tue glaze ball mill manufacture in turkey

tiles and mosaics for potters

tiles and mosaics for potters

Ceramic supply companies are often amazed at how well some of their tile-making customers are doing and how quickly their businesses sometimes grow. You may not be aware of how quickly the hand-decorated tile, custom tile, and mosaic tile businesses have grown in the past few years. For example, visit http://axner.com and search the 'books' area for the word "Tile", some stunning books are available.

Anyone who has visited a modern tile plant in Italy, Spain, Turkey, etc. is amazed at the innovation of these companies and the kind and size of automated production equipment they use. The dust pressing, silk screening, glass fritting, engobing, fast firing processes that are the mainstay of the industry are almost completely unknown to potters. However, although these companies produce huge volumes of tile, there are many niche custom tile markets for small players to fill around the world.

However if you want to make your own tiles you should be aware that you will have to relearn and unlearn some things. Techniques that you may have gotten away with in pottery will not necessarily work in tile production. For example,avoiding drying cracks and dry warpingcan be very difficult in hand made tilesmade by a pressing, rolling or extruding. This is because the clay body must be plastic and have a high water content (and therefore high shrinkage).

By contrast, industry employs dust pressing, it is undoubtedly the fastest and most precise method for tile making and no drying racks or chambers are required (RAM pressing is also used for special shapes). Dust pressed tiles have no drying shrinkage and remaining water can be expelled in the kiln. Also, the dust pressing method puts a lot of the burden of manufacture on mechanical engineers (which are easier to find than ceramic engineers).

Potters who begin making tile also find it very difficult to fire tile without warping it, even at low temperatures. Industrial kilns, by contrast, can heat a tile so evenly that vitreous tiles up to 120cm by 80cm can be fired perfectly flat and very quickly. Standard tiles, even vitreous ones,can be fired in an hour. The average potter would say that these things are impossible (they are in any kiln they are used to using). Industrial kilns are highly controlled tunnels that the tiles convey through in a continuous fashion, periodic pottery kilns require a lot of shelves to fire any amount,this severely reduces kiln efficiency an evenness of firing.

The tile industry is very well represented on the internet, perhaps better than any other segment of ceramics. Check out a search engine for some inspiration. There are some amazing tile shows held around the world, the one in Orlando, Florida each year, for example, is huge. While it is mainly tile companies show casing their ware at this show, there are lots of related industries that participate also. Anyone interested in tile who walking through a show like this will have ideas flooding into their minds faster than they can write them down.

If you are serious about tile production, be willing to get your information from industry rather than other potters, that is where the real knowledge can be found. If you can find a way to communicate with the ceramic engineers at these companies (not the salesman) you will oftenfind them very helpful and giving, that has been our experience.

alloy steel bars ,medium to thick special steel plates,alloy wire rods, continuous casting alloy billets,forged (rolled) steel grinding ballmanufacturers, suppliers, exporters - shanghai hengtie metal co.,ltd

alloy steel bars ,medium to thick special steel plates,alloy wire rods, continuous casting alloy billets,forged (rolled) steel grinding ballmanufacturers, suppliers, exporters - shanghai hengtie metal co.,ltd

The international standard products in large quantity are exported to European, American and Middle East market such as Australia, Germany, Italy, France, U.S.A., Turkey and Brazil and Southeast market such as Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore

Shanghai Hengtie Steel was established in 1996, with more than 20 years manufacture and export experience. The China factories are located in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shangdong province, which are main professional steel manufacturer bases of high alloy steel plates, steel coils, wear-resistant steel plates, corrosion-resistant steel plates, high strength steel plates, tool steel, forged round bars, forgings, forging shafts, etc

Shanghai Hengtie Steel was established in 1996, with more than 20 years manufacture and export experience. The China factories are located in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shangdong province, which are main professional steel manufacturer bases of high alloy steel plates, steel coils, wear-resistant steel plates, corrosion-resistant steel plates, high strength steel plates, tool steel, forged round bars, forgings, forging shafts, etc

how toilets are made ?? | learn step-by-step | raw materials, processing & testings |ceramic ninja exclusive article - ceramic ninja

how toilets are made ?? | learn step-by-step | raw materials, processing & testings |ceramic ninja exclusive article - ceramic ninja

Toilets are made from naturally available clay materials. Clay materials are mixed in proper position and then casted to the design needed and sprayed to get the colour and then fired to get the required strength and glossiness.

Do you want to find out how factories around the world manufacture the toilet? Then you come to the right place. In this article we are going to see how toilets are manufactured in sanitary ware industry. We also going to cover the steps in the process, raw materials used and testing done to the toilets.

