the mining rocess from ore to the finish

miners can take us across the covid finish line

miners can take us across the covid finish line

In many of these countries, mining companies great or small are active, and engaged in winning from their host communities the license to operate, so often vitally necessary to those communities as well as to the companies.

The Pfizer vaccine is undoubtedly very effective, but, like its Moderna counterpart, it is temperature sensitive. Yes, it can be stored at between minus 25 Celsius and minus 15 Celsius for up to two weeks. Any longer and it will require a temperature of minus 70 Celsius. A cold-chain equipped facility is not a common find in much of Africa and Asia.

Now, during this pandemic, it is unreasonable to think that national grids across Africa, not to mention Asia, can quickly be overhauled to ensure the safety of President Bidens gift, or, indeed, the millions of doses from Covax which are now arriving in Africa.

Solar power can, and must be used to ensure the safe storage of the vaccines, and assist in their rapid uptake by the people. And mining companies, their associations and their investors, can make this happen.

Responsible Mining does not just mean avoiding mine-site disasters, such as tailings dam breaches, or reducing worker accidents, it has to mean earning community support, and getting vaccines into outstretched arms is vital for communities.

Few industrial sectors can compete with mining when the need is to overcome a complex technical problem. Its leaders can show that the industry can stand up and be counted when the problem is technical, human, and hugely ethical.

John Harker has acted as consultant in challenging situations involving the mining industry across the globe, sustained byhis heritage as the grandson of two opposites, one a mine manager and Methodist lay preacher, the other a miners union leader at the mine and village bookie on the weekends.

gold mining process development denver mineral engineers

gold mining process development denver mineral engineers

Refractory ore processing methods almost always serve only one purpose, to treat ores that will not liberate their values by conventional cyanide leaching. The refractory ore treatment process is then followed by a conventional cyanidation step. Refractory ore processing methods include:

Today, cyanide leaching is the method of choice for the recovery of most of the worlds gold production. There are however, many other chemical leaching processes that have been sporadically or historically used. In most instances, cyanide leaching will provide a more technologically effective and cost efficient method. Alternative lixiviants include:

Amalgamation is one of the oldest processes available. It relies upon the contact of ore with mercury to form a gold-mercury amalgam. This process is strongly out of favor with the major mining companies, due to the extremely toxic nature of mercury and the processes inferior performance when compared to the available alternatives. The process is still used extensively by artesian mines in third world countries and at small mom and pop mines, due to its simplicity.

Gravity concentration processes rely on the principal that gold contained within an ore body is higher in specific gravity than the host rocks that contain the gold. Elemental gold has a specific gravity of 19.3, and typical ore has a specific gravity of about 2.6. All gravity concentration devices create movement between the gold and host rock particles in a manner to separate the heavy pieces from the lighter pieces of material.

The prospectors gold pan is the most familiar gravity concentration device. To function properly, the ore must be broken down to particles small enough to provide a significant specific gravity difference among the particles.

Placer mining has generally been where gravity concentrates have been most widely applied. In a placer deposit, there has generally been a pre-concentration of gold made naturally by gravity concentration due to ore particles being transported by water. Mechanical concentration is used to continue the process until sufficient concentration is obtained.

The flotation process consists of producing a mineral concentrate through the use of chemical conditioning agents followed by intense agitation and air sparging of the agitated ore slurry to produce a mineral rich foam concentrate. The process is said to have been invented by a miner who watched the process happening while washing dirty work clothing in his home washing machine.

Specific chemicals are added to either float (foam off) specific minerals or to depress the flotation of other minerals. Several stages of processing are generally involved with rough bulk flotation products being subjected to additional flotation steps to increase product purity.

The flotation process in general does not float free gold particles but is particularly effective when gold is associated with sulfide minerals such as pyrites. In a typical pyrytic gold ore, the gold is encapsulated within an iron sulfide crystal structure. Highly oxidized ores generally do not respond well to flotation.

