Thickening or dewatering may be defined as the removal of a portion of the liquid from a pulp or slime made up of a mixture of finely divided solids and liquids.The early methods of thickening employed plain, flat-bottomed tanks into which the pulp was fed until the tank was full. The solids were then allowed to settle as long as required, the top liquid was decanted, the settled solids were discharged, and the operation was repeated. Such settling was usually carried out in a number of tanks so that a regular cycle of filling, settling, and discharging could be maintained. Later it was found that feeding the tank behind a baffle allowed some decantation of clear liquid while still feeding, and this also was introduced.
Attempts to make thickening continuous, by using hopper-bottom tanks or cones, were not entirely successful. In these tanks the feed ran in continuously, settled solids were drawn off through a spigot and solution overflowed continuously at the top of the tank. The chief drawbacks to this method were the multiplicity of units required and the fact that settled solids hung up on the sloping sides which made it extremely difficult to obtain anything approaching a discharge of uniform density.
The invention of the Dorr thickener made possible the continuous dewatering of a dilute pulp whereby a regular discharge of a thick pulp of uniform density took place concurrently with an overflow of clarified solution.
Scraper blades or rakes, driven by a suitable mechanism, rotating slowly over the bottom of the tank, which usually slopes gently toward the center, move the material settled on the bottom to a central opening or discharge. The rakes revolve at a speed sufficient to move the material as fast as it settles without enough agitation to interfere with settlement.
Dorr thickeners are used in the metallurgical field to thicken prior to agitation and filtration, in the countercurrent washing of cyanide slime, for thickening ahead of flotation, for thickening concentrates, and for dewatering tailing to recover the water for reuse in the mill.
The standard construction of Dorr thickener mechanisms is of iron and steel. The tanks are usually made of steel or wood for medium-sized machines, but in the larger sizes they are often constructed of concrete or earth or a combination of these materials. Various types of Dorr thickeners, which it is unnecessary to describe here, are available for specific uses, including constructions to resist corrosion. Power requirements are low, about hp. for thickeners less than 50 ft. in diameter. Attendance and repairs are also low.
Figures 27 and 28 illustrate the development of the original central-shaft type of thickener from one using superstructure to the present beam type of support whereby headroom is saved and an improved mechanism running in oil is made conveniently accessible to the operator.
The Dorr tray thickener (Fig. 28) has been developed to meet the definite demand for large settling area in limited space. Each compartment increases the capacity approximately to the same degree as an additional thickener unit, of the same size, without increasing the floor space required. The tanks are divided into two or more settling compartments by means of steel trays or diaphragms suspended from the sides. The mechanism is made up of a central vertical shaft, driven by worm gear and with radial arms attached above each try. These arms carry plow blades set at an angle, and as the mechanism slowly revolves, they move the settled material to a discharge opening at or near center.
Several types of tray thickeners have been developed, classified according to the arrangement of feed and discharge in the various compartments. Probably the most generally applicable is the balanced-type tray thickener. In this each compartment has a separate feed and overflow, but the settled solids from all compartments are brought together and are discharged through a central outlet from the bottom compartment.
The Dorr traction thickener is the type most frequently used for heavy- duty work with large tonnages. The machine is so called because the thickening mechanism is driven by means of a traction wheel which travels around the periphery of the tank on a rail. The mechanism, which is slowly carried around the tank as the traction wheel travels, consists of a truss to which are attached the raking blades which sweep the floor of the tank. This truss is supported at the center of the tank by a column.
The Dorr torq thickener is a new development in the unit thickener field. The raking mechanism is supported from a stationary central pier on which the driving motor and gear reduction are mounted. The feed may be introduced at the center through a launder suspended above the top of the liquid leavel or by means of a siphon feed through the hollow central pier. In addition to compact strength provided with the central pier construction, the machine is characterized by a new rake-lifting feature whereby whenoverloaded the rakes raise backward and upward at an angle to clear the overload and at the same time maintain a full raking load until the overload is removed and the rakes assume their normal position.
The Dorr washing thickener is of the multiple-tray type and is, in effect, a complete countercurrent decantation plant in a single compact unit. It is adapted to the needs of the small chemical and metallurgical plants where a relatively small tonnage of finely divided solids must be washed free from a solution in a minimum space. Four to five stages of washing are usually provided in separate tray compartments.
