Feed mash is the simplest solid feed form that can be manufactured. It consists of grinding and mixing all raw materials into the correct proportions to meet nutritional requirements of the insect. No additional heat- or compaction treatments are conducted on the feed; hence, energy expenditure to prepare the feed is low compared to pellets and extruded feed. On the other hand, segregation of raw materials often occurs due to transport and handling. This may impair the nutritional quality of the feed, especially individual insect feed intake, where absolute feed intake per individual is low.
Pelleting is the most common feed manufacturing operation. Raw feed materials are dosed according to a certain feed recipe, ground, mixed, preconditioned (usually with steam), shaped in the pelletizer to small rod-like agglomerates (pellets) and cooled (Thomas and van der Poel, 1996; Thomas et al., 1997, 1998; Abdollahi et al., 2013).
Solid feeds also can be extruded. Extrusion processing consists of fine grinding of the ingredients in the recipe, mixing, preconditioning with steam and other liquids, followed by cooking and conditioning the mash, and shaped using a single- or twin-screw extruder. Advantages of the extrusion process include a high degree of cooking of the ingredients, inactivation of certain antinutrient factors (ANFs), sterilization of the feed, and shaping of the feed material into intricate forms. Overviews on the extrusion process are given in Guy (2001) and Mosicki (2011).
Complex coacervation is an encapsulation technique in which two oppositely charged polymers are used to create a particle consisting of a (soft) inner liquid core and a hard outer shell. In food applications, the polymers used are usually proteins and polysaccharides (Xiao et al., 2014). Proteins can be either from animal, insect, or plant origin. Polysaccharides may include Arabic gum, pectin, chitosan, agar, alginates, carrageenans, or carboxymethylcellulose to name but a few (Xiao et al., 2014). Coacervates are interesting in that they deliver a liquid inner product with a hard outer shell that needs to be pierced by the insect to gain access to the (nutritious) fluid. General manufacturing processes in relation to feed texture, size, and moisture content can be seen in Table 6.2.
In the first 24 hours after resolution, an endoscope should be passed to determine the severity and extent of esophageal damage. If there is minimal or no damage to the esophagus, the horse should be allowed access to water. In horses with a simple obstruction and when minimal to no esophageal damage is present, feed (mash made of soaked pellets) or grass can then be slowly reintroduced. In more complex cases, in which the esophageal mucosa has become ulcerated, the horse should be held off feed for 48 hours and then cautiously reintroduced to feed and water. Easily digested pelleted feeds can be made into a mash or gruel with water. The horse can be grazed on grass for 15 minutes every few hours. Soft feeds minimize trauma to the esophagus and are easily swallowed by the horse if the esophagus is painful. Postobstructive esophagoscopy can help direct the feeding regimen by revealing the extent of damage. Hay and large-stem feedstuffs should be reintroduced slowly over the course of several days to weeks, depending on esophageal damage. Small, frequent feedings minimize esophageal irritation and scar formation and help prevent stricture formation. Administration of sucralfate (22mg/kg, PO, every 6 to 8 hours) can be helpful in coating esophageal ulcers and facilitating healing.
Other poultry species of commercial significance for egg production besides chickens include ducks, quail, and, to a lesser extent, ratites (ostrich and emu). Similar to laying hens, protein and AA requirements for other species of poultry are lower as age of the bird increases. However, many of these other species have special considerations to take into account.
Egg-laying ducks may be given diets similar to layer chickens, but must be fed crumbles or, preferably, pellets instead of mash, because mash feeds can clump easily around the bill (Jacob,2014). Ducks take more trips to water as they eat, which leads to feed wastage and increased litter moisture. Another recommendation for egg-laying ducks is to avoid feeding high levels of marine-based ingredients (e.g., fish meal). Although they are a good source of high quality protein, they can impart strong flavors to the eggs; however, higher levels can be used in young bird and breeder diets.
