix form:BC=0.580000.200.60000.120.180.6100.040.090.20.571.000000.700000.4500000=0581+00+00+000.580+00.7+00+000580+00+00.45+000.580+00+00+000.21+0.60+00+000.20+0.60.7+00+000.20+0.60+00.45+000.20+0.60+00+000.121+0.180+0.610+000.120+0.180.7+0.610+000.120+0.180+0.610.45+000.120+0.180+0.610+000.041+0.090+0.20+0.5700.040+0.090.7+0.20+0.5700.040+0.090+0.20.45+0.5700.040+0.090+0.20+0.570=0.580000.20.42000.120.1260.274500.040.0630.090
Now determine (I B C) and (I C)(IBC)=10.5800000000.210.42000000.1200.12610.27450000.0400.06300.0910=0.420000.20.58000.120.1260.725500.040.0630.091and(IC)=000000.300000.5500001
Now find the values of x1, x2, x3 and x4 as(0.42x1)+(0x2)+(0x3)+(0x4)=10,thereforex1=23.8(0.2x1)+(0.58x2)+(0x3)+(0x4)=33,thereforex2=65.1(0.12x1)+(0.126x2)+(0.7255x3)+(0x4)=32,thereforex3=59.4(0.04x1)+(0.063x2)+(0.09x3)+(1x4)=20,thereforex4=30.4
In this process, mined quartz is crushed into pieces using crushing/smashing equipment. Generally, the quartz smashing plant comprises a jaw smasher, a cone crusher, an impact smasher, a vibrating feeder, a vibrating screen, and a belt conveyor. The vibrating feeder feeds materials to the jaw crusher for essential crushing. At that point, the yielding material from the jaw crusher is moved to a cone crusher for optional crushing, and afterward to effect for the third time crushing. As part of next process, the squashed quartz is moved to a vibrating screen for sieving to various sizes.
Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.
A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.
A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.
Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.
The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit . The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.
Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.
A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.
A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.
Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.
Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.
The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.
A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit . The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.
For a particular operation where the ore size is known, it is necessary to estimate the diameter of rolls required for a specific degree of size reduction. To estimate the roll diameter, it is convenient to assume that the particle to be crushed is spherical and roll surfaces are smooth. Figure6.2 shows a spherical particle about to enter the crushing zone of a roll crusher and is about to be nipped. For rolls that have equal radius and length, tangents drawn at the point of contact of the particle and the two rolls meet to form the nip angle (2). From simple geometry it can be seen that for a particle of size d, nipped between two rolls of radius R:
Equation (6.2) indicates that to estimate the radius R of the roll, the nip angle is required. The nip angle on its part will depend on the coefficient of friction, , between the roll surface and the particle surface. To estimate the coefficient of friction, consider a compressive force, F, exerted by the rolls on the particle just prior to crushing, operating normal to the roll surface, at the point of contact, and the frictional force between the roll and particle acting along a tangent to the roll surface at the point of contact. The frictional force is a function of the compressive force F and is given by the expression, F. If we consider the vertical components of these forces, and neglect the force due to gravity, then it can be seen that at the point of contact (Figure6.2) for the particle to be just nipped by the rolls, the equilibrium conditions apply where
As the friction coefficient is roughly between 0.20 and 0.30, the nip angle has a value of about 1117. However, when the rolls are in motion the friction characteristics between the ore particle will depend on the speed of the rolls. According to Wills , the speed is related to the kinetic coefficient of friction of the revolving rolls, K, by the relation
Equation (6.4) shows that the K values decrease slightly with increasing speed. For speed changes between 150 and 200rpm and ranging from 0.2 to 0.3, the value of K changes between 0.037 and 0.056. Equation (6.2) can be used to select the size of roll crushers for specific requirements. For nip angles between 11 and 17, Figure6.3 indicates the roll sizes calculated for different maximum feed sizes for a set of 12.5mm.
The maximum particle size of a limestone sample received from a cone crusher was 2.5cm. It was required to further crush it down to 0.5cm in a roll crusher with smooth rolls. The friction coefficient between steel and particles was 0.25, if the rolls were set at 6.3mm and both revolved to crush, estimate the diameter of the rolls.
It is generally observed that rolls can accept particles sizes larger than the calculated diameters and larger nip angles when the rate of entry of feed in crushing zone is comparable with the speed of rotation of the rolls.
Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.
Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.
Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.
The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.
The main task of renovation construction waste handling is the separation of lightweight impurities and construction waste. The rolling crusher with opposite rollers is capable of crushing the brittle debris and compressing the lightweight materials by the low-speed and high-pressure extrusion of the two opposite rollers. As the gap between the opposite rollers, rotation speed, and pressure are all adjustable, materials of different scales in renovation construction waste can be handled.
The concrete C&D waste recycling process of impact crusher+cone crusher+hoop-roller grinder is also capable of handling brick waste. In general, the secondary crushing using the cone crusher in this process with an enclosed crusher is a process of multicrushing, and the water content of waste will become an important affecting factor. The wet waste will be adhered on the wall of the grinding chamber, and the crushing efficiency and waste discharging will be affected. When the climate is humid, only coarse impact crushing is performed and in this case the crushed materials are used for roadbase materials. Otherwise, three consecutive crushings are performed and the recycled coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and powder materials are collected, respectively.
The brick and concrete C&D waste recycling process of impact crusher+rolling crusher+hoop-roller grinder is also capable of handling the concrete waste. In this case, the water content of waste will not be an important affecting factor. This process is suitable in the regions with wet climates.
The renovation C&D waste recycling process of rolling crusher (coarse/primary crushing)+rolling crusher (intermediate/secondary crushing)+rolling crusher (fine/tertiary crushing) is also capable of handling the two kinds of waste discussed earlier. The particle size of debris is crushed less than 20mm and the lightweight materials are compressed, and they are separated using the drum sieve. The energy consumption is low in this process; however, the shape of products is not good (usually flat and with cracks). There is no problem in roadbase material and raw materials of prefabricated product production. But molders (the rotation of rotors in crusher is used to polish the edge and corner) should be used for premixed concrete and mortar production.
vibrating feeder, jaw crusher, impact crusher, vibrating screen, belt conveyor, electrical control, etc. To meet your demands, cone crusher and dedusting device are also available.