All types of toilets are manufactured in the same method, will not vary based on the design. I am going to write this article like you never know about the toilet manufacturing. So to understand clearly the process, I am going to compare the toilet manufacturing to car manufacturing process to get a clear idea. Toilets are also known as water closets.Table of Contents How toilets are made?Raw materialsRaw materials of glazeThe raw material for the mouldsToilet manufacturing processDesigning & Moulding:Body and glaze preparation:Casting:Drying:Spraying:Firing:Testing:ConclusionRaw materialsThe basic raw materials for the toilet manufacturing are mined from the earth directly. We can classify the raw materials in toilet manufacturing as three parts,Raw material for the bodyRaw material for the GlazeRaw materials for the mouldThe raw material for the body:First, we see what body is. The body is the one which gives shape and strength to the toilet, Imagine a car without paint. The appearance may not look good but, it the one give the body shape and strength. Without the body, there is nothing in it.Body is a mixture of following the raw material,Ball clayChina clayFeldsparSandBall clay and china clay are added to give the strength of the body before firing the body to 1200 degree Celsius. Feldspar is added to the body to fuse the body al lower temperature in the kiln. Because the sand melting temperature is 1650 degree Celsius. So to melt it at a lower temperature like 1200 degree Celsius we are adding the feldspar as a flux. Flux materials help us to melt the composition at a lower temperature. We will use both potash and soda feldspar in the mixer to get the desired flux effect.Sand is the one which gives the strength to the toilet when we are using. A toilet can withstand a minimum of 450 Kgs (Approx. 1000 pounds).These three main components are mixed with water and made like a watery paste. This is called as the slip.Raw materials of glazeWhat is a glaze? The glaze is like a paint, it is going to give the colour to the toilet. When you see and colour of toilet including white it is glaze with this glaze. After the firing, Glaze will be shining and gives a good finishing to the body. The glaze will easily mixable in glaze before firing. Dont think the glaze is like paint. This will never become permanent unless you fire above 1200 degree Celsius. Before firing you can nothing is permanent in the toilet body, it can be easily breakable and also can be recycled completely.The raw material for the mouldsWhat is the mould? Mould is the one which gives shape to the slip. The mould is made of beta plaster of Paris. We will see in the process how these moulds are made.Now we have seen the Materials used in the toilet production. You need to remember the slip, glaze and moulds to understand the process of toilet manufacturing.Toilet manufacturing processWe will see the toilet manufacturing step by step. the steps are as follows,Designing & MouldingBody and Glaze preparationCastingDryingSprayingFiringTestingDesigning & Moulding:In the first step of toilet manufacturing, a design is made for the toilet. Initially, a Cad diagram is made with the size. Below show is a simplified diagram of a toilet diagram. The diagram will help to make a design on plaster. The floor bolt, seat cover whole place, trap way, shape and everything will be included in the diagram. technical diagram toilet modelOnce the diagram made a modeller will do a model using the plaster of Paris. The model is made 12% more size than the required toilet size. Because the toilet will shrink during firing. This model-making process will take up to 30 days based on the complexity of the toilet model and the modular experience.Now a day the model can be made using a CNC machine. But still, the machines are not so perfect as manual modelling. Once a model toilet is made using the plaster of Paris, it is used to make a dye for the model toilet. This dye is called as mould. The mould made up of plaster will have 90 to 100 impression life. We need more moulds to make the toilet production continues. So a die is made for mould, the die may be a rubber, resin or alpha plaster die. This die is known as a case.Now using the case, many moulds are prepared based on the requirement. How these moulds are prepared from the case?Water and plaster are mixed with 4:3 ratios using a stirrer. Within five mints the mixer will be poured in the case. Once the plaster mixer hardens the mould will be taken out of the case. The hardening of plaster mould will take up to 20 mints. Then the moulds are taken to the mould drier. The plaster will be dried in the dryer at 65 degree Celsius around 48 hours.Body and glaze preparation:First sand is grounded the in ball mill with water to reduce the size of the sand. Then the sand mixer is mixed with ball clay, china clay and fine feldspar powder. Required quality of water is added to the blunger with this mix. The prepared mix is called as Slip. The density, flow and Thixotropic of the slip are maintained to get the required property. The prepared slip will be sent to the Casting process. body preparation for toiletThe raw materials of the glaze are ground in the ball mill based on the required colour. Once it is grounded then it is unloaded to send to the spraying process. The glaze will be tested for the property before sent to the next process. The slip will be in grey colour and high viscous liquid form.Casting:The slip will be poured inside the mould and let the slip in the mould for 2 hours to get the shape of the toilet design. The excess slip will be drained form the mould. The thickness of the piece should be around 9 to 13 MM based on the model. After two hours the slip gets dried and can be taken out from the mould. This stage of the toilet is called as green ware. This green ware is allowed to dry for two days in open area. Once it sun dried then it is finished for any defects.toilet ready for dryerDrying:The Green ware is loaded in a trolley and then pushed to the drier. The wares are placed in a 90 degree Celsius drier for 8 to 10 hours. Once the green ware dried the ware is tested for moisture content. The moisture content after drier should be less than 0.5%. These pieces then sent to the spraying area.Spraying:The ware piece is sprayed using a spray gun. The glaze from the glaze preparation section is used to spray on the piece. The glaze thickness should be around 1 MM. Then this glazed product sent for firing.toilet sprayingFiring:The toilets are stacked in a moving car. This car takes the toilets to the firing area. The toilet is fired to a temperature of 1200 degree Celsius. Once the toilet fired it get the strength to withstand weight minimum of 400 degree Celsius. toilet loaded on kilnTesting:Toilets are tested after firing to guarantee the quality and standards. First visual inspection is done to make sure no defect piece sent to the customer. Then leak test, flush test, vacuum test , smoke test will be done to ensure the toilet quality. This toilet is packed and sent to the consumers.ConclusionI tried to include the step in the toilet manufacturing process. If you need anything, let me know on the comment section below. I sure can answer because I work in this manufacturing factory. And also know the types of toilets.

