The mining sector is one of the most demanding and dangerous industry sectors, because the miners are surrounded by various hazardous items and they use different kinds of mining equipment and machines. Strong, powerful and durable mining equipment is essential for the mining sector, because the mining machines are the basic tools for the miners with which various valuable ores and minerals are being extracted from the ground. Unlike in the past when the miners used only hand made tools, today the miners and the mining sector enjoys the benefits provided by the modern mining equipment and machines which are specifically designed and produced for various mining purposes. The modern mining equipment is generally powered by electricity and hydraulic energy.
Different mining equipmentis used for specific mining projects. Generally, the mining equipment that is used in every mining site all over the world includes: drilling machines, shredders, drill rigs, blasting equipment, blasting machines, hammers, mining locomotives, industrial crushers, loaders, etc. Other examples for mining equipment and machines which are also heavily used for standard mining operations include: ventilation fans, tractors, earth movers, rock dusters, cutting machines, water jet systems and pumps, dozers, dump trucks, forklifts, cranes, and many other useful mining machines. A light mining equipment is used for a variety of mining purposes. This equipment improves significantly the efficiency and the speed of the mining operation, while ensuring superior and high quality results in the mining processes. The light mining equipment is generally consisted of LED or laser, heat sink, focusing cone or magnetic switch, sluice boxes, various digging tools, metal detectors, etc. This light mining equipment is generally used for gold extraction.
There is also a mining equipment specifically designed for surface mining operations, like area mining, contour mining, open pit mining, and quarrying. This mining equipment is consisted of various machines, such as: rock drills, paving breaker, wagon drill, DTH hammer, pneumatic crawler drill, drill steel grinder, cross bit grinder, and many other machines. All these mining machines are used for specific surface mining operations. In addition, special mining equipment is used for sub-surface mining operations, like draft mining, shaft mining, slope mining, borehole mining, hard rock mining, etc.
The selection of the right mining equipment is essential for achieving better results and for increased productivity. Many features, criteria and factors need to be closely considered when choosing a mining equipment for specific mining tasks. Two very important factors for choosing the right mining equipment are the durability and the strength of the mining machines. The overall cost is another important factor that needs to be carefully considered.
There are many different sorts of tools that can be qualified as mining equipment, though the main categories tend to be drills, blasters and excavators, earth moving devices, and tools designed for use inside the mine like rail cars, shovels, and fans. A lot has to do with the sophistication and size of the operation, as well as the substance being mined. Mining for coal is often physically different from mining for diamonds, for instance, and while the overarching goal and main process is similar, the tools needed can vary. Even with the most advanced tools and modern machines, mining remains something of a hazardous business. The right equipment can take some of the risk out of the equation, but its never foolproof. Blasting away portions of the earth, creating caves and passageways, and then sending people into the chambers to uncover something of value will have inherent risks no matter the precautions taken. Most of todays mining equipment is made with safety in mind, but caution and care are nevertheless still essential.
Humans long ago discovered that vast stores of minerals, metals, and oil course through the lower cores of the earth, but getting to them and extracting them in an efficient and methodical way is far from easy. Most mines consist of shafts that are blasted out of the earth at strategic points, and from there inbound tunnels and chambers are more carefully carved to create entire mining systems beneath the surface. Large pits can also be blasted away to allow mostly above-ground sifting and searching. The type of equipment that is used for a specific project is usually subject to the type of mining under consideration. Still, there are a few main categories and tools that most miners find indispensable, no matter their circumstances.
Drills are a type of mining equipment that serve an important purpose when the operation is focused below ground. Miners position their drills at strategic points and cut carefully to create an opening that may descend for many feet below ground. Drill holes are often used first to test the ground for mineral content, then serve as portals for later mining work.
Even the most powerful drill cant penetrate all substances, particularly large rocks. Drilling out an entire mine shaft can also be a lot of work. Blasters are tools that can make it much easier to penetrate touch land, and can move the hard rocks that do not allow the drill to pass through. Blasting often involves explosives, and the process isnt usually very precise. It can open up an area and loosen the earth, however, which can make it easier to then continue with opening a mine.
Once an area has been blasted, the excavator will be used to recover the rocks and other debris that may have been dislodged during the drilling and blasting processes. In this sense, the excavator clears the openings and creates the needed space that the miners can then access more easily.
Aboveground, the most common type of mining equipment is usually earth movers, which are used to carry loose earth, soil, and other particles from one point to another designated location. Without this particular equipment, dirt and debris can obstruct mining operations and can fill chambers that need to be clear to allow efficient excavation. Bulldozers and other similar machinery can come in very handy in these situations. Another application of the bulldozer would be to clear areas that may be covered with plants or shrubs by utilizing the bucket-like apertures located in the front of such equipment.