Multiple-stage washing is effected by operating the tray compartments in series rather than in parallel. Feed enters, and strong solution leaves the uppermost compartment. Washed solids are discharged from the bottom compartment. Solids, after each successive settlement, gravitate from one compartment to another through sludge seals in each tray. Wash water, introduced in the bottom compartment, rises successively through the compartments in a direction counter current to that of the sludge. One tall thickener thus does the work of several relatively shallow thickeners of the same diameter. Floor space is conserved, heat insulation is simple and effective, and power is reduced. Furthermore, all control of the washing operation is centered at a single point.
As discussed in Chap. II, a number of chemical and physical factors affect the settling rate of ore particles suspended in water or cyanide solution. The use of lime and caustic starch has been mentioned.It was found that aeration and the presence of sulphates aided pulp settlement:
Laboratory settling tests on the feed to the decantation thickeners have shown that sulphateswhether added in solid form, as, for example, (NH4)2SO4, or present in the barren solution, as CaSO4increase the free settling rate about 25 per cent over that obtained with water made alkaline with lime. Laboratory tests and plant operation have also established that a well-aerated pulp settles better than one in which aeration is incomplete. This probably is the reason why thickening rates in the cyanide plant are sometimes appreciably reduced when an ore is being milled which has partially oxidized in the mine and consequently contains appreciable amounts of reducing salts.
The use of a comparatively new flocculating agent C.M.C. Carboxel, or sodium carboxymethylcellulose, is described by E. E. Brown, mill superintendent of the Chesterville Mines, Ltd. A water-soluble H.V. grade used in the amount of 0.01 lb. per ton of ore increased the settling rate in the thickeners by 8 to 10 per cent.
Shanghai Metal Corporation is a professional manufacturer of Multi Disk Screw Press Sludge Dewatering Machine for more than 8 years. Thanks to our more than 20 years experiences in metal and engineering industry, our Multi Disk Screw Press Sludge Dewatering Machine has the following advantages:
The sludge dewatering machine consists of concentration section and dewatering section. After the sludge is concentrated by gravity in the thickening section, it is transported to the dewatering section. As the filter gap and screw pitch become smaller, also the block from back plate, internal pressure is generated and the sludge volume is continuously reduced, to make it fully dewatered.
4, The concentrated sludge is transported to dewatering section and moves forward with the screw shaft. While the filter gap and screw pitch become smaller, plus the block of baffle, a great internal pressure is generated to dewater the sludge.
Here's everything we learned from the second trailer forShang-Chi & The Legend of the Ten Rings. When Marvel Studios released a first glimpse ofShang-Chiearlier this year, the reaction was one of muted excitement.The film'svisuals and martial arts action were both stunning, but compared to the high standard Kevin Feige has set over the past 13 years,Shang-Chi's first trailer lacked a certain x-factor ingredient toreally get excitement boiling over. Fortunately, the second Shang-Chitrailer is a different beast entirely, showcasing the MCU's newest superhero in all his mystic glory and teasing a tantalizing new direction for the franchise.
Simu Liu stars as the titular Shang-Chi, the son of infamous terrorist The Mandarin, played by Tony Leung. Trained to the pinnacle of kung-fu excellence and able to control the power of chi, Liu's character has desperately tried to avoid his destiny (and his family) by relocating to the U.S. and working as a valet. Predictably, destiny has other plans, and Shang-Chi must stop running away, return to his roots, and face his father's Ten Rings organization directly. He'll be accompanied on this journey by Awkwafina's Katy, a fellow valet who believed her friend was just a regular guy before discovering she wassinging karaoke with a one-man death machine.
Not only isShang-Chi's second trailer greatly superior to the first, fans learn much more about the film's premise and the history of The Mandarin's world. Some familiar scenes have been repurposed - such as the bus chase and a youthful Shang-Chi being beaten during training - but withmythological beasts, MCU cameos, and awe-inspiring chi clashes, here are all the new reveals fromShang-Chi's latest trailer.
Toward the beginning ofShang-Chi's second trailer we see the Ten Rings' flag flying freely in the wind. This organization and logo stretch way back tothe MCU's earliest beginnings and Tony Stark's abduction, but at least now we're finally seeing thetrue Ten Rings, rather than Trevor Slattery's tribute act. The flag scene looks to be part of a flashback into the Mandarin's background, taking place many centuries prior during China's long, storied history.Going back so far would fit withEternals digging deeper into the MCU's past than ever before.
