Rock crushers usually hold the rocks to be crushed in between two solid surfaces and apply a force that forces the molecule of the materials to separate or change alignment. Rock crushers are extensively applied in the mining sector where rocks containing the ore are crushed before the mineral is extracted.
In most cases, mining operations may have more than one crusher depending on the desired outcome of the crushing process. The primary crusher handles course rocks while the secondary, tertiary and sometimes the quaternary works on finer gradations that can allow for effective extraction of minerals.
Unlike the alluvial gold found in river beds, most of the gold mined underground is found in hard rocks that contain a lot of other materials. To get pure gold from these gold-bearing rocks has to be processed. The first stage is to crush the rocks to smaller fine gravels that will allow for gold molecules to be extracted.
The crushing of gold-bearing rocks is not as easy as it may seem. This is because the rocks have to be crushed to very fine gravels that can allow for gold molecules to be dissolved in mercury or any other chemical used to extract gold from the ore. What this means is that in large scale mining the mines may have more than one crusher (primary, secondary and tertiary crushers) in order to achieve the desired crushing levels.
This type of rock crusher employs the compressive force to break up larger rocks into smaller pieces. The crusher has two vertical jaws; a fixed jaw and a swing jaw. The rocks to be crushed are filled into the crushing chamber (the gap between the two jaws) and then a weighted flywheel is used to create an eccentric motion in the swing jaw to provide the required inertia to crush the rocks.
Jew crushers are designed to be heavy duty machines used as the primary crushers in many mining operations. Because of this, the crushers are robustly constructed. The outer shell of the crusher is made from strong steel or cast iron while the jaws are fashioned from hardened cast iron with a Ni-hard or manganese steel removable lining.
Dodge crushers are designed with the swing jaw fixed at the lower end enabling material to be crushed progressively as they move down the crushing chamber. Dodge crusher as more effective in crushing tough and abrasive rocks.
The gyratory crusher works on the same principle as the jaw crusher but has a conical head and a concave surface. The crushing chamber is lined with a hardened manganese steel material. The rock crushing is caused by a circular movement in the crushing surface and the materials are progressively crushed until they are of a smaller size that can fall off the narrow end of the chamber. The gyratory crusher is often used as either primary or secondary crusher in many mining operations as it delivers sufficient force to crush large ore bearing rocks.
The cone crusher is the most widely used crusher in mining operation across the world. The crusher is designed in a similar fashion as the gyratory crusher but the crushing chamber is less steep with the sides near parallel.
Crushing is done by a gyrating spindle as the rocks move from the wider upper section until they are small enough to fall off the lower narrow opening. Cone crushers are perfect for hard to mid hard ore bearing rocks and are highly productive making it perfect for use in crushing intensive mines. There four major types of Cone Crushers
The Symons cone crusher is widely used to crush medium harness to very hard rocks. Its size allows it to be used as a secondary or tertiary crusher in mining operations and as a mobile crusher in building and construction and chemical industries.
As the name suggests a single cylinder hydraulic cone is made up of a single crushing cone, a hydraulic control system, an eccentric shaft, bowl liner, adjusting sleeve and a hydraulic safety system. It is perfect as a secondary or a tertiary crusher in mining.
Impact crushers do not use pressure to crush rocks but rather employ impact. The material is placed in a cage where an impact is used to crush them. The cage has narrow openings to allow crushed rocks of the right size to escape. There are two major types of impact crushers:
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In this case, we recommend the use of a PCZ1308 heavy hammer crusher with a feed size of 930x650mm, the feed particle size is less than 600mm, the motor power is 4P 132Kw, and the processing capacity of the equipment is 100-180t/h.
Eastman is a typical direct selling enterprise with green and standardized production plants. All the delivery of the equipment will be completed within the delivery period signed by the contract to ensure the smooth commissioning of the equipment.
Rock crushers have a wide range of suitable material to choose from, whether its soft or hard, or even very hard, rock crushers can reduce those large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or even rock dust.Here are some typical materials that break or compress by industry crushers, such as Granite, quartz stone, river pebble, limestone, calcite, concrete, dolomite, iron ore, silicon ore, basalt and other mines, rocks and slag.
Understanding the stages of crushing process and the types of crushers that best fit each stage can simplifies your equipment selection. Each type of crusher is different and used to achieve a certain end result.
Similarly, a certain output is expected at the end of each crushing stage for the next phase of the process. Aggregate producers who pair the correct crusher to the correct stage will be the most efficient and, in turn, the most profitable.
A jaw crusher is a compression type of crusher. Material is reduced by squeezing the feed material between a moving piece of steel and a stationary piece. The discharge size is controlled by the setting or the space between those two pieces of steel. The tighter the setting, the smaller the output size and the lower the throughput capacity.
As a compression crusher, jaw crushers generally produce the coarsest material because they break the rock by the natural inherent lines of weakness. Jaw crushers are an excellent primary crusher when used to prepare rock for subsequent processing stages.
Although the chamber is round in shape, the moving piece of steel is not meant to rotate. Instead, a wedge is driven around to create compression on one side of the chamber and discharge opening on the opposite side. Cone crushers are used in secondary and tertiary roles as an alternative to impact crushers when shape is an important requirement, but the proportion of fines produced needs to be minimized.
An impact crusher uses mass and velocity to break down feed material. First, the feed material is reduced as it enters the crusher with the rotating blow bars or hammers in the rotor. The secondary breakage occurs as the material is accelerated into the stationary aprons or breaker plates.
Impact crushers tend to be used where shape is a critical requirement and the feed material is not very abrasive. The crushing action of an impact crusher breaks a rock along natural cleavage planes, giving rise to better product quality in terms of shape.
Most aggregate producers are well acquainted with the selection of crushing equipment and know it is possible to select a piece of equipment based solely on spec sheets and gradation calculations. Still, theoretical conclusions must always be weighed against practical experience regarding the material at hand and of the operational, maintenance and economical aspects of different solutions.
The duty of the primary crusher is, above all, to make it possible to transport material on a conveyor belt. In most aggregate crushing plants, primary crushing is carried out in a jaw crusher, although a gyratory primary crusher may be used. If material is easily crushed and not excessively abrasive, an impact breaker could also be the best choice.
The most important characteristics of a primary crusher are the capacity and the ability to accept raw material without blockages. A large primary crusher is more expensive to purchase than a smaller machine. For this reason, investment cost calculations for primary crushers are weighed against the costs of blasting raw material to a smaller size.
A pit-portable primary crusher can be an economically sound solution in cases where the producer is crushing at the quarry face. In modern plants, it is often advantageous to use a moveable primary crusher so it can follow the movement of the face where raw material is extracted.
The purpose of intermediate crushing is to produce various coarser fractions or to prepare material for final crushing. If the intermediate crusher is used to make railway ballast, product quality is important.
In other cases, there are normally no quality requirements, although the product must be suitable for fine crushing. In most cases, the objective is to obtain the greatest possible reduction at the lowest possible cost.
In most cases, the fine crushing and cubicization functions are combined in a single crushing stage. The selection of a crusher for tertiary crushing calls for both practical experience and theoretical know-how. This is where producers should be sure to call in an experienced applications specialist to make sure a system is properly engineered.