There are also a number of tools that miners need inside the shafts and chambers. Hand tools like pickaxes and shovels are common examples, as are things like headlamps and torches. In large operations, some sort of mining transportation system, such as a rail car or pulley car, can make removing mined goods more efficient. Tools devoted to miner safety are also really important, including ventilation fans to mitigate fumes and allow regular circulation of oxygen.
The mining industry requires different mining equipment to get the job done. Without these huge machines, it would be impossible to work efficiently in the mining field. If youre going to work in the mining industry, you have to familiarize yourself with how these machines work and what their purposes are. From blasting tools to crushing equipment, the mining industry comes complete with the right machines for the job.
Mining drills are a staple in any underground mining operation. These tools are used to penetrate soft rock materials and break rock for excavation. Specialised mining equipment such as diggers, trucks, and loaders are all used to excavate material before being processed with lifts and skips. Drilling is needed to allow the use of explosive charges in freeing up minerals from overburden material. Over the years, underground mining techniques have evolved significantly, with remote controlled machinery being used for better efficiency.
Mining drills are also used to create holes that descend underground. This allows workers to drill a hole thats large enough to serve as entry and exit points. Miners use directional drilling to drill wells at numerous angles to better reach oil and gas reserves.
Working in the mining industry requires the use of blasting tools.These tools break down materials (mostly rocks) to liberate the desired product from the waste material. Blasting tools are also used to create space for machines and personnel to better reach the material of interest. To minimise material handling costs, workers use unmanned drill rigs to drill holes that are pre-measured in depth before blasting. This achieves a particular-sized fraction with minimal overburden liberated after the blast.
Once the blasting is complete, workers will use an excavator to recover particles of rocks and other dislodged debris. The materials are then transferred to a conveyor or a skip and hoist system where it will be taken to the surface for collecting. Blasting tools are essential for completing one of the most hazardous jobs in the mining industry.
As the name implies, earth movers are large machines that transport loose soil from one point to another. Earth movers play a crucial role in above mining operations where digging, pushing, and transporting the earth in large quantities are required. It takes a very skilled operator to manipulate an earth mover when working on large-scale projects. The mining industry would struggle to operate if there were no earth movers around.
These types of heavy mining equipment work closely together with bulldozers for a faster and more efficient process. Earth movers are used to move waste material to acquire the mineral of interest, while bulldozers push the waste material around to create a working platform for excavators and haul trucks.
The mining industry wouldnt be complete without crushing equipment in its arsenal. These machines are designed to reduce the size of larger sized material for further processing. Crushing equipment helps reduce material handling costs and can be built small depending on the needs of the processing plant. Once raw material is harvested from underground, its transferred to a mine and fed into a crusher. The crushers two large jaws breaks down the material where it is then screened to achieve the desired product.
Usually, crushing equipment is used alongside screening equipment to separate finer particles from the large ones. In most mineral processing operations, youll come across conveyors, crushers, and screening machines where they use these equipment to transform raw material into marketable products. Mining and quarrying industries rely heavily on these equipment to reduce the use of previously excavated resources while eliminating the amount of wasted material on the site.
Belt conveyors are responsible for carrying and transporting material once its been harvested. These equipment control the material flow within mining and processing operations while helping determine yields and operating rates. Conveyor systems transport excavated materials like crushed rocks efficiently over long distances, sometimes passing through curves and other areas with ease. As time passes, the capacity rating of belt systems have seen a considerable increase along with the length which material can be transported.
Together with the size of its components and a stronger power input, transporting harvested materials has never been easier than with belt conveyors. All of these equipment are used in the mining to facilitate operations and ensure a smooth workflow. Knowing the function and purpose of these equipment will serve anyone well whos looking to work in the mining industry.
Mining is one of the most vital components of modern society due to the use of mined minerals in almost every consumer product. Additionally, 50% of the nation's energy comes from coal or nuclear power that uses uranium. To support this need for modern equipment, mines are found in all 50 states, including our home state of Nevada.
Nevada's mining industry is the biggest export sector in the state. Precious minerals such as gold, copper, and silver are well-known materials mined. However, the state also extracts many other goods from the earth, including minerals used for both construction work and consumer goods.
Products mined for construction work include gravel, sand, gypsum, and limestone. These goods contribute to the building sites for erecting structures and infrastructure components required for modern living.
Consumers also directly benefit from Nevada mining operations. Minerals such as iron, molybdenum, and lithium are integral components to cars, computers, electronics, and other innovations used in daily life. Gold, copper, and silver also appear in electronics and fine jewelry.