New scenes provide a far more detailed look at how the Ten Rings actually work. Inlater historical flashback sequences, Mandarin is seenwearing 5 rings on each arm and throwing them around like projectiles, dealing immense energy damage with each strike. This represents a huge departure from the comic books, where each ring granted a different power (and was an actual ring, not a bracelet), but the MCUvariation seems to feed on Mandarin's chi, amplifying it, and givingthe villain a significant power boost -possibly similar to how Mjlnirand Stormbreaker accentuate Thor's thunder. Thus,Mandarin can toss the rings about, but they still return safely to his arm afterwards.
Amuch more recent flashback into Shang-Chi's youth allows The Mandarin to explain his intentions. The powerful arm rings have maintained his power for a long, long time (and could beresponsible for his lack of aging),butMandarin's now looking to passthem onto a worthy successor. Mandarin wants Shang-Chi to prove his worth before accepting theweapon as his birthright.
Finally, a proper introductionfor Michelle Yeoh's character, credited as Jiang Nan. There's no direct counterpart for Jiang Nan in Marvel comic lore, but her heartfelt words to Shang-Chi suggest she's a mentor figure, likely from childhood, who knows the Ten Rings and Mandarin as well as anyone. Certainly, Jiang Nan has avivid understanding of how different Shang-Chi's mother and father were.
Alongside Michelle Yeoh, the trailer shows Simu Liuarriving at an exotic island locale. The mountainous coastal settinglooks similar to the Ten Rings' bustling HQ,but could also be somewhere Shang-Chi and Katy go when remaining in San Francisco becomes unsafe. There are glimpses of a mystical red doorway (this becomes important later), which could force Shang-Chi to prove his worth before entering, and the superheroappears to be accompanied by his estranged sister, Xialing, although we only see the character briefly from behind.
As Jiang Nan talks about Shang-Chi's mother, the trailershifts to our ass-kicking new hero in his youth, being trained tenderly by a woman one would assume to be his parent. It's immediately evident that Shang-Chi has a better relationship with her than his dastardly dad. More interestingly, Shang-Chi's mother seems to be training him in some kind of chi control technique. If his parents both possess(ed) different combat techniques, Shang-Chi could combine both in order toend his father and the Ten Rings for good.
In a scene extremely reminiscent of Black Widow's "Red Room" flashback, theShang-Chi trailer shows rows of trainee Ten Rings assassins practicing their murder techniques in regimental fashion. The scene speaks to the militaristic, organized nature of Mandarin's operation, and lets fans know that there'll be plenty of unnamed henchmen for Shang-Chi to punch.
InShang-Chi's first trailer, the villain Death Dealer was shown standing by Mandarin's side during Shang-Chi's tough childhood training sessions. In the new promo, however, a slightly older Shang-Chi is partaking in a tense sparring session with Death Dealer, almostreceiving a blade to the face. This sets up an intense, long-standing rivalry between Shang-Chi and Death Dealer that extends beyond just hero and villain. Their personal rivalry could derive from jealousy, with Death Dealer envious that Mandarin chooses his rebellious want-away son as a successor instead of a loyal servant like himself.
Death Dealer takes out his frustrations on Simu Liu's character in the modern day, andShang-Chi's second trailer offers more detail onthis duel compared tothe firstbatch of footage. Shang-Chi and Katyare frequenting some kind of bar (possibly in Madripoor if the decor is anything to go by), and it'shere that Death Dealer and Mandarin's assassins move in to kill their boss' prodigal son. There's plenty of thrilling set pieces teased here, including Shang-Chi falling onto a construction platformthat hangs onthe skyscraper's exterior and doing battle with some goons (and probably vertigo) upon the ledge.
With their swords, martial arts and mystical artifacts, it's easy to assume that Ten Rings operatives prefer traditional methods of combat, but Death Dealer proves otherwise. During their nightclub scrap, Mandarin's right-hand man tosses an exploding throwing knife toward Shang-Chi, which then lodges in a window and shatters the glass. This addition to Death Dealer's arsenal proves the Ten Rings isn't limited to its ancient origins, but also packing the latest gear and gadgets. MCU fans might've known this already,since a Ten Rings agent was among the potential buyers for the Yellowjacket armorinAnt-Man.