Advantages of the flotation process are that gold values are generally liberated at a fairly coarse particle size (28 mesh) which means that ore grinding costs are minimized. The reagents used for flotation are generally not toxic, which means that tailings disposal costs are low.

Flotation will frequently be used when gold is recovered in conjunction with other metals such as copper, lead, or zinc. Flotation concentrates are usually sent to an off-site smelting facility for recovery of gold and base metals.

Cyanide leaching is the standard method used for recovering most of the gold throughout the world today. The process originated around 1890 and quickly replaced all competing technologies. The reason was strictly economical in nature. Where amalgamation plants could recover about 60% of the gold present, cyanide could recover about 90%. Because of the improved recovery, many of the old tailings piles from other processes have been economically reprocessed by cyanide leaching. Cyanide is as close to a universal solvent for gold as has been developed. Other leaching reagents will only work on very specific types of ore.

The standard cyanide leach process consists of grinding the ore to about 80% 200 mesh, mixing the ore/water grinding slurry with about 2 pounds per ton of sodium cyanide and enough quick lime to keep the pH of the solution at about 11.0. At a slurry concentration of 50% solids, the slurry passes through a series of agitated mixing tanks with a residence time of 24 hours. The gold bearing liquid is then separated from the leached solids in thickener tanks or vacuum filters, and the tailings are washed to remove gold and cyanide prior to disposal. The separation and washing take place in a series of units by a process referred to as counter current decantation (CCD). Gold is then recovered from the pregnant solution by zinc precipitation and the solution is recycled for reuse in leaching and grinding.

One major category of refractory ores are gold values contained within the crystalline structure of sulfide minerals such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. For cyanide to leach gold, the cyanide solution must come into direct contact with gold molecules. With many sulfide ores, the ore cannot practically be ground down fine enough to expose the gold particles. The objective of pretreatment for these ores is to remove enough of the sulfide so that at least a small portion of all gold particles are directly exposed to the elements. Processes available for treatment all involve oxidation of sulfur to form water soluble sulfates or sulfur dioxide. The main sulfur oxidation processes include:

Heap leaching was introduced in the 1970s as a means to drastically reduce gold recovery costs. This process has literally made many mines by taking low grade geological resources and transforming them to the proven ore category. Ore grades as low as 0.01 oz Au per ton have been economically processed by heap leaching.

Heap leaching involves placing crushed or run of mine ore in a pile built upon an impervious liner. Cyanide solution is distributed across the top of the pile and the solution percolates down through the pile and leaches out the gold. The gold laden pregnant solution drains out from the bottom of the pile and is collected for gold recovery by either carbon adsorption or zinc precipitation. The barren solution is then recycled to the pile.

Heap leaching generally requires 60 to 90 days for processing ore that could be leached in 24 hours in a conventional agitated leach process. Gold recovery is typically 70% as compared with 90% in an agitated leach plant. Even with this inferior performance, the process has found wide favor, due to the vastly reduced processing costs compared with agitated leaching.

Quite frequently, mines will use agitated leaching for high grade ore and heap leaching for marginal grade ores that otherwise would be considered waste rock. A common recovery plant is often employed for both operations.

The traditional method for gold recovery from pregnant cyanide solutions is zinc precipitation. Originally, solutions were passed through boxes containing zinc metal shavings. Gold and silver would precipitate out of solution by a simple replacement reaction procedure. Around 1920, zinc shaving precipitation was replaced by the Merrill-Crowe method of zinc precipitation.

The Merrill-Crowe process starts with the filtration of pregnant solution in media filters. Filter types used include pressure leaf filters, filter presses, and vacuum leaf filters. Generally, a precoat of diatomaceous earth is used to produce a sparkling clear solution.

Granular coconut shell activated carbon, is widely used for recovery of gold from cyanide solutions. The process can be applied to clean solutions through fluidized bed adsorption columns, or directly to leached ore slurries by the addition of carbon to agitated slurry tanks, followed by separation of the carbon from the slurry by coarse screening methods.