Because the mining industry is so critical to modern life, manufacturing mining equipment is a booming business, too. This industry offers numerous types of heavy equipment for mining to meet the specific needs of either underground or surface operations.
Mining can happen at the surface or underground. The environment and type of material mined dictate the form of mining required and the equipment used. Both surface and underground mining have three main steps:
Surface mining includes numerous techniques and is the most common method for non-fuel minerals, producing 97% of the amount mined. Miners choose surface extraction for minerals located close to the surface.
In quarrying, miners may cut blocks of hard stone for ornamental purposes, such as granite for building. However, quarrying can also refer to extracting gravel, crushed stone, and sand using similar techniques to open-pit mining.
Open-pit mining requires creating a large pit in the ground from which the miners extract the needed material. This is one method miners may use to extract silver from the earth. The other technique is underground silver mining. Occasionally, removing a hilltop with explosives to expose the rocky materials beneath is the first step in creating an open pit. Rotary drills create the holes used for inserting the explosives for this process.
The third type of surface mining is strip mining, which primarily extracts thin layers of coal from near the surface. Since coal is not a major mining product of Nevada, the inclusion of strip mining here serves only to round out the three types of surface mining used around the world.
This form of mining starts with removing large strips of surface material, known as overburden. The first strips of overburden go outside the mine site. After extracting mined products from the initial strip, the newly created hole will hold the deposits of future strips of overburden removed from the mine. For hilly sites, contour strip mining requires using shovels or dozers to remove strips of overburden around the hill in terraces. For flat surfaces, area strip mining using equipment such as draglines or scrapers will suffice.
Minerals, ore, metals, or other goods located deep underground require different techniques for their removal. Mining may involve hard or soft rock, each of which requires specific tools to extract the materials. For instance, the tools used to dig soft materials might not provide enough power for cutting through hard rock.
To move materials around a mine site, workers need heavy-duty trucks. Also known as off-highway trucks, large mining trucks include both powerful mechanical models and environmentally friendly electric drive models.
Additionally, these trucks can carry high payload capacities to accommodate the need for moving weighty mined minerals or ore out of the site. Large mining trucks also need to perform in the most extreme conditions cold, heat, heavy dust, high altitudes, and steep slopes while hauling heavy loads.
Sometimes called excavators, mining shovels used today grew out of the original steam shovel design used in years past. The models used now often employ hydraulics for moving the shovel to power through tough materials.
Overall, hydraulic mining shovels have similarities in their designs. Most have a base with either tracks or wheels atop which the pivoting cab sits. The pivoting action allows the operator to access material in a circle around the shovel without moving significantly. An articulated arm holds the shovel, both of which the operator controls from inside the cab.
Large mining dozers move materials easily around a mining site. Plus, the choice of vehicles with wheels or tracks increases the types of surfaces these dozers can operate on. Additional attachments can change the dozers' uses to include the following applications:
Instead of using hydraulics to control the movement of the shovel at the end of the arm, electric rope shovels use a series of pulleys and ropes. Unlike hydraulic shovels, these models use electric operation, allowing for highly efficient performance over time.
Rotary drill rigs create holes through rock or soil, allowing placement of charges for blasting open mines. A rotary drill rig is one of two main types of drills used for mining. The other type is a percussion or hammer drill. For a rotary drill rig, the drill bit turns under pressure to cut into the rock. As the bit turns, the rock grinds down while compressed air sends it back up the drill to the top to keep the hole and bit clean.
Ideally, rotary drill bits create holes that range from 6 to 22 inches in diameter and average 30 to 60 feet deep. In some cases, though, miners will use rotary drills to dig holes up to 150 feet deep and as shallow as 15 feet.
For hammer rock drills, pressure forcefully shoves the bit into the ground to create a hole. To keep the hole clean, compressed air blows dirt out of the way to allow the bit to always strike new ground. Hammer drills with the piston located outside the hole (OTH) typically drill smaller holes of 5 inches or fewer in diameter.
Mines rarely have ready access to roads. Even those near major roadways still need roads built within the area for moving material and hauling mined goods out. Motor graders are used for surface operations around mines to create and maintain these roads.
When hauling minerals, ore, or other mined materials along roads, things like debris or ponding water can slow vehicles. Motor graders ensure the roads have the necessary grading and adequate drainage. By maintaining the integrity of roads used for transporting the material around and out of the mining area, motor graders play a vital role in ensuring the efficiency of the mine's operations.
For picking up and quickly moving material across a mining site for loading into trucks, nothing matches the versatility of large wheel loaders. Sizes vary from compact to large. As the wheel loader's size increases, its bucket capacity and load handling also go up. Matching the wheel loader's handling capabilities for both volume and density of materials at the mine is crucial to ensure the machine will hold up to the rigors of daily use without premature wear.