Quail (e.g., bobwhite and Japanese) may also be raised for table eggs. Japanese quail mature at about 78weeks of age and produce an average of 300 eggs per bird per year with egg-layers having up to a 14-month long laying cycle (Leeson and Summers,2009; Santos etal.,2013). Their eggs are only about 12 g each (compared to 56.7 g for a large size chicken egg) due to the relatively smaller size of quail. Bobwhite and Japanese quail starter diets require 26 and 24 g of CP and 1.0 and 0.75 g of Met+Cys per kg of diet, respectively, which are higher than that of chickens but similar to the protein and AA requirements of turkeys.
Ostriches are hindgut fermenters with no crop, an elongated proventriculus, and a large intestine 3 times the length of their small intestine (Leeson and Summers,2009). As a result, their diets may contain up to 20% fiber. Ostriches may be offered roughage or raised on pasture, and they can metabolize energy 3040% better than typical poultry species. Emus, which are about half the size of ostriches, have digestive tracts more similar to chickens and turkeys, but still have better capability to digest roughage. Both ostriches and emus can lay 2040 eggs per year, with ostrich and emu eggs weighing about 1200 and 600g each, respectively. Ostrich and emu starter diets require 22.0% CP, 0.90% Lys, and 0.37% Met and 22.0% CP, 1.10% Lys, and 0.48% Met, respectively (Scheideler and Sell,1997).
In the UK survey of Ireland etal (2011a), 40% of owners of animals 15 years of age reported making major changes to the horse's diet as they had aged. The median age for this group was significantly higher (21.8 years) when compared to the group of horses with no reported dietary changes (19 years). The median age of the horses fed senior feeds was 22.7 years, significantly higher than those animals not receiving such feeds (19 years). Horses were also more likely to receive complete mash feeds as they aged. Senior feeds were provided to 51% of horses aged 20 years in a survey conducted in the USA (Brosnahan & Paradis 2003b).
Most major feed companies offer feeds designed specifically for old horses (Senior type feeds). These feeds typically contain 1216% crude protein, restricted calcium (0.60.8%) and increased phosphorus (0.450.6%) based on the reduction in protein and phosphorus retention reported in the 1980s (Ralston 1989) and concern about renal excretion of excess calcium in horses that might have reduced renal function. Old horses fed only alfalfa containing >1.5% calcium on a dry matter basis had high incidence of renal medullary calculi and bladder stones (Ralston, unpublished data, 19851988). Senior formulas in the US are usually either predigested (as described by the manufacturer often without full details) or extruded to increase digestibility, but the majority are of moderate caloric density as most are designed as complete feeds to be fed as the primary or sole source of nutrition at the rate of 1.0 to 2.0% BW per day. Some senior feeds also contain between 3 and 5% added molasses for palatability and/or are grain-based with a nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC which includes starch, sugars and fructans) content well over 30% (Ralston, unpublished data,19892010). Such products should be used with caution if pituitary function of the horse has not been evaluated or if PPID with associated chronic laminitis has been diagnosed.
All dietary changes should be implemented gradually, depending on how different the new ration will be in NSC and fiber content. If the horse cannot maintain good body condition on 2.0% to 2.5% BW of the ration currently fed divided into three or four feedings, it may be necessary to provide a feed with higher caloric density. High-fat stabilized rice bran products are commonly used in equine rations but should be used with caution in old horses if they are on a calcium- restricted ration, as bran products contain high (>1%) concentrations of phosphorus that may or may not be balanced with an equally high concentration of calcium.