Gold cyanide is adsorbed into the pores of activated carbon, resulting in a process solution that is devoid of gold. The loaded carbon is heated by a strong solution of hot caustic and cyanide to reverse the adsorption process and strip the carbon of gold. Gold is then removed from the solution by electrowinning. Stripped carbon is returned to adsorption for reuse.

The major advantage of carbon-in-pulp recovery over Merrill Crowe recovery is the elimination of the leached ore solids and liquid separation unit operation. The separation step typically involves a series of expensive gravity separation thickeners or continuous filters arranged for countercurrent washing or filtration of the solids. For ores exhibiting slow settling or filtration rates, such as ores with high clay content, the countercurrent decantation (CCD) step can become cost prohibitive.

Ores with high silver content will generally suggest that Merrill-Crowe recovery be used. This is because of the very large carbon stripping and electrowinning systems required for processing large quantities of silver. The typical rule of thumb states that economic silver to gold ratios of greater than 4 to 1, will favor installation of a Merrill-Crowe system, but this decision can be altered if the ore exhibits very slow settling rates.

1. Carbon-In-Column (CIC): With carbon-in-column operation, solution flows through a series of fluidized bed columns in an upflow direction. Columns are most frequently open topped, but closed top pressurized columns are occasionally used.

Carbon columns are most commonly used to recover gold and silver from heap leach solutions. The major advantage of fluidized bed carbon columns is their ability to process solutions that contain as much as 2 to 3 wt% solids. Heap leach solutions are frequently high in solids due to fine particle washing from heaps. Down flow carbon columns are rarely used for gold recovery, because they act like sand filters and are subsequently subject to frequent plugging.

2. Carbon-In-Pulp (CIP): Carbon-in-pulp operation is a variation of the conventional cyanidation process. Ore is crushed, finely ground, and cyanide leached in a series of agitated tanks to solubilize the gold values. Instead of separating solids from the pregnant solution, as in the traditional cyanidation process, granular activated carbon is added to the leached slurry.

The carbon adsorbs the gold from the slurry solution and is removed from the slurry by coarse screening. In practice, this is accomplished by a series of five or six agitated tanks where carbon and ore slurry are contacted in a staged countercurrent manner.

This greatly increases the possible gold loading onto the carbon while maintaining a high recovery percentage. Carbon is retained within the individual CIP tanks by CIP tank screens. The opening size of the CIP tank screens is such that the finely ground ore particles will pass through the screens, but the coarse carbon will not. Almost every imaginable type of screen has been tried for this application, with some types being much more successful than the rest.

3. Carbon-In-Leach (CIL): The carbon-in-leach process integrates leaching and carbon-in-pulp into a single unit process operation. Leach tanks are fitted with carbon retention screens and the CIP tanks are eliminated. Carbon is added in leach so that the gold is adsorbed onto carbon almost as soon as it is dissolved by the cyanide solution. The CIL process is frequently used when native carbon is present in the gold ore. This native carbon will adsorb the leached gold and prevent its recovery. This phenomenon is referred to commonly as preg-robbing. The carbon added in CIL is more active than native carbon, so the gold will be preferentially adsorbed by carbon that can be recovered for stripping. The CIL process will frequently be used in small cyanide mills to reduce the complexity and cost of the circuit.

There are several disadvantages to CIL compared with CIP. Carbon loading will be 20 to 30% less than with CIP, which means more carbon has to be stripped. (This disadvantage may be overcome by a hybrid circuit, incorporating a cross between CIL and CIP.) The CIL process requires a larger carbon inventory in the circuit, which results in a larger in-process tie up of gold. The larger carbon inventory can also result in higher carbon (and gold) losses through carbon attrition.

Denver Mineral Engineers has had extensive experience with all of the commercially viable gold and silver recovery mining processes. We can suggest the optimal process and equipment for virtually any ore. Although we are not a testing laboratory, we can design and coordinate your testing program. If we dont have the answers, our network of industry experts can be utilized.

mining | northwind wiki | fandom

mining | northwind wiki | fandom

Mining is where players go into deep dark caves and use a Pickaxe to mine different types of ores. To get a Pickaxe click here. There many locations for good locations to mine, such as Rock Point, Henery's Hill mine, but there are also ores in Bears Maw, and Cliffords Cave, but be aware there are bears that house there.