For Cat wheel loaders, the compact models work best with light materials and have a bucket capacity of 2 cubic yards. However, large models can handle iron ore or rock and can hold up to 38 cubic yards of rock in the bucket. You will have a varied selection of wheel loaders to fit in the space around your surface mine and handle the loads you need to move.
Draglines are large excavators with a bucket supported by ropes and wires at the end of a boom. Lowering the bucket and scraping it along the ground collects overburden or mined material. Swinging the bucket at the end of the dragline around repositions it to dump its contents into a specified location.
Wheel tractor scrapers have a design similar to motor graders. However, the scrapers typically have an attached bin that collects the material removed from the ground's surface rather than pushing it to the side as a grader does.
To operate the scraper, the driver uses controls inside the cab to raise or lower the bin to the ground. When on the ground, the edge of the bin scrapes the ground materials, which feed directly into the bin. When filled, a vertical flap holds the material inside the bin, so it does not spill during transport. At the deposit location, the bin tilts and opens in the rear to empty the scraped dirt.
Underground mining trucks and loaders require specific operating parameters to function in confined spaces. Additionally, these vehicles cannot produce emissions in the enclosed environment of a mine. Therefore, standard trucks used for surface mining will not suffice for underground work.
This guide to mining equipment should improve your understanding of the pieces available and their common applications. At Cashman Equipment, we want to be your source for all machinery, parts, and more for your mining operation. Whether you need new equipment, rentals, service, power solutions, fluid analysis, or parts, we can help you find what you need.
If you need more information or need to request a quote, contact us at Cashman Equipment by filling out a form or calling us at 800-937-2326. You can also visit one of our locations serving Nevada and the Eastern Sierras for direct customer service in helping you find the right types of heavy equipment for mining.
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The multi-billion-dollar global mining equipment market is growing at a rapid rate. As in an expected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.7% through 2027. Technology is, in part, driving sales. Although machines are getting smarter, the types of equipment used in mining have largely remained the same. In this article we discuss common types of mining equipment.
There are five basic categories of mining equipment. Drills, blasting tools, earth movers, and crushers. The last category is a group of machines that move material to and through the crusher then analyze the mined material.
There are many different types of drilling activities at mine sites. Generally, they fall into two major categories: exploration and production. The goal of exploration is to provide detailed information about a proposed mining site. The goal of production is to access and extract raw material for other uses, such as building roads.
Whether its oil and gas, diamonds, or construction materials, drills are used to access the material underground. Drills are also used to prepare an area for blasting. In coal mining, drills are used to create portals for workers to enter the mine.
The type of drill selected depends on the drill method used which in turn depends largely on the type of material being mined. For example, reverse circulation (RC) drilling is often used in mineral exploration. In RC drilling, a hammer (actually a pneumatic reciprocating piston) drives a drill bit made of tungsten-steel into the rock. Air is blown down the rods, creating differential pressure. This drives the material back up. With RC drilling, you can drill down up to 500 meters. However, its not always the best solution for diamond mining: it sometimes can break larger stones.
There are many different types of drill bits, including spiral pointed bits, cone type bits, and diamond-coated bits. Diamond-coated drill bits are made of very low-quality diamonds; there value comes from their cutting strength.
Blasting tools are used in underground and open pit mining. The desired material is usually found along with other waste material. Blasting tools are used to break down the material so it can be sorted. Blasting is also used to remove areas of rock that are blocking access to the production material. Blasting is very dangerous work and requires a high-level understanding of explosives, detonators, and much more.
Both the production material and waste material need to be handled once they are extracted (or blasted). Excavators, with their long arm and bucket attachment, are used to remove materials, such as coal. Dump trucks and haul trucks move the excavated material around and off the mining site. Bulldozers help create a flat surface for other heavy equipment to travel over. These heavy machines require experienced operators.
The first material excavated from the mine needs to be broken down to sort and transport it. Crushers are used for this purpose. Strip mining operations use haul trucks to transport the material to the primary crusher. Whereas in underground mines, conveyers are used to move the material to the crusher. Crushers reduce the cost of transporting large, heavy pieces of rock.
There are three classifications of crushers: primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary crusher handles what comes out of the mine. (Known as run of mine or ROM.) Then this material is fed into the secondary crusher to further reduce the size. The material is then further processed by the tertiary crusher. However, the material may continue to go through crushers to meet the desired size. In fact, some material is reduced to dust.
Conveying equipment moves the excavated material to a feeder. The feeder pushes or feeds the material into the crusher. The equipment controls how fast the material is fed into the crusher. It determines whether the material has been reduced to the desired size. If not, it feeds the larger pieces back into the crusher. Online elemental analysis equipment can be used to take periodic samples of the material to provide data in real-time. This information is used to ensure quality and streamline processes, such as sorting and blending.