At the feed mill, animal feed can also become contaminated during feed manufacture or processing as a result of cross-contamination. The most critical point for microbial contamination at the mill is the post-processing heat treatment process. The heating process is required to pellet the feed and usually kills most of the pathogens in the produced feed, but inadequate operating temperatures for the pelleting equipment and feed conditioner are risk factors. Contamination of feed before and after the heating point is common and can be attributed to many factors within feed mill facilities. These include unclean receiving and unloading areas, unclean intake pits, dust generated by the feed ingredients, dirty conveyers with leftover feed from previous loads, inadequate feed storage conditions, and presence of non-employees or visitors in unsanitary clothes (Jones and Ricke, 1994; Jones and Richardson, 2004). Feed ingredients should be inspected prior to unloading for signs of rodent contamination, bird droppings or insect infestation. Inspection is particularly important given the difficulty of testing large amounts of incoming ingredients or of testing the feed during and after production due to the associated cost, time and labor. Therefore, feed mills should consider investigating which suppliers have consistently and reliably delivered ingredients without macro- or micro-levels of contamination. Furthermore, sampling plans designed to determine the minimum number of sampling units required to represent the microbiological quality of feed should be considered when needed.
In early studies, Hacking et al. (1978) detected Salmonella in 3% (n = 111) of pelleted feed sampled from one commercial poultry feed mill in Canada, whereas Cox et al. (1983) did not find Salmonella in pelleted poultry feed from 10 commercial feed mills in three southeastern US states. The latter authors detected Salmonella in mash feed (58%; n = 26) as well as in meat and bone meal samples (92%; n = 13). These data clearly indicate the level of reduction that can be achieved by feed processing, including the heating step. In the United Kingdom, nine feed mills that produced a variety of animal and poultry feeds were sampled over time for the presence of Salmonella (Davies and Wray, 1997). The authors found Salmonella not only in the finished products but also in feed mill equipment, including intake pits (24.1%) and the cooling systems (20.2%). Furthermore, Salmonella was isolated from fresh wild bird droppings collected from the intake pit areas, warehouses, and unloading areas. Jones and Richardson (2004) visited three feed mills and collected samples from raw ingredients, the mixer and pellet mill, pellet coolers and the finished product. The authors concluded that feed raw ingredients and dust were the main sources of feed mill contamination with Salmonella. They reported a Salmonella prevalence of 8.8% (n = 178) and 4.2% (n = 451) in mash and pelleted feed samples, respectively. A higher prevalence of Salmonella was observed in dust samples compared to the actual feed samples within each sampling area (Jones and Richardson, 2004).
In general, most of the studies reported earlier in this section have lacked a strong temporal component to assess both patterns of pathogen contamination over time (i.e., seasonality) and changes in microbial populations over time. Furthermore, epidemiological studies are needed to determine the relationship between potential risk factors at the feed mills that contribute to the prevalence and level of pathogen contaminants in the feed production process.
During transportation to the farms, feed is susceptible to the introduction of pathogens and subsequent survival and growth of the organisms. Unclean transportation containers, traces of previous contaminated feed in transportation trucks, and changes in temperature and humidity during transportation and/or storage are all risk factors for the introduction and survival or growth of pathogens in animal feed. Fedorka-Cray et al. (1997) isolated Salmonella from trucks transporting swine feed (0.7%, n = 549) and from feed samples taken from those trucks (23.5%, n = 17). The European Union (EU) Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), Code of Practice for the Control of Salmonella (2009) recommended that feed should be transported in vehicles and containers used to carry dry products to avoid any pre-existing moisture. Moreover, it was recommended that vehicles used to transport feed should be subjected to cleaning and sanitation to ensure no waste build-up and cross-contamination from previous feed loads occur.