Once youve finish mining, then you need to visit St. Paul to smelt your ores, but if you are an Hudson Bay Company member then go behind the Quater Masters room in the back valley way in Fort Rupert.

6 stages of the mining process | boss magazine

6 stages of the mining process | boss magazine

The mining process is responsible for much of the energy we use and products we consume. Mining has been a vital part of American economy and the stages of the mining process have had little fluctuation. However, the process of mining for ore is intricate and requires meticulous work procedures to be efficient and effective. This is why we have broken down the mining process into six comprehensive steps.

The first stage in the mining process calls for skilled workers or AI to apply their geological knowledge in identifying areas where a particular ore can be found. There are two methods workers and machines can employ during this stage:

The digging of tunnels and sink shafts when the oreor mineral depositis below the surface. Hand tools such as chisels, hammers, and wedges are used to break up waste rock, Sometimes, areas must even be blasted in order to loosen rock so workers can more easily separate the ore from the waste rockwhich are mined separately.

The next step, once the ore is excavated, is to separate the waste rock and ore using primary crushers, located at the open pit mine site. At this point, larger rocks are broken down to a size better suited for the conveyor belt to transport.

Once the ore has been processed and shipped away for sale, the final step of the mining process begins. The land which was used to obtain these resources must be rehabilitated as much as possible. The objectives of this process include:

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mining: start to finish - nevada business magazine

mining: start to finish - nevada business magazine

Mining is not typically associated with the words high-tech or sophisticated. Rather, one might imagine high-tech as having something to do with computers, aircraft technology or even medical research. Although it may not be one of the first industries to come to mind, mining today is a state-of-the-art operation that encompasses everything from exploration and research to the use of technologies that make mines safer, more efficient and environmentally friendly.

Mining itself is both the science and the business of mineral discovery and exploitation. Because Nevada is such a mineral rich state, the industry is a large part of the Silver States past and, more importantly, future.

There is often a misperception of mining that the industry is low-tech and filled with men armed with pick-axes, shovels and mining pans. This image couldnt be further from the reality of modern mining. The industry is full of highly intelligent, specialized individuals. A mine itself goes through several processes before it can even get to the stage where it begins producing minerals and the individuals involved in mining range from the geologists that prospect a potential location and the investment analyst that determines financial viability to the engineer that helps find the most efficient ways to extract minerals.

Before a mine can begin operations, it must undergo extensive field testing. Before field testing can begin, miners need to know where to start, that is where a geologist comes in. A geologist or prospector begins with researching an area to determine the viability of mining. He or she looks for the ore body and whether or not the ore is sufficient to sustain a mine. Everything is accounted for from mineral potential to the economic and political climate of a region. The geologist does a full assessment, testing the area for the types of ore potentially mineable and the feasibility of opening a mine.

According to David Shaddrick, president of the Nevada Mineral Exploration Coalition, The mining cycle starts with grass-roots geologic research. A geologist trained in economic geology identifies an area as having indications that a mineral system is present. After a positive identification, field work begins.

Field work consists of a series of tests at the site to determine how much of the mineral is present and whether or not that is enough to mine. Geologists use mineral deposits, geologic mapping, rock and soil sampling, geophysical surveys and drilling to determine the viability of a site. During field work, title to the minerals is claimed through either direct claim staking of public lands or leasing of existing claims or private land holdings. After extensive field testing, the most expensive aspect of the exploration and prospecting stage can begin: drilling.

Today, since most near-surface deposits have been discovered, drilling is typically to depths of 500 to 1,500 feet below the surface, explains Shaddrick. If significant mineralization is encountered, the project advances to further exploration stages.

Modern technology is used extensively when researching a potential mine. Geographic information systems are used to study maps, surface geochemistry and geophysics. With the advent of mobile computer technologies, field work can be done faster and better.