There are several different types of equipment used in mining. Although the machines continue to evolve, they perform many of the same functions as they did in the early days of mining. They provide access to production material, move it, crush it, sort it, and haul it. Mining equipment gives us access to the basic materials needed to create items we use every day from roads and bridges, gasoline for our cars, even beautiful jewelry.
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Some building projects take years to complete. But a mining operation can be in service for decades. They require huge pieces of equipment that can remain onsite. Dragline excavators built for the mining industry are 
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Given the competitive landscape that is evolving the mining industry is seeing a demand for digging to greater depths. For mining companies to remain competitive, this will require further innovative designs and technologies that improve the capability, efficiency, and reliability of mining systems responsible for sensing, analyzing, extraction, and refinement. Manufacturers are now coping with the demand and coming with machines that fit the terrain requirements.
Accurate drilling helps make every other aspect of a mining operation smoother, safer and more productive. Even minor deviations from the pattern can have a big impact, with unevenly blasted material that is harder and more costly to handle, resulting in a higher cost per ton for the entire operation.
With high precision and more accurate depth tracking, autonomous drills can work far more accurately to plan. That means more accurate blasting and better-shot material, less time spent removing overburden, and higher productivity. New generation mining drills are available in a variety of feed lengths, boom configurations and carrier size class are productive solutions for all mining types. When you need to meet your drilling and blasting needs at the lowest cost per meter drilled, these powerful and reliable systems make P&H drills your best choice. The powerful and rugged rotary carriages can provide ample torque and bit loading through the toughest rock conditions in the world.
There has been the development of new-age underground jumbo drill rigs as well. The rigs are equipped with up to four booms, covering cross-sections. This comes with a reliable Direct Control System, DCS, or with the computerized Rig Control System to which different levels of automation may be added. Several models of the face drill rigs are available with an optional zero-emission battery-electric driveline.
Various types of construction equipment are used in the mining sector such as hydraulic excavators, wheel loaders, backhoe loaders, bulldozers, dump trucks, tippers, graders, pavers, asphalt drum/wet mix plants, breakers, vibratory compactors, cranes, forklifts, dozers, off-highway dumpers, drills, scrapers, motor graders, rope shovels, etc. These equipment perform a variety of functions like preparation of the ground, excavation, haulage of material, dumping/laying in a specified manner, earthmoving, material handling, road construction etc. Among all the equipment employed in the mining sector, earth moving equipment is most widely used. Most used earthmoving equipment that is used to help move earth and excavate the land in mining are excavators, backhoe loaders and dump trucks.
The new generation excavator has a cab for an operator and can be driven using wheels, or the more familiar tracks. An excavator can be used for many types of construction jobs and fitted with special attachments most suitable for each project. Excavators are used in mining to remove earth and materials like coal. They work by digging with a hydraulic arm and hauling away with a bucket. Many different types of excavators are used in both small and large scale mining operations.
Backhoe Loaders are also employed in several mining works. Modern loaders are designed to achieve greater operating hours due to a robust structural design and modular components, provide the best possible fuel consumption levels due to the power regeneration capacity of the Hybrid Drive technology, and are equipped with the latest safety features that meet global requirements recognized by leading mining industry safety councils.
Dump trucks are also used as earth moving equipment in mining. Modern dump trucks come with customized cylinder engines designed to ensure excellent driving characteristics, high reliability and excellent fuel efficiency. The engines power is available virtually from idling speed, which ensures excellent starting traction. This power stays with you throughout and maximum torque is available high up the rev range A wide economic speed range of 1050-1600 rpm helps to get the maximum fuel efficiency.
Modern crushing equipment is engineered to deliver the highest productivity in mines, quarries and civil engineering projects. We offer advanced, proven screening and crushing equipment for any size-reduction challenge. Whether youre producing several sized aggregates or crushing tons of hard rock ore, modern equipment delivers the robustness and versatility you need.
From large primary jaws and gyrators to cone and impact crushers for tertiary and quaternary finishing, modern crushing equipment is manufactured to meet your material reduction requirements. The crushers are built to perform with the lowest cost per ton, featuring a unique combination of crusher cavity design, crushing forces, reliability and safety. Chambers with heavy, durable plates or jaws are the main components of most crushing equipment. After the raw material is fed into the crusher, the plates come together to reduce the size. These heavy-duty plates move both up and down, creating enough force and pressure to reduce the size of the material significantly. Crushing equipment is specially configured to break down the hard rock matter or gravel to a manageable size for transportation or conveying. They are valuable pieces of equipment in the industry because they reduce the costs associated with the handling of larger sized material and also ensure efficient liberation of elements of interest in downstream processing of the material
Belt conveyors are used prolifically throughout the mining industry, carrying ores, concentrates, and tailings throughout every stage of the mining cycle, from initial excavation, through beneficiation, to the production of a refined material ready for market, and each step in between.