All types of toilets are manufactured in the same method, will not vary based on the design. I am going to write this article like you never know about the toilet manufacturing. So to understand clearly the process, I am going to compare the toilet manufacturing to car manufacturing process to get a clear idea. Toilets are also known as water closets.

First, we see what body is. The body is the one which gives shape and strength to the toilet, Imagine a car without paint. The appearance may not look good but, it the one give the body shape and strength. Without the body, there is nothing in it.

Ball clay and china clay are added to give the strength of the body before firing the body to 1200 degree Celsius. Feldspar is added to the body to fuse the body al lower temperature in the kiln. Because the sand melting temperature is 1650 degree Celsius. So to melt it at a lower temperature like 1200 degree Celsius we are adding the feldspar as a flux. Flux materials help us to melt the composition at a lower temperature. We will use both potash and soda feldspar in the mixer to get the desired flux effect.Sand is the one which gives the strength to the toilet when we are using. A toilet can withstand a minimum of 450 Kgs (Approx. 1000 pounds).These three main components are mixed with water and made like a watery paste. This is called as the slip.Raw materials of glazeWhat is a glaze? The glaze is like a paint, it is going to give the colour to the toilet. When you see and colour of toilet including white it is glaze with this glaze. After the firing, Glaze will be shining and gives a good finishing to the body. The glaze will easily mixable in glaze before firing. Dont think the glaze is like paint. This will never become permanent unless you fire above 1200 degree Celsius. Before firing you can nothing is permanent in the toilet body, it can be easily breakable and also can be recycled completely.The raw material for the mouldsWhat is the mould? Mould is the one which gives shape to the slip. The mould is made of beta plaster of Paris. We will see in the process how these moulds are made.Now we have seen the Materials used in the toilet production. You need to remember the slip, glaze and moulds to understand the process of toilet manufacturing.Toilet manufacturing processWe will see the toilet manufacturing step by step. the steps are as follows,Designing & MouldingBody and Glaze preparationCastingDryingSprayingFiringTestingDesigning & Moulding:In the first step of toilet manufacturing, a design is made for the toilet. Initially, a Cad diagram is made with the size. Below show is a simplified diagram of a toilet diagram. The diagram will help to make a design on plaster. The floor bolt, seat cover whole place, trap way, shape and everything will be included in the diagram. technical diagram toilet modelOnce the diagram made a modeller will do a model using the plaster of Paris. The model is made 12% more size than the required toilet size. Because the toilet will shrink during firing. This model-making process will take up to 30 days based on the complexity of the toilet model and the modular experience.Now a day the model can be made using a CNC machine. But still, the machines are not so perfect as manual modelling. Once a model toilet is made using the plaster of Paris, it is used to make a dye for the model toilet. This dye is called as mould. The mould made up of plaster will have 90 to 100 impression life. We need more moulds to make the toilet production continues. So a die is made for mould, the die may be a rubber, resin or alpha plaster die. This die is known as a case.Now using the case, many moulds are prepared based on the requirement. How these moulds are prepared from the case?Water and plaster are mixed with 4:3 ratios using a stirrer. Within five mints the mixer will be poured in the case. Once the plaster mixer hardens the mould will be taken out of the case. The hardening of plaster mould will take up to 20 mints. Then the moulds are taken to the mould drier. The plaster will be dried in the dryer at 65 degree Celsius around 48 hours.Body and glaze preparation:First sand is grounded the in ball mill with water to reduce the size of the sand. Then the sand mixer is mixed with ball clay, china clay and fine feldspar powder. Required quality of water is added to the blunger with this mix. The prepared mix is called as Slip. The density, flow and Thixotropic of the slip are maintained to get the required property. The prepared slip will be sent to the Casting process. body preparation for toiletThe raw materials of the glaze are ground in the ball mill based on the required colour. Once it is grounded then it is unloaded to send to the spraying process. The glaze will be tested for the property before sent to the next process. The slip will be in grey colour and high viscous liquid form.Casting:The slip will be poured inside the mould and let the slip in the mould for 2 hours to get the shape of the toilet design. The excess slip will be drained form the mould. The thickness of the piece should be around 9 to 13 MM based on the model. After two hours the slip gets dried and can be taken out from the mould. This stage of the toilet is called as green ware. This green ware is allowed to dry for two days in open area. Once it sun dried then it is finished for any defects.toilet ready for dryerDrying:The Green ware is loaded in a trolley and then pushed to the drier. The wares are placed in a 90 degree Celsius drier for 8 to 10 hours. Once the green ware dried the ware is tested for moisture content. The moisture content after drier should be less than 0.5%. These pieces then sent to the spraying area.Spraying:The ware piece is sprayed using a spray gun. The glaze from the glaze preparation section is used to spray on the piece. The glaze thickness should be around 1 MM. Then this glazed product sent for firing.toilet sprayingFiring:The toilets are stacked in a moving car. This car takes the toilets to the firing area. The toilet is fired to a temperature of 1200 degree Celsius. Once the toilet fired it get the strength to withstand weight minimum of 400 degree Celsius. toilet loaded on kilnTesting:Toilets are tested after firing to guarantee the quality and standards. First visual inspection is done to make sure no defect piece sent to the customer. Then leak test, flush test, vacuum test , smoke test will be done to ensure the toilet quality. This toilet is packed and sent to the consumers.ConclusionI tried to include the step in the toilet manufacturing process. If you need anything, let me know on the comment section below. I sure can answer because I work in this manufacturing factory. And also know the types of toilets.