At the farm, feed is usually stored in large bins outside livestock pens, feedlots, and poultry houses. Feed storage at the farm in unclean environments and in defective storage bins may introduce pathogens and/or propagate resident pathogens in the stored feed. Feed should be stored in closed bins that do not share common airspace with the livestock or poultry operations. All storage areas should be emptied and cleaned regularly according to type and condition of feed stored. It is important to keep the feed dry to prevent growth of contaminants such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 that require moisture to multiply. Pathogens survive differently under various temperatures and water activities. In order to survive in feed, Salmonella, for instance, must combat the same environmental conditions as the nonpathogenic microflora. In 1978, Williams and Benson observed that low water activity (0.43) was not completely effective in destroying Salmonella populations in feed. In another study, Juven et al. (1984) demonstrated that the survival of Salmonella was greater at a water activity of 0.43 than at one of 0.75. Several investigators observed the survival and heat resistance of Salmonella in meat and bone meal, and in poultry feed, to be inversely proportional to moisture content and relative humidity but not to the type of protein in the feed or to organic versus conventional poultry feed (Liu et al., 1969; Carlson and Snoeyenbos, 1970; Juven et al., 1984; Ha et al., 1998; Petkar et al., 2011). Plant-based protein meals also do not appear to reduce colonization and shedding of Salmonella Heidelberg in broiler birds (Alali et al., 2011).
Food and water are highly valued resources for hens. Providing the appropriate quality, quantity, and accessibility of these resources are paramount to good welfare and can impact feather pecking behavior.
The presentation of food influenced the prevalence of feather pecking in flocks of hens. Feeding pelleted food compared to mashed food (Lambton etal.,2010) and changing the diet 3 or more times throughout lay (Green etal.,2000, Ptzsch etal.,2001) have been associated with increased levels of feather pecking. Pelleted feed is consumed more rapidly than mash feed (Savory and Mann,1997) perhaps leaving extra time for feather pecking. Further, the early onset of feather pecking was observed to be affected by the presence of chain feeders and feed restriction (van Krimpen etal.,2005), as well as with higher feed intake (Drake etal.,2010).
van Krimpen etal. (2005) demonstrated that hens performed more feather pecking when diets contained mineral, protein, or amino acid (methionine, arginine) levels below recommended levels. Further, hens fed diets from vegetable protein sources compared to animal origins feather pecked more. Feeding high-fiber, low energy diets, or roughages reduced feather pecking (van Krimpen etal.,2005).
Many of the factors associated with feather pecking and feeding may influence the amount of time the hen spends performing feeding behaviors, the stability of the feed source provided, as well as their sensation of satiety and frustration. Hens use their beaks to explore their surroundings, so if they are engaged in feeding and foraging more, they will have fewer opportunities to engage in feather pecking behaviors. Hens that receive a nutritionally deficient diet may experience hunger or discomfort, thus resorting to feather pecking to cope with the perceived stressor of malnutrition. If feather pecking is a behavior performed to cope with stress or frustration, ensuring they are receiving a consistent and quality supply of feed composed of the proper nutrients that facilitates the feeling of satiety after eating are important to mitigating the performance of feather pecking behaviors.
Water presentation has also been observed to influence feather pecking behavior. The use of bell drinkers compared to nipple drinkers has been associated with high levels of feather pecking (Green etal.,2000; Ptzsch etal.,2001). Although the rationale for this difference is unclear, bell drinkers require the hens to place their head in the trough to place water in their beaks and require the hens to lower their head to back level and expose vent feathers to conspecifics during the act of drinking. Therefore, the hens performing feather pecking may have more opportunities to engage in this behavior when their conspecifics are bent over drinking from bell drinkers. Furthermore, the hens drinking from these types of drinkers must be less vigilant while drinking because they cannot observe their surroundings while their head is in the water trough. This reduction in time spent vigilant may create opportunities for hens motivated to engage in feather pecking behavior to target those drinking from the bell drinkers as they are less likely to quickly move away from their approach. Bell drinkers are more prone to spilling water on the ground, which could degrade litter quality and also create uncomfortable environmental conditions (e.g., increased ammonia concentrations, development of foot lesions) that may place unintended discomfort on the hens, thus stimulating the performance of feather pecking.