After the firstShang-Chi trailer, fans might've wondered why the film's hero would run to the other side of the world and hide his true identity, only to wind up back under his father's shadow by returning to Ten Rings HQ. According to the latest footage, Mandarin sends his best assassins to track down his son, warning them that victorywould be impossible. Shang-Chi proves his dad right, but his location is revealed, leading to an awkward reunion between father and son. As for why the reunion is happening now, it seems Mandarin is running out of time to pass on his legacy, and rather than send out five golden tickets inside candy bars, he's taking a more direct approach. Shang-Chilooks less than delighted at seeing his father again after a decade apart.
As well as explaining their reunion, we also get a clearer idea of why Shang-Chi hates his old man - and it's more or less what you'd expect. Growing up, Shang-Chi realized his father was a ruthless, murderous criminal who thought nothing of taking a life.Relating moreto his mother, Shang-Chi resents his father's violence, but that hasn't stopped Mandarin demanding respect of his children. Despite ten years of disobedience, Mandarin obviously believes he can win his son over still.
Shang-Chi's first trailer revealed a flashback sequence set in a restaurant, where Mandarlin leads his young son into the establishment and a fight breaks out. In new footage, this memory becomes a key moment in Shang-Chi's development. During the scuffle, a goon (who has presumably displeased Mandarin in some way) gets tossed into a glass dividing wall, narrowly missing the frightened Shang-Chi. Mandarin then casually walks over to the incapacitated gangster and uses a ring blast to execute him callously on the spot, before looking his son directly in the eye as if to say "get used to this." If you're wondering why Shang-Chi has childhood hangups, this'll be it.
Upon meeting with Michelle Yeoh's Jiang Nan in the present day, the pair get down to training.Surrounded by a dusty forest setting, Yeoh's character takes a stance and effortlessly manipulates the air around her, surprising Shang-Chi with her chi control abilities. It would seem that after learning hand-to-hand combat under his father's tutelage, it's Jiang Nan who passes on Shang-Chi's moreunusual abilities from his mother's side, teaching him how to control the elements.
Shang Chi's initial trailer placed the San Francisco bus sequence front and center, and while the new footage mostly dips into other areas, we do get an additional shot of Shang-Chi hanging from the bus' broken window during his fight with Razor Fist. Aside from showcasing the valet's immense strength and dexterity, the scene establishes Razor Fist as a more formidable enemy than his hilariously bad name would imply. Only he, Death Dealer and Mandarin seem to pose any danger to the MCU's new hero.
In a gorgeous scene possiblytaking place at the same island retreat Shang-Chi and Katy are shown arriving at earlier in the trailer, a Chinese lantern ceremony is happening. Although this could be a fictional tradition unique to Shang-Chi's world, the scene may depict the real life annualShangyuanfestival. Lanterns during this special occasion can represent letting go of one's past self, which serves as a fitting metaphor for Shang-Chi moving out from his father's shadow.
The visually-stunning scene where Mandarin triggers a deluge on water in front of Shang-Chi and his companions, only for the liquid to remain still in the air, has been usedheavilyin Marvel's marketing. With the new trailer, however, a mysterious new connection emerges. The circular stone gate from which the flood emanates looks identical to the one a young Shang-Chi and his mother can be spotted training in front of. This detail suggests Shang-Chi possesses the same power to manipulate elements with chi, but may not have harnessed it well enough to use when his journey begins.
Arriving at the Ten Rings hideout, Shang-Chi and Katyexit a helicopter alongside Mandarin, Xialing and Razor Fist. Intheir great leader's presence, the dozens of assembled soldiers obediently bow at Mandarin's behest, giving the audience some idea of the influence he wields.
Expanding on a sequence glimpsed in previous clips, a white-suited Mandarin does battle with an unidentified woman in a forest setting reminiscent ofHouse of Flying Daggers. Once again,the villain's ring-throwing powers are in full effect, but his opponent seems to be holding her own. While the character is only shown from behind (and in the previous trailer wearing a wide hat and mask), this is likely either Shang-Chi's mother or his mentor Jiang Nan, clashing with Mandarin over the treatment of his son.
This action-packed battle looks to pit Ten Rings agents armed with hi-tech batons against a group of rural monks. Fighting on behalf of the monks, however, areguardianstone lions come to life. It's not yet known who animates these statues (or how they manage it), but the creatures are immensely strong, tossing an enemywith the force of a speeding vehicle. MCU fans will be used to seeing this kind of mythological magic on Asgard, butShang-Chiproves that Earth has secret beasts of its own. Although referred to as "foo dogs," the statues are actually lions who resemble certain Chinese dog breeds, hence the name.