Belt conveyors are customized and combined in an endless array of configurations, making each handling system as unique as the material it carries. The diverse configurability of belt conveyors has made them essential in feeding process operations, transporting material to the storage, and navigating material through load-out. They can automate otherwise-arduous tasks, reduce labor requirements and human-material interaction, and effortlessly maneuver through difficult terrain and spatial restrictions. There are several types of conveyors, namely, in-plant, overland, pipe, shiftable, extendable and relocatable and underground.
When faced with the material of different sizes and densities, from dry and abrasive to wet and sticky, you can count on our feeders to efficiently and consistently convey it to the next stage in your process. Modern feeding equipment is engineered and designed with an intense commitment to quality and attention to detail, providing many years of service life.
In modern feeding equipment when the plate feeder works, the electromotor and the reducer drives the sprocket with alveolus structure to rotate, so that the hauling chain that engages with the chain wheel will drag the material through in which there are materials to move forward. The supporting device-hauling chain moves on the thrust wheel and the riding wheel props with the conveying through to bear the weight of the materials and the running devices. The materials are pushed from the storage bin above the tail to the conveying trough, and move along with it to the chute mouth with housing and then are discharged. Feeding equipment is ideally suited for feeding large, lumpy, abrasive and heavy materials during wet, sticky, or frozen operations. The rugged equipment and parts, as well as, carefully selected maintenance and optimization services are the preferred choice for material handling in minerals processing operations around the world.
Screening equipment caters to any mineral processing application. From single-screen panels to double trommel screen configurations, modern equipment has screening equipment to suit your mineral processing requirements. Modern screens are injection moulded or hand casting a combination of high-quality materials. They are added with specialized aperture configurations which reduce pegging and blinding. Modern screens come in two different configurations: a sloped screen design, which is ideal for high-capacity sorting operations, and a linear screen design that allows the unit to double as a conveyor or feeder.
Modern models produce a unique gyratory vibration motion that creates a more even product distribution, and it can be extremely useful in separating materials with different shapes in different angles. The units easy-tension screening material allows operators to make minute adjustments without extended downtime. These models of rectangular screeners and separators are designed and oriented to improve mining materials processes by separating different materials sizes as well as de-dusting mining materials from unwanted undersize particles.
Apart from conventional equipment the need for precise details has enabled the need for automated equipment in mining. The advances in mining equipment are very promising. Incorporating automated systems that offer greater productivity, proposing new technologies to aid in the discovery and accurate quantifying of deposits, and systems capable of real-time analysis to increase efficiency and profitability, all stand to not only change but modernize the entire mining industry. Some of the pivotal ones are explained.
Drone The new Elios drone is that its the first drone outfitted with a rotating carbon fiber protective frame, or cage, that protects the propellers, camera, and drone body from damage as well as keeping it stable in the air upon collision.
Blasting machine New advancements in micro-explosives used in conjunction with computer-assisted-design and timing look promising to reduce the dangers associated with blasting. Using micro-explosives would also result in greater control fragment size reducing the cost, time, and energy requirement for downstream crushing and grinding.
Battery operated drill rig This capable of drilling blast patterns more quickly and accurately than any human or human operated equipment. Battery operated drill rigs, unlike their diesel or gas counterparts, dont produce harmful exhaust fumes. Battery powered drill rigs also hold promise for lowering maintenance costs and if equipped with rapid chargers, or replaceable batteries, would contribute to the long-standing need of creating continuous mining operations.
Underground ore carriers These are being outfitted with radar and laser scanners that allow them to navigate in the dark through areas that pose breathing hazards. Advancements in battery technology are leading to the development of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) for mining both above and below ground.
The more reliable your equipment, the less likely you are to have to continually repair or replace it, saving you time and money. Not only can efficient mining equipment help to keep your business running seamlessly, but the right standards of equipment can also help to improve more than just the concerns of removing more material in less time and reducing costs. With the mining industry moving forward, technologically speaking, many of the systems surrounding the industry will require new skills and training. Workers will be required to possess a new set of skills needed to operate new machinery, new technology, or work along-side and support automated systems.
While the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) takes an active role in testing, approving, and certifying certain types of mining equipment, personal protective equipment (PPE) typically falls outside of those regulatory efforts. However, through Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR), MSHA makes certain requirements for the use and maintenance of PPE in support of its mission to to prevent death, illness, and injury from mining and promote safe and healthful workplaces for U.S. miners. And although MSHA requires use of a complete scope of PPE as a last line of defense to protect works from physical and chemical hazards, the organization provides little guidance on specific products that meet accepted safety standards.