Feldspar is added to the body to fuse the body al lower temperature in the kiln. Because the sand melting temperature is 1650 degree Celsius. So to melt it at a lower temperature like 1200 degree Celsius we are adding the feldspar as a flux. Flux materials help us to melt the composition at a lower temperature. We will use both potash and soda feldspar in the mixer to get the desired flux effect.

What is a glaze? The glaze is like a paint, it is going to give the colour to the toilet. When you see and colour of toilet including white it is glaze with this glaze. After the firing, Glaze will be shining and gives a good finishing to the body. The glaze will easily mixable in glaze before firing. Dont think the glaze is like paint. This will never become permanent unless you fire above 1200 degree Celsius. Before firing you can nothing is permanent in the toilet body, it can be easily breakable and also can be recycled completely.

In the first step of toilet manufacturing, a design is made for the toilet. Initially, a Cad diagram is made with the size. Below show is a simplified diagram of a toilet diagram. The diagram will help to make a design on plaster. The floor bolt, seat cover whole place, trap way, shape and everything will be included in the diagram.

Once the diagram made a modeller will do a model using the plaster of Paris. The model is made 12% more size than the required toilet size. Because the toilet will shrink during firing. This model-making process will take up to 30 days based on the complexity of the toilet model and the modular experience.

Now a day the model can be made using a CNC machine. But still, the machines are not so perfect as manual modelling. Once a model toilet is made using the plaster of Paris, it is used to make a dye for the model toilet. This dye is called as mould. The mould made up of plaster will have 90 to 100 impression life. We need more moulds to make the toilet production continues. So a die is made for mould, the die may be a rubber, resin or alpha plaster die. This die is known as a case.

Water and plaster are mixed with 4:3 ratios using a stirrer. Within five mints the mixer will be poured in the case. Once the plaster mixer hardens the mould will be taken out of the case. The hardening of plaster mould will take up to 20 mints. Then the moulds are taken to the mould drier. The plaster will be dried in the dryer at 65 degree Celsius around 48 hours.

First sand is grounded the in ball mill with water to reduce the size of the sand. Then the sand mixer is mixed with ball clay, china clay and fine feldspar powder. Required quality of water is added to the blunger with this mix. The prepared mix is called as Slip. The density, flow and Thixotropic of the slip are maintained to get the required property. The prepared slip will be sent to the Casting process.

The raw materials of the glaze are ground in the ball mill based on the required colour. Once it is grounded then it is unloaded to send to the spraying process. The glaze will be tested for the property before sent to the next process. The slip will be in grey colour and high viscous liquid form.

The slip will be poured inside the mould and let the slip in the mould for 2 hours to get the shape of the toilet design. The excess slip will be drained form the mould. The thickness of the piece should be around 9 to 13 MM based on the model. After two hours the slip gets dried and can be taken out from the mould. This stage of the toilet is called as green ware. This green ware is allowed to dry for two days in open area. Once it sun dried then it is finished for any defects.

The Green ware is loaded in a trolley and then pushed to the drier. The wares are placed in a 90 degree Celsius drier for 8 to 10 hours. Once the green ware dried the ware is tested for moisture content. The moisture content after drier should be less than 0.5%. These pieces then sent to the spraying area.

The ware piece is sprayed using a spray gun. The glaze from the glaze preparation section is used to spray on the piece. The glaze thickness should be around 1 MM. Then this glazed product sent for firing.

The toilets are stacked in a moving car. This car takes the toilets to the firing area. The toilet is fired to a temperature of 1200 degree Celsius. Once the toilet fired it get the strength to withstand weight minimum of 400 degree Celsius.

Toilets are tested after firing to guarantee the quality and standards. First visual inspection is done to make sure no defect piece sent to the customer. Then leak test, flush test, vacuum test , smoke test will be done to ensure the toilet quality. This toilet is packed and sent to the consumers.

I tried to include the step in the toilet manufacturing process. If you need anything, let me know on the comment section below. I sure can answer because I work in this manufacturing factory. And also know the types of toilets.

Venkat Mani is a Ceramic Engineering Graduate from India, working in Sanitaryware production line for 10 years. He shares Meaningful content related to sanitaryware professionals that others find useful.

clinker production - an overview | sciencedirect topics

clinker production - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Energy demand in clinker production has been significantly reduced over the last few decades. The theoretical minimum primary energy consumption (heat) for the chemical and mineralogical reactions is approximately 1.61.85 GJ/t (Klein and Hoening, 2006). However, there are technical reasons why this will not be reached, for example unavoidable conductive heat loss through kiln/calciner surfaces. A critical review on energy use and savings in the cement industries can be found in Madlool et al. (2011). The main reason is that a significant decrease in specific power consumption can only be achieved through major retrofits, which need high investment cost with low payback potentials and strengthened environmental requirements which can increase power consumption (e.g., dust emissions limits require more power for dust separation regardless of the technology applied). As a consequence, the best available technique (BAT) levels for new plants and major upgrades are 2,9003,300MJ/t clinker, based on dry process kilns with multistage preheaters and precalciners (European Commission, 2010).