Up to this point the use of maximum growth rate (Gmax) obtained by providing a maximum ration (Rmax), or something over and above that amount (ad libitum, or excess), has been used in a conceptual or assumed sense. Critical examination reveals a number of factors related to feeding frequency and quantity that bear on the maximum daily intake of fishes. The most important of these factors include (a) the duration of a given feeding (satiation time), (b) individual meal size (stomach capacity), (c) time between meals (feeding interval), and (d) the interaction of these. To these must be added the consequences of abiotic and biotic factors, among which temperature and fish size are of greatest importance. In practice it is not uncommon to feed very young fish almost continuously on a fine feed mash, switching to interval feeding on progressively larger pellets as fish size increases.
It should be noted further that the conceptual approach to growth and feeding relations adopted in this chapter assumes that the prime demand for food is imposed by the maintenance requirements of the fish, with a further demand dictated by the potential growth capacity (influenced by growth hormone). These interlocking requirements set the limits of voluntary food intake, not the reverse, that is, not the case of appetite governing growth rate (compare Chapter 3).
As any experimenter will attest, when dealing with various feeding rates and groups of fish, the problem presented on restricted rations is that of providing a fair share to each ravenous member of the sample, never the total daily intake. However, as Rmax is approached, the question of an ultimate level becomes more elusive, subject to many minor forms of disturbance, in which taste, size, shape, and movement of food particles are important as well as the elimination of any unusual sound or light stimuli. At this level of daily consumption it takes very little to put the fish off feeding to maximum capacity.
A number of species of fish have been shown to require up to an hour or more to reach satiation, for example, Trachurus japonicus and Salmo gairdneri (Ishiwata, 1968), Oncorhynchus nerka (Brett, 1971a), and Salmo trutta weighing 100 g or more (Elliott, 1975a). Other species such as the puffer, Fugi vermiculatus, the filefish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Ishiwata, 1968), and relatively small Salmo trutta (about 15 10 g, Elliott, 1975a) were satiated in 15 min or somewhat less. The influence of weight and temperature on satiation time has been shown to be highly significant in the response of Salmo trutta (Elliott, 1975a), whereas weight did not appear to have a strong influence n Oncorhynchus nerka (Brett, 1971a). Differences in experimental technique may have some bearing on this apparent fundamental difference in response, namely the consequences of feeding individual fish a single food item at a fixed rate (Elliott, 1975a) and that of broadcast feeding of pellets to a school of fish (Brett, 1971a).
By contrast, maximum meal size of sockeye salmon was greatly influenced by fish weight whether on a single or multiple feeding regime, the smallest fish consuming the largest relative amount (percentage of body weight, Fig. 19). This is similarly apparent from the hatchery feeding tables mentioned previously. The relation of fish weight to maximum meal size was shown by Elliott (1975a) to be proportional to W0.75 for brown trout. A greater exponent of weight (W0.95), approaching weight independence, derived by Kato (1970) for rainbow trout appears to be in some contradiction to the more general findings of considerable weight-dependence suggested by hatchery feeding tables.
Fig. 19. Maximum food intake of sockeye salmon at 15C on single and triple daily feedings, in relation to fish wet weight (log scale). Mean daily totals (1 SD) are shown with calculated extrapolations according to the equations. (Modified from Brett, 1971a.) Values for maintenance ration (Rmaint) have been plotted in the bottom line. The difference between Rmax and Rmaint is the scope for growth, which can be seen to decrease with increasing weight.
In addition to a weight influence, the effect of temperature on maximum meal size of brown trout was shown by Elliott (1975a) to follow four apparently distinct temperature ranges (Fig. 20). Temperatures between 13 and 18C resulted in highest intake for a single meal. However, since rate of digestion increases with rising temperature the highest daily intake for multiple meals was reported at a slightly higher temperature, 18.4C (Elliott, 1975b). Small salmonids (under 3 g) at a high temperature (15C and above) can be shown to consume over 20% of their body weight per day (dry weight basis); large fish (over 1000 g) frequently require less than 1% body weight per day to meet their maximum consumption levels (cf. Fig. 19).