Shang-Chiwas already confirmed to includea martial arts cage-style tournament which the title character takes part in. During one round, however, Shang-Chi will be facing off against his own sister, Xialing. The tantalizingly brief glimpse shows Xialingthrowinga stiff kick, which her brother narrowly avoids in a ridiculously agile kip-updodge. Shang-Chi has been estranged from his sister even since he left the family for San Francisco ten years ago, and despite beating seven shades out of each other during their reunion, Xialing's continued presence suggests she aligns with Shang-Chi against their father.
One of two massive standout shots in the secondShang-Chi trailer is the appearance ofa water dragon. The protagonist is floating in some kind of ocean or lake and comes face to face with a massive reptilian head that's unmistakably dragon-like in nature,with the long, snaking body following behind. While this could bea hallucination or dream sequence, the introduction of actual dragons takes the MCU into uncharted fantasy territory even more so than foo dogs, opening up a whole new range of potential worlds and characters to explore.
As for who the dragon could be, many Marvel fans are suggesting Fin Fang Foom, an alien comic character inspired by traditional Chinese lore. In the source material, Mandarin awakens Fin Fang Foom while taking the ten rings, which could explain the character's presence inShang-Chi. While the characterhas long beenrumored, Simu Liu shot the reports down citing racially questionable elements to the dragon. If not Fin Fang Foom,Shang-Chi's merchandise might revealthe water dragon is called "the Great Protector." This sounds like an ancient creature directly linked to the rings, whom Shang-Chi might seek guidance or power from. Therecould also be a connection in the dragon living underwater and Shang-Chi's mother teaching him water manipulation.
In a short shot, Shang-Chi yells "is this what you want" toward an unknown enemy, presumably his father. Scanning thebackground, this could happen during the same sequence as the living foo dog statues, confirming Shang-Chi's presence in that battle.
Another memorable moment fromShang-Chi's new trailer may be taken from the fated final battle between father and son. The same glowing red door from earlier can be seen in the background, confirming the fight's location as the exotic island retreat. More importantly, it seems Shang-Chi is trying to pull the ten rings from his dad's arms, using his own chi to tempt them away. Like Mjlnir, the rings might align to a warrior they deem worthy, and after Shang-Chi's solo movie development is complete,heand Mandarin couldengage ina tug-of-war for control and ownership of the rings in a trueDragon Ball Z-style energy struggle. Assuming Shang-Chi isn't going to lose in his MCU debut, he could wield the rings himself in future movies.
The trailer shot that has everyone talking. Among the combatants in the aforementioned tournament is Abomination, otherwise known as Emil Blonsky. The villain was played by Tim Roth in the 2008The Incredible Hulk movie, but hasn't beenspotted again since surviving his fight against Bruce Banner. Evidently, Blonsky has been making a living in illicit cage fights, maybe laying low in Madripoor, which would explain his long absence. It's not clear whether Roth himself will actually feature inShang-Chior whether Abomination will be entirely CG, but his return could be a prelude to Disney+'s upcomingShe-Hulk series. Incidentally, the monster's design has visibly changed since his last appearance. This could have a canon explanation, or might just represent an aesthetic update for the modern MCU.
On the opposite side of the arena appears to be Wong, Doctor Strange's assistant. The robe and magic powers confirm Abomination's opponent is a master of the mystic arts, and Benedict Wong was rumored to make a cameo after being spotted on-set with Simu Liu. Having said that, we didn't peg Wong as aFight Club kind of guy, so what's he doing in a cage with Abomination during Shang-Chi & The Legend of the Ten Rings?
Craig first began contributing to Screen Rant in 2016, several years after graduating college, and has been ranting ever since, mostly to himself in a darkened room. Having previously written for various sports and music outlets, Craig's interest soon turned to TV and film, where a steady upbringing of science fiction and comic books finally came into its own. Craig has previously been published on sites such as Den of Geek, and after many coffee-drenched hours hunched over a laptop, part-time evening work eventually turned into a full-time career covering everything from the zombie apocalypse to the Starship Enterprise via the TARDIS. Since joining the Screen Rant fold, Craig has been involved in breaking news stories and mildly controversial ranking lists, but now works predominantly as a features writer. Jim Carrey is Craigs top acting pick and favorite topics include superheroes, anime and the unrecognized genius of the High School Musical trilogy.
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