As the change in cement kiln size is difficult, waste heat recovery may play an important role. Currently, a large quantity of low temperature waste heat (below 350C), approximately 30% of the total heat consumption of the system, is still not recovered and could be a promising low investment cost solution (Jintao et al., 2009).

At the optimum calcium sulfate level, the early hydration products of the C3A form ettringite which deposits as a fine-grained material on the clinker surface. This hydration product does not bridge the water-filled gaps between particles of clinker, and the paste becomes only slightly stiffer due to initial hydration during the early period.74 Two cements produced from the same clinker to two different specific surface areas, show very different levels of water demands and setting times.

It is argued that the quantity of sulfate in solution should be adjusted to the level of activity of C3A in order to optimise fluidity: if there is too little sulfate present, then, in addition to ettringite, platy crystals of calcium aluminate hydrate or calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate are formed. If there is too much sulfate, then secondary gypsum is formed during early hydration of the hemihydrate present. Both additional hydration products result in reduced fluidity and increased water demand and may lead to premature setting.

The solubility behaviour of the sulfate agent depends on the form in which it is present in the cement.79 Gypsum dissolves relatively slowly; hemihydrate and soluble anhydrite dissolve much faster, and in much greater quantities. Natural anhydrite dissolves substantially more slowly. The high temperatures and relatively long residence time in the ball mill ground product produce almost complete dehydration of the gypsum. A high sulfate concentration at the start of hydration can therefore be obtained easily. Different conditions prevail in the high-pressure grinding rolls: the temperature is much lower and the residence time is much shorter. Consequently, dehydration of the gypsum is much reduced and, if a fast dissolution of sulfate is required, hemihydrate must be added before grinding.

In addition to the form of the sulfate, the fineness of grinding and the distribution of the sulfate will affect the water demand. The optimum percentages of calcium sulfate hemihydrate required in a hemihydrate anhydrite mixture are much higher for the more finely ground cement. A sufficiently homogeneous distribution can only be achieved by sufficiently high fineness of grinding. With ball mill grinding, the sulfate becomes concentrated in the finest fraction, and is distributed homogeneously throughout the cement. On the other hand, when grinding by high-pressure rolls, the sulfate agent is often not sufficiently finely ground and an adequately homogeneous distribution in the cement is not always achieved.

The fluidity of cement mortars and the water demand of fresh concretes reach optimum levels at intermediate additions of gypsum.80 It has been deduced81 that the activity of C3A is influenced by the stressing of crystal lattices that accompanies fine grinding. This conclusion was drawn from a series of tests in which Portland cement was ground either conventionally in a ball mill or in high-pressure grinding rolls. The water demand of the ball milled cement was 27 per cent and of the high-pressure ground cement was 32.5 per cent, at the same specific surface area (350 m2/kg). It was argued that a significant increase in C3A activity had occurred; however, the observed differences in water demand were shown to be the result of differences in the rates of interaction between the calcium sulfate agent present and the C3A in the two systems.82

In addition to the particle size distribution of the cement, a further factor affecting the water demand is the extent of the gypsum dehydration.70 In roller mills, the grinding temperature remains low and as a consequence most of the gypsum remains as gypsum, and results in a higher water demand. The uneven distribution of gypsum produced by the roller mill would also result in local setting and again cause increased water demand. A relationship has been found between the mill outlet temperature and the water demand, such that the water demand for normal consistency fell from 30.5 to 29 per cent as the mill outlet temperature increased from 90 to 130C.

Alkalis affect the reactivity of the C3 A present in a cement: the higher the K2O bound in the crystal lattice, the greater the reactivity and the greater the concentration of rapidly soluble sulfate required to control the setting and fluidity reduction.83 If the same quantity of potassium is added as sulfate, there is no increase in activity. In contrast to K2O, the absorption of Na2O into the lattice reduces the activity of the C3A,83 while neither alkali present as sulfate affects the rate of hydration of the aluminate or the water demand.

Investigations of the effect of alkali additions on the rheological properties of cement pastes84 has shown that the plastic viscosity values were unaffected, but the yield stress values were much higher for high-alkali cements than for low-alkali cements.

The presence of alkali sulfates in clinker can also affect the bleeding of cement pastes. Bleeding is the development of a layer of water at the top surface as a result of the sedimentation of the cement particles. Both the bleeding rate and bleeding capacity of cement pastes decreased with increased amounts of water-soluble alkalis.85

The surface area and the particle size distribution have a major effect on strength, setting time and more particularly on water demand.78,86 For equal specific surface area, cements with a narrower particle size distribution have a higher proportion of fine particles, and thus an increasing proportion of fine particles is completely hydrated and a higher strength is obtained. The increased water demand with narrowing particle size range largely arises from the need to fill the voids between cement particles with water, in order to make the paste fluid, and a narrower particle size range inevitably leads to an increase in void content and consequently an increased water demand.

The amount of cement and clinker production is increasing worldwide. The production and clinker capacity of countries in 2015 and 2016 are summarized in Table1 [9]. China is the leader on both cement production and clinker production, accounting for more than 50% of total production. Top two countries, China and India, make up about two-thirds of total cement production in the world. Turkey ranks the fourth and produces 1.83% of the cement in the world. According to the Turkish Cement Manufacturers' Association, 72 cement factories were operating in the Turkish cement sector, including 54 integrated plants and 18 grinding and packaging plants [10].