Fig. 20. Maximum meal size of brown trout in relation to temperature. The relation is shown in terms of the constant a from the general equation, Q = aWb, relating meal size (Q) to weight (W) for single daily feedings. The relation of a to temperature is independent offish weight (10-350 g). (From Elliott, 1975a.) The use of a set of straight lines was arbitrarily selected by Elliott who considered that there were four distinct temperature ranges suitable for mathematical modeling.
By studying the time sequence for return of full appetite in relation to deprivation time and rate of stomach evacuation, both Elliott (1975b) and Brett (1971a) showed that when the stomach was 75-95% empty voluntary food intake was not far from the maximum. Since this is a rate function dependent on meal size and temperature, the time sequence of feeding can be strategically manipulated to increase daily intake. As an example, restricted rations in the morning designed to permit greatest intake at the end of an 8-hr day provide most use of the 16-hr digestive interval until next feeding opportunity. Brett (1971a) showed that on a selected 11-hr feeding interval at 15C the sum of the two feedings was considerably greater when the first feeding was 3.4% and not the maximum intake of 4.4% (for the size of fish involved50 g). The repeated 11-hr interval applied over a series of days was chosen to remove the possibility of endogenous or habitual rhythms of digestion interfering with the experimental design (offset from multiples of 12 hr).
Using automatic feeders that dispersed food from one to twenty-four times per day, the growth and conversion efficiency of catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were discovered to be highest on satiation feeding twice per day at 28C; the most frequent feeding gave the least benefit (Andrews and Page, 1975). Apparently, nibbling was not an effective feeding strategy for this species. This is in contrast to the behavior of young salmon where continuous feeding for 15 hr/day at 20C produced significantly greater growth rate than feeding to satiation three times daily (Shelbourn et al., 1973).
An explanation for some of these differences has been offered by Kono and Nose (1971) who examined the effect of various feeding frequencies on six diverse species of fish. They concluded that the suitability of different time sequences was influenced by stomach size, with the smallest stomachs requiring most frequent feedings. This is exemplified by the continuous browsing behavior of surf fishes (Embiotocidae) which have a long intestine and an almost undifferentiated stomach region (De Martini, 1969).
Mixed feeding studies where whole wheat was included in mash feed have resulted in significant increases in body weight gain in broilers with no effect on feed intake, but responses in feed per gain and gizzard weight were variable (Table 4). Plavnik et al. (2002) reported that the inclusion of 200g/kg whole wheat with mash feed resulted in increased gizzard weight and improvements in weight gain and feed per gain of broilers. Low level inclusion of whole wheat (100g/kg) resulted in similar performance responses, but failed to show any effect on the gizzard weight. Similarly, Nahas and Lefrancois (2001) reported improved weight gain of broilers with inclusion of 100350g/kg whole wheat, but found no effect on the gizzard weight.
The failure analysis on the premature wear of a Laying Head Pipe in a Wire Rod Mill has been presented. The hot-rolled wire rods subsequent to finish rolling pass through the Laying Head Pipe which rotates and lays the wire rods in the form of coils for air cooling to achieve the final properties. A worn-out pipe and a thermo-mechanically treated (TMT) re-bar have been analyzed. The material of the pipe is ASTM A335-P5 grade of seamless alloy steel pipe used for high temperature service. The microstructures of the wear groove of the alloy steel pipe show predominantly ferrite and globular cementite/carbide particles along with scales, while that away from the wear groove shows coarse tempered martensite matrix. EDS analysis confirms the presence of alloy carbides near the wear groove. Microhardness profile shows reduction in hardness toward the inner surface of pipe; hardness at the inner surface of the pipe becomes lower than the surface hardness of the TMT re-bar, exhibiting tempered martensite matrix. Softening at the inner surface of the pipe wall occurs due to a rise in temperature/ over-tempering in contact with the passing hot wire rods (900C) which causes transformation of martensite into ferrite and coarse globular cementite.
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