MSHAs Approval and Certification Center (A&CC) typically oversees testing and approval of equipment components and machinery that could represent an ignition source for mine environments that may be susceptible to explosion. Underground coal and gassy mines where methane and combustible coal dust can accumulate represent potentially hazardous environments for certain electrical and mechanical components. So, the majority of equipment approved and certified by the A&CC are items related to conveyors, motors, diesel equipment, dust collection, hoses, batteries, electrical wiring, and flame-resistant components. With the exceptions of some self-contained self-recue devices and personal flashlights/headlamps, the A&CC doesnt tend to work with PPE. However, in situations where MSHA regulations require the use of PPE but doesnt specifically set or regulate performance, testing, or approval standards for the equipment, MSHA often considers products that meet the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and National institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) standards as acceptable.
30 CFR sets forth identical standards for PPE use for both surface (Part 56.15001 56.14020) and underground (Part 57.15001 57.15020) miners with Part 57 for underground miners adding two sections (Part 57.15030 and 57.15031) related to accessibility, maintenance, and placement of self-rescue devices.
This product use and selection guide offers product options related to the primary MSHA regulations related to personal protection, plus several other regulations and product types relevant to working at a mine.
Eye protection All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable protective devices when in or around an area of a mine or plant where a hazard exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes.
(b) The mine operator must ensure, after satisfying the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, that a miner wears a hearing protector whenever the miners noise exposure exceeds the permissible exposure level before the implementation of engineering and administrative controls, or if the miners noise exposure continues to exceed the permissible exposure level despite the use of all feasible engineering and administrative controls.
(c) The mine operator must ensure, after satisfying the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, that a miner wears a hearing protector when the miners noise exposure is at or above the action level, if:
Provision and maintenance of self-rescue devices A 1-hour self-rescue device approved by MSHA and NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be made available by the operator to all personnel underground. Each operator shall maintain self-rescue devices in good condition.
Location of self-rescue devices (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) and (c) of this section, self-rescue devices meeting the requirements of standard 57.15030 shall be worn or carried by all persons underground.
(b) Where the wearing or carrying of self-rescue devices meeting the requirements of standard 57.15030 is hazardous to a person, such self-rescue devices shall be located at a distance no greater than 25 feet from such person.
(a) General requirements. Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when employees hands are exposed to hazards such as those from skin absorption of harmful substances; severe cuts or lacerations; severe abrasions; punctures; chemical burns; thermal burns; and harmful temperature extremes.
(b) Selection. Employers shall base the selection of the appropriate hand protection on an evaluation of the performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration of use, and the hazards and potential hazards identified.
Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall be provided, maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition and used whenever hazards of process or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants are encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment.
Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal Protective clothing or equipment and face shields, or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.
Working around large, mobile haulage equipment can be extremely dangerous for pedestrians. And while MSHA doesnt yet have specific regulations related to high visibility (hi-viz / hi vis / hivis) and reflective clothing, OSHA and ANSI/ISEA 107-2010 do. Therefore, hi-viz Class 2 and 3 reflective garments are required PPE at mine sites.
Safety belts and lines Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where there is danger of falling; a second person shall tend the lifeline when bins, tanks, or other dangerous areas are entered.
Electric mine lamps Specific requirements Class 1 Class 1 includes hand lamps, signal lamps, inspection lamps, flashlights, and animal lamps which are operated by small storage batteries or dry cells.
Since electric lighting products are one of the few PPE items for which MSHA provides approval oversight, well provide additional Class 1 lamp specifications required to protect miners from explosion hazards:
TIP! Flashlights fall into a category of products that MSHA officially approves through the A&CC. You can find a link to a list of all approved flashlight and headlamp products on our RESOURCES page.
First-aid materials Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall be provided at places convenient to all working areas. Water or neutralizing agents shall be available where corrosive chemicals or other harmful substances are stored, handled, or used.
If you have additional thoughts on products that are popular at your mine or suggestions for critical PPE options we may have missed, please let us know! Just CONTACT US and well adjust our list appropriately.
OSHAs original HazCom standard (HCS) was also intended to improve chemical safety in the workplace but transitioned fully in 2016 to align with the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS).
With a background that spans technical writing, instructional design, marketing, publishing, and business development, Bjorn has been turning highly technical and complicated material into easy-to-understand training content for a couple decades. Since 2008, Bjorn has been writing MSHA eLearning courses and helping mine operators and mining contractors comply with Part 46 surface miner training regulations. He's written and overseen development of many hours of online content for MSHA Part 46 new miner and annual refresher training. So when miners, mine operators, and mining contractors have questions about regulations and compliant documentation for Part 46 training, he's happy to help.
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Working in the mining industry requires the use of different types of machinery. These machines help achieve different mining tasks with precision and efficiency. If youre new to mining, its important to have a good understanding of how these machines work. From crushing and grinding equipment to blasting tools and excavators, youll encounter machines of different shapes and sizes. Today well be taking a look at the most common types of equipment used in mining and find out why theyre important for the job.
Mining drills are an essential tool for any mining operation. Underground mining is done when minerals or rocks are positioned at a fair distance underneath the ground and need to be brought up to the surface. Specialised underground mining equipment such as diggers, loaders, and trucks are used to excavate raw materials and transferred to the surface with lifts for future processing.
In order to place explosive charges, mining drills are required to free the minerals from overburden material. Over the years, underground mining techniques have improved significantly and remote controlled machinery have slowly been introduced for better drilling efficiency. Mining drills also help create descending holes underground. Miners that are required to work underground use mining drills to create entry and exit points. Mining drills ensure the holes are large enough for the workers to go through.
Blasting tools are a key component of the mining industry. These tools are used to fracture large materials through the use of explosives to separate the sought-after product from the waste material. Blasting tools are also used to eliminate pockets of unwanted material that prohibit workers and mining equipment from reaching the seams of the sought-after material. To minimise material handling costs, unmanned drill rigs will drill predetermined holes on a blast face. This ensures that a specific size fraction of the material is acquired and minimise liberated overburden as much as possible.
Once this process is finished, the blasted rocks and other material are recovered by an excavator. The material is then transported to a central conveying system where it will be directed to the surface or through a skip and hoist system. Blasting tools are also required for open pit mining operations. Successful mining operations rely on good blast designs as excessive explosives and poor practice can contribute to structural damage in rocks and result in unwanted caving.
For mining operations above the surface, earth movers are required. These types of machinery are used to transport loose soil from one location to another. Earth miners play a crucial role in the mining industry because these machines are designed to facilitate large mining and earth-moving projects. Along with the specialised skills of the operator, pushing material, scooping loose soil, and removing material are done by using earth movers.
Earth movers work in close tandem with bulldozers. Without this heavy duty equipment, the industry would struggle to conduct earthwork operations in an efficient manner. Aside from transporting large quantities of earth, earth movers are also used to remove waste material or overburden. This allows excavators to separate the mineral of interest from the waste material. Bulldozers are then used to create a working space by moving overburden and making room for excavators and haul trucks.
As the name implies, crushing equipment are used to reduce the size of large materials like rock and stone into sellable pieces. Crushing equipment come in different shapes and sizes to accommodate a wide range of crushing needs while maximising productivity and reduction rate. Crushing equipment is designed specifically for breaking down material into manageable pieces for easier conveying. This type of equipment plays an important role in the material handling process by reducing costs associated with handling large materials.
Mining and quarrying industries are the primary users of crushing equipment. Raw material is acquired underground which then goes through an extensive material handling system. The material is transported from the mine into the crusher which is then screened to separate the usable material from the waste material. Crushing equipment works in tandem with other mining equipment to achieve an end product to use for winterization road construction, and other similar projects.
Screening equipment are machines that are designed to sort out raw materials by filtering the usable material from the waste material. When paired with a crusher, you can create a full-circuit system to allow a more seamless material handling process. This is the most effective solution to separate materials to achieve an end product thats sellable in the marketplace.
This type of equipment uses vibrations along with a screen that separates the materials.The usable material is collected in a catching area and the unusable material is caught in the screen. Screening dirt that removes large debris is a cost-effective way to acquire usable material for your next project. It is imperative that you are knowledgable on equipment such as vibrating screens and vibrating feeders.
When the material is ready for crushing, a conveying unit will help control the amount of material that gets fed in the crusher. This helps reduce unwanted repair costs by preventing the crusher from getting damaged due to the large pieces of material it crushes. Combining a feeder with a conveying unit helps improve the efficiency of the crusher to achieve the desired product. Feeding and conveying equipment work in tandem to control material flow in the crusher. Without these two equipments, your crusher will suffer significant damage over time.
Analysis equipment such as a scale system is also an important tool in the mining industry. The regulates material load and monitors production output. There are systems out there that allow you to take a sample while the material is on the conveyor belt to ensure thorough product quality.
In an industry where different operations are carried out, various mining equipments are necessary to help you perform the job more efficiently. These are the mining machines youll often encounter in the mining industry. Its important to familiarise yourself with the equipment used in mining so you can better understand how to operate these machines.