Among these companies, Akansa is the greatest cement producer in Turkey, with sales of more than 1.4 billion Turkish lira (TL), according to the Top 500 Industrial Enterprises report [11] of the Istanbul Chamber of Industry. In this study, we will focus on the cement production process of Akansa. Akansa is a joint venture of Sabanc Holding and HeidelbergCement, and is the leader in cement production in Turkey. It is responsible for 10% of the total production of Portland cement and 12.5% of clinker production in Turkey [12]. The process of the company is illustrated in Fig.1. It starts with crushers that feed raw material storage. The raw materials are fed to raw mills that feed the raw material silos. Finally, the raw materials are conveyed to kilns where they are transformed into clinkers. The clinkers are processed in cement mills and then stored in the cement silo.

Currently Akansa derives its production plan conventionally and does not take into account changes in electricity prices. In other words, Akansa generates its production plan by assuming that electricity prices are constant. As a result, most of their production process is conducted during the day unless there is a need for overproduction. However, prices are not constant and there is a significant difference between hourly price levels. Hence, there is a potential for improvement in the cost of the electricity consumed. This potential can be used by shifting working hours from the day to the night shift. However, shifting working time to night has a cost. First, workers and engineers must work at night and the wages paid for the night shift is higher than those for the day shift. Second, the raw materials and finished products have to be shipped at night, which is costlier. Therefore, the cost of shifting the production process to night should be justified by savings in the consumption of electricity at night. If the benefit is high enough, the management can be convinced to execute the production plan that employs the electricity prices. To determine the savings of this plan, one must compare its energy consumption with the current conventional approach. In this study, our aim was to find an upper bound for this savings potential to see whether the benefits of executing the plan exceeded the cost of executing it.

The incorporation of calcium chloride in the raw material mixture for Portland clinker production by utilising molten salt technology, has enabled the temperature of clinker formation to be reduced by 400C500C. This clinker contains alinite, a structural variant of alite (tricalcium silicate) incorporating chloride ions.256,291,292 The quantitative content by weight of the mineral phases present in alinite clinker varies within the following limits: alinite 60%80%, belite (-dicalcium silicate) 10%30%, calcium chloroaluminate (Ca6A107Cl) 5%10%, dicalcium ferrite 2%10%. Weak CaCl bonds are developed which result in alinite clinker being softer than alite and requiring less energy for grinding. Gypsum addition is reported293 to intensify strength development rather than principally functioning as a regulator of set.

Alinite has also been produced by clinkering steel plant wastes such as fly ash from an in-house power generating plant, limestone fines, mill scale and magnesite dust with calcium chloride as a sintering aid at 1150C.294 The optimum calcium chloride addition to the raw mix was found to be 7%8% by weight. These cements have been found to be relatively insensitive to the various impurities in the raw mix and can tolerate higher levels of MgO than Portland cements. This low-temperature clinkering route offers scope for the conversion of industrial wastes into hydraulically setting cements. Alinite cement is compatible with Portland cement and additions of 20% by weight of fly ash can be satisfactorily accommodated. Alinite is stable in impure systems with different elements, but is unstable in the pure system CaOSiO2Al2O3CaCl2. Typical alinite clinker contains alinite (65%), belite (20%), mayenite (C11A7CaCl2; 10%) and C4AF (5%).295 Alinite was ascribed the formulation Ca21Mg[Si0.75A10.25O4]8O4C12. The presence of magnesia appears to be essential for alinite formation.296 Jasmundite [Ca22(SiO4)8O4S2], which has S2 instead of Cl ions in the crystal lattice, is poorly hydraulic.297 Later work showed alinite not to have a fixed composition and to be best represented as Ca10Mg1(x/2)x/2 [(SiO4)3+x(A1O4)3+x(AlO4)1xO2Cl] where 0.35

Calcium silicate sulfate chloride [Ca4(SiO4)(SO4)Cl2], a derivative of alinite having an orthorhombic structure,300 is formed at only ca. 600C800C. It has appreciable hydraulic activity,301 greater than that of belite. Compressive strengths of 25MPa at 28days have been found.301

The hot farine exiting from the abgas which is a rotten gas that appeared in clinker production in the rotary kiln system. Ventilation at point 5 passes through the cooling tower to transfer excess heat into the cooling flow, as illustrated in Fig.1. Under the steady-state and steady-flow conditions, the mass, energy, entropy, and exergy balance equations can be defined as for the cooling tower:

Cement manufacturing has several opportunities for WHR, specifically in the process step where the clinker material is produced. For clinker production, a mixture of clay, limestone, and sand is heated to temperatures near 1500C. The kiln and clinker cooler have hot exhaust streams where waste heat could be recovered.

The kiln exhaust stream, when no WHR is used, is at about 450C. The heat from this exhaust stream is currently recovered by using it for preheating and power generation with steam cycles. Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and the Kalina cycle have been considered for use in power production.

The clinker cooler exhaust is at a temperature near 200C and is typically used for preheating the kiln or other parts of the clinker production process. The ORC and Kalina cycles have also been considered for use to recover the waste heat from the clinker cooler. The sCO2 cycle could also be considered for both waste heat streams.

Oxy-fuel combustion capture systems are restricted to processes that generate CO2 in combustion processes, such as fossil-fuel power plants, clinker production in cement plants, and the iron and steel industry. As the name suggests, fuels are burned in the presence of pure oxygen rather than air to produce flue gas with higher CO2 concentrations and free from nitrogen-derived pollutants (Cullar-Franca and Azapagic, 2015). However, oxygen is expensive and the environmental impacts associated with its production are high because of the energy intensive air-separation processes (Azapagic etal., 2004). Three oxygen separation technologies are used currently in oxy-fuel combustion capture systems:

Where it is not appropriate to use blastfurnace slag as a cementitious material, the composition and origin of slag provides a potential raw material for clinker production. Most raw materials for cement manufacture are quarried and prepared for firing in the cement kiln at a cost. In addition, most sources of CaO for cement making are found as carbonate and when calcining calcium carbonate the producer is increasingly becoming subject to penalties for releasing CO2 to the atmosphere. Blastfurnace slag contains CaO from limestone or dolomite which has already been calcined and therefore the clinker producer will not be liable to penalties for CO2 release from the limestone. Blastfurnace slag typically contains about 40% CaO, together with other oxides needed for cement clinker manufacture which have already been heat treated and therefore will require less energy to convert to clinker. An additional advantage is that the melting point of blastfurnace slag is about 1200C which means that it is easily distributed through the feed within the liquid phase in the rotary kiln.

The fundamental requirement for clinker manufacture is a source of lime (CaO) and sources of silica, alumina and iron oxide. In almost all cases the lime comes primarily from limestone. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of the hard parts of once living organisms.

If raw material limestone has a LSF of more than about 200 it should not be difficult to devise a recipe with LSF, SM and AM suitable for clinker production. If LSF in limestone is lower than about 200 it becomes harder to find suitable non-calcareous components. Limestone is rarely pure calcium carbonate; deposits often incorporate siliciclastic components, such as silt from rivers or even volcanic ash. Limestone may also contain compounds of zinc, lead and fluorine, for example. Contaminants in limestone and other raw meal components may have a significant impact on clinker quality, kiln operation and emission to atmosphere. Of special relevance to quality and kiln operation are:

MgO: Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 in limestone may arise from the original depositional environment or from diagenesis, the process of change to the sediment since deposition. It may be dispersed very unevenly within a limestone deposit. The ratio of MgO to CaO in dolomite is about 70% by weight. The European Standard EN 197 stipulates that The magnesium content (MgO) shall not exceed 5.0% by mass in cement. The US ASTM C150-07 allows 6% MgO. Only a small proportion of dolomite in the raw materials recipe would be required to breach these limits.

Chlorides: Limestone, especially porous limestone found near the sea, may be contaminated with sodium chloride (NaCl). Chloride is commonly found in alternative fuels, such as domestic-refuse-derived fuels. Chloride in cement is limited by most national cement standards and a kiln bypass may be required to remove chloride from the kiln system.

Fluorides: Limestone altered by mineralising solutions may contain a suite of minerals including fluorine as fluorite, CaF2. The presence of fluoride acts as mineraliser. It also decreases the viscosity of the liquid phase in the sintering section of the kiln and if present in sufficient quantity may result in what should be nodular clinker becoming more like lava, resulting in serious damage to the clinker cooler.

Alkalis, compounds of Na and K: The alkalis are found both in the clay (or shale) and the calcareous components of the recipe, but at higher levels in the clay or shale. If alkali levels in clinker are higher than required, selective use of low alkali clay or shale may overcome the problem. Increasing SM by addition of quartz sand also reduces clinker alkalis by reducing the proportion of clay or shale in the recipe. If those options are not available, non-alkali chloride can be added to the kiln system and alkali removed as potassium chloride (KCl) in bypass dust. For example with increased use of alternative fuels containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride), Na2Oequiv in clinker can be reduced by between 0.05% and 0.1%.

dal engineering group delivers ball mill to grinding plant in north africa - cement industry news from global cement

dal engineering group delivers ball mill to grinding plant in north africa - cement industry news from global cement

North Africa: Turkey-based DAL Engineering Group has announced that it has acted upon a contract to design and manufacture a ball mill for a grinding plant project. It shipped the 3.0m x 10m mill to a grinding plant in North Africa in June 2020.

dal engineering group - cement industry news from global cement

dal engineering group - cement industry news from global cement

North Africa: Turkey-based DAL Engineering Group has announced that it has acted upon a contract to design and manufacture a ball mill for a grinding plant project. It shipped the 3.0m x 10m mill to a grinding plant in North Africa in June 2020.

Tanzania: Turkey-based DAL Engineering Group has reported the successful delivery of three kiln shells to Germany-based HeidelbergCement subsidiary Tanzania Portland Cements integrated Wazo Hill cement plant near Dar Es Salaam. Tanzania Portland Cement produces the Twiga brand of cement across the 2.0Mt/yr plants three dry lines.

Algeria/Iraq: Dal Machinery & Design (DMD), part of Turkeys Dal Engineering Group, has been awarded a contract to supply a kiln shell to LafargeHolcim Algerias Oggaz cement plant. The shell has an internal diameter of 5mm. The shell will be manufactured from a single part, with one single welding in the axial direction. It is expected to be delivered by September 2019. No value for the order has been disclosed.