The geographic picture isnt the only factor considered when looking for a usable mining location. The social, economic and political aspects of the location are heavily considered as well. Its obviously important to know, prior to starting a mining operation, the reaction a company will get from the local communities. If the operation is not favored or if there isnt a developed community nearby, starting a mining operation becomes all the more difficult.

We have to co-exist with lots of other entities, explains Tim Crowley, president of the Nevada Mining Association. To be good corporate citizens, youve got to make sure that the communities are supportive of your operation and that they have the things any company needs to be successful. Working with the local governments and communities to co-exist is just good business and something that you should do.

As is most likely evident, building a mine is not an inexpensive project. Financing is as necessary to the process as the mineral itself. Investments are needed from the very first exploration up until the mine is constructed and begins producing. The creation of a mine doesnt happen overnight. According to Crowley, simply permitting and constructing the mine takes several years and significant finances are needed for that entire time, before the mine itself generates any revenue.

Investments can be obtained from a variety of sources from shareholders to investors and companies typically begin looking for these investors during the exploration stage. They have the difficult task of proving that a particular site does have mineable potential and will yield a profit, eventually. It takes time and patience, but a successful mine can be lucrative for those involved.

There is a high-risk involved in mining investments because essentially, the investor is putting money into a business where the price of what is being produced, such as gold, can change by the time it actually begins production.

Another aspect that should be considered through each stage is the permitting process. Completing the permitting process can take anywhere from two years to ten years. As such, its important that permitting begin as early as possible. Some companies are able to obtain permitting prior to development to begin building infrastructure for the mine. This can save the company a significant amount of time when the mine is ready to be constructed.

After a site has been explored, tested, financed and permitted, development of the mine can begin. It is possible for development to occur simultaneously with some of the other steps and the end result is a productive, efficient mine that begins to see a return on investment. All in all, it isnt unusual for the entire process to take almost a decade.

A mine can and should be in operation for decades. Mining companies dont get to the development and construction phase without having both a thorough plan and an estimate of how much ore is available and about how long the mine can produce.

Usually you have an identified and mapped out strategy for both short-term and long-term, explains Crowley. You know what youre going to be doing on a day-to-day basis and you know where you want to lead your business in terms of how youre extracting the minerals for the next several years. You also want to explore in the same area so you can keep the mine producing for decades to come.

Every aspect of the mining operation is mapped out and should work like a well-oiled machine. The company has an estimated lifespan for the mine, and exploration continues until that lifespan is significant enough to warrant no further exploration of a region.

Crowley adds, Most mine lives will give you a lifespan that they have a proven reserve of 10 years. They only say that because thats what theyve drilled for, identified and have enough confidence to tell the public and the shareholders that they know the ore is there. To continue to explore wouldnt be a good use of capital. Once they have enough of a guarantee for a good amount of years, theyll slow down their search for more.

After a mines lifespan has been completed and all of the ore reserves are used, the mine begins the process of closure. From the very beginning, each mine must have a cash bond of the estimated closure costs. This is in place to ensure that, no matter what happens, the mine will be able to be closed safely and effectively. The areas that are mined, especially those on public lands, must be restored in such a way that the region can again be utilized by the public. Improperly shutting down mining operations is both dangerous and potentially expensive to the taxpayer. This is why every mining operation today has the funds guaranteeing the proper closure of each mine.

Modern mining no longer represents panning for gold or finding a shiny rock and digging for more. Mining today encompasses several fields of expertise and represents millions of dollars in our industry. The process is time-consuming and intense. The importance of this industry to the Silver State cannot be understated and an understanding of the work that goes into the process is important for businesses in any industry.

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extraction and processing of minerals & the environmental impacts of mineral use - video & lesson transcript

extraction and processing of minerals & the environmental impacts of mineral use - video & lesson transcript

Elizabeth, a Licensed Massage Therapist, has a Master's in Zoology from North Carolina State, one in GIS from Florida State University, and a Bachelor's in Biology from Eastern Michigan University. She has taught college level Physical Science and Biology.