Other recent orders for DMD include the supply of two kiln shells for LafargeHolcims Bazian cement plant at Sulaimani in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The kiln shells were manufactured with a diameter of 5.2m. Delivery was made at the beginning of March 2019. DMDs other kiln shell clients in Iraq included the Gasin cement plant in 2018. It also supplied a mill tunnion to LafargeHolcims Kerbala cement plant.

Egypt/Qatar/Russia/Turkey: Dal Engineering Group has released information about recent project from its Dal Teknik Makina subsidiary in Russia, Egypt and Qatar. In Russia Dal Teknik Makina is currently converting a production line at Eurocements Zhigulovskiye Stroymaterialy plant in Samara to manufacture white cement. The project started in November 2018.

In Egypt Dal Teknik Makina conducted a technical audit for HeidelbergCements Helwan Cement plant in February 2019. It was carried out on clinker production line one. In Qatar Dal Teknik Makina was awarded a contract in February 2019 to install a pilot scale plant for a calcium sulfoaluminate clinker production line. Dals engineers will evaluate the concept and identify the possible problems with operation, and supply the complete engineering and instrumentation for the whole project.

utilization of bauxite waste in ceramic glazes - sciencedirect

utilization of bauxite waste in ceramic glazes - sciencedirect

Red mud (bauxite waste) emerge as by-product from the caustic leaching of bauxites to produce alumina and it causes serious problems such as storing and environmental pollution. In this study, red mud, which is the industrial waste of Seydiehir Aluminium Plant (Turkey), was investigated for use in the making of ceramic glazes in the ceramic industry. The chemical and the mineralogical investigations indicated that major constituents of the red mud were hematite (-Fe2O3) and sodium aluminium silicate hydrate (1.01 Na2O.Al2O3.1.68 SiO2.1.73 H2O). The production of the porcelain, vitreous (sanitary ware glazes), tile and electroporcelain glazes was done using the red mud. The glazes, which contain different compositions and properties, were examined. Their surface properties, the chemical strength of glazes in 3% HCI and 3% NaOH and abrasion resistance were investigated experimentally. It was found that the addition of up to 37 wt% of the red mud waste was possible in the production of the glazes.

effects of perlite addition on the structure of hard porcelain glaze | springerlink

effects of perlite addition on the structure of hard porcelain glaze | springerlink

This investigation is reported the effects of perlite addition on the properties of hard porcelain glazes. Five compositions were prepared containing 10, 25, 50, and 90% perlite addition. The glaze compositions were formulated using the Seger method and prepared by conventional porcelain processing. Chemical and microstructural characterization of materials prepared from representative samples were carried out using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. The melting test, color measurement test, thermal shock resistance test (Harkort test), autoclave test, and chemical resistance tests were done to all of the glazed samples. As a result of this study, it has been shown that addition of 10% perlite mineral can be utilized as an alternative fluxing raw material for production of the hard porcelain glaze.

Leonelli, C., Bondioli, F., Veronesi, P., Romagnoli, M., Manfredini, T., Pellacani, G.C., Cannillo, V.: Enhancing the mechanical properties of porcelain stoneware tiles: a microstructural approach. J Eur Ceram Soc. 21, 785793 (2001)

Tulyaganov, D.U., Agathopoulos, S., Fernandes, H.R., Ferreira, J.M.F.: Influence of lithium oxide as auxiliary flux on the properties of triaxial porcelain bodies. J Eur Ceram Soc. 26, 11311139 (2006)

Tulyaganov, D.U., Agathopoulos, S., Fernandes, H.R., Ferreira, J.M.F.: The influence of incorporation of ZnO-containing glazes on the properties of hard porcelains. J Eur Ceram Soc. 27(23), 16651670 (2007)

The working groups report of the mining special expertise commission industrial raw materials sub-commission, structural materials III, (Sepiolite-Perlite-Vermiculate-Flogopit-Expanding Clays). 8th Five-Year Development Plan, Turkish Government Planning Organization (DPT): 2617-OIK: 628, Ankara (2001)

the effect of boron waste in phase and microstructural development of a terracotta body during firing - sciencedirect

the effect of boron waste in phase and microstructural development of a terracotta body during firing - sciencedirect

In the present study, a dewatering sieve waste (TSW) of Etibor Krka Borax company (Turkey) was employed in different amounts in order to develop an experimental terracotta floor tile body composition in combination with a feldspathic waste provided from a local sanitaryware plant and a ball clay. Several formulations were prepared and shaped by dry pressing under laboratory conditions. The obtained samples were fired at selected peak temperatures (1050, 1100 and 1150C) to establish their optimum firing temperatures. Some technological properties of the resultant products, namely linear firing shrinkage, water absorption and breaking strength were determined as a function of increasing TSW content in place of the sanitaryware waste at these temperatures. The phase content of the starting raw materials and that of the fired compositions was determined by XRD. The relevant polished surfaces of selected fired samples were also examined using SEM. According to the results, increased presence of TSW compared to the standard mixture of clay and the sanitaryware waste, as a co-fluxing material, in the experimental terracotta body considerably accelerated the vitrification process. The overall results indicated a prospect for using the TSW as a raw material in mixtures with both clay and sanitaryware waste for the production of a terracotta floor tile body.

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