In a previous lesson, we learned about minerals, which are inorganic compounds, such as ores (like copper) and precious stones (like diamonds). The word mining sounds a lot like mineral, and that's no accident because mining is how minerals are removed from the ground. There are several different ways minerals can be extracted from the earth, but the two main methods are called surface mining and subsurface mining.

Surface mining is just what it sounds like - removing minerals that are near the earth's surface because this is where the ore deposits are located. When the ore deposits are very large, open-pit mining is utilized. A large, open pit is created as machines scrape off any earth that is not ore and set it to the side. This material is called overburden, and as the overburden is scraped off, it's piled into spoil banks.

After the overburden is cleared from the ore, explosives are used to break up the ore material that is being removed from the ground, which is then taken away to be refined. The size of the ore bed increases as mining continues, and eventually, the pit becomes a very large bowl-shaped hole in the earth's surface. When the ore is found in a wide area but it's not very deep in the ground, strip mining is used.

In strip mining, instead of creating one large pit in the ground, long narrow strips are dug out. The overburden is removed and piled up along the strip. Once the ore is removed, the overburden is dumped back into the strip. While this may sound like a good method because the holes are re-filled instead of left open, the land actually looks more like a washboard after strip mining because of all of the re-piled soil.

Some minerals are found very deep below Earth's surface - sometimes hundreds or thousands of feet deep! To remove these minerals from the ground, subsurface mining is used. In subsurface mining, a long tunnel is created either horizontally or vertically. The tunnel walls are reinforced with wood and ventilation shafts are created to provide air to the miners underground. The minerals themselves are removed a number of different ways.

One way is to blast apart the material and then send the ore pieces up to the surface in carts. Another method is longwall mining, which is when coal is sheared from the wall and collected on a conveyor belt, much like a potato peeler shears away layers of a potato. This is a very efficient way of extracting coal from an underground mine. Another method is solution mining, which is when hot water is injected into the ore to dissolve it. Once the ore is dissolved, air is pumped into it, and it's bubbled up to the surface.

While mining provides us with the minerals we need, it is also very destructive because it disrupts the landscape both on the surface and underground. It also causes quite a bit of pollution and can harm or kill mine workers. Surface mining is destructive to landscapes because it can cause changes in the topography and drainage and strips the land of vegetation, soil and rocks. The spoil banks of surface mining erode and weather away, and rainfall leaches toxic chemicals into the earth. In some cases, entire mountaintops have been removed for surface mining!

Subsurface mining is actually less disruptive to the earth and produces less waste than surface mining, but it's also much less effective and more dangerous. Many workers die in mine collapses, which then also leaves behind a large hole from caving in of the ground above. Water may leak into the mine and dissolve toxic chemicals that may leak into aquifers and drinking water supplies. Explosions in old mining tunnels may also occur because the natural gas underground ignites very easily.

Besides erosion problems and changes to the landscape, mining also causes pollution in the air and water. Abandoned coal mines lead to acid mine drainage, which is water that is full of metals and toxins. Much like hot water dripping through coffee in a filter, rainwater picks up the harmful components in the ground and carries them off as surface and groundwater runoff. This runoff can end up in streams, rivers and lakes that are nearby.

Smelting is the process of heating ores to release the metals in them. This process separates the impurities from the metal, but also creates air pollution because gases that are created as by-products (such as sulfur dioxide) may escape and reach the air.

Mining is the removal of minerals from the ground. Once removed, minerals are then processed and refined for our everyday use. We use minerals for a variety of things, such as household products, jewelry and energy for cars and buildings. Surface mining removes ore deposits that are close to the surface, and subsurface mining removes minerals that are deep underground.

While mineral use is very important to us, there are also many environmental impacts, such as erosion, air and water pollution, land destruction and harm to mine workers. With new technologies and a conscious effort to reduce the negative effects of mining, we may be able to find a balance in how we use these important resources and reduce our impacts on